Principles of curriculum design• A curriculum is : “ an attempt to communicate the essential features and principles of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice. “ Stenhouse 1975
Principles of curriculum design• A curriculum is : “the public face of a profession’s best educational thinking” Fish 2003
Principles of curriculum design• A curriculum includes: formal and informal overt and covert recognised and overlooked intentional and unintentionalit is determined as much by what it omits as what it contains
Principles of curriculum design• Values underpin our curriculum“They drive our actions,attitudes thoughts and beliefs. They shape what we prioritise in our professional life and how we conduct ourselves in clinical and educational settings. And that conduct reveals our values to colleagues ,patients and learners” Fish 2003
Principles of curriculum designValues which influence curriculum design are those of: the curriculum designers the teachers the learners the society in which it is delivered
Principles of curriculum designValues may be : values in use espoused values
Principles of curriculum designEvery curriculum has three levels:Planned : what is intended by designersDelivered : what is organised by institution what is taught by teachersExperienced: what is learned by students
SUBJECT - CENTERED Organized on the basis ofseparate and distinct subjects, each of which embodies abody of knowledge and skills. The learner is expected to acquire this body of knowledge skills.
CHILD - CENTERED Child is the center of theeducational process and the curriculum should be built upon interests, abilities, purposes, and needs.
PROBLEM - CENTERED A framework in which the child is guided toward maturity within thecontext of the social group. It assumes that in the process of living, children experience problem.
BEHAVIORAL APPROACH• Behavioral Approach. This is based on a blueprint, where goals and objectives are specified, contents and activities are also arranged to match with the learning objectives. The learning outcomes are evaluated in terms of goals and objectives set at the beginning. This approach started with the idea of Frederick Taylor which is aimed to achieve efficiency. In education, behavioral approach begins with educational plans that start with the setting of goals or objectives. These are the important ingredients in curriculum implementation as evaluating the learning outcomes as a change of behavior. The change of behavior indicates the measure of the accomplishment.
MANAGERIAL APPROACHIn this approach, the principal is the curriculum leader and at the same time instructional leader who is supposed to be the general manager. The general manager sets the policies and priorities, establishes the direction of change and innovation, and planning and organizing curriculumand instruction. School administrators are less concerned about the content than about organization and implementation. They are less concerned about subject matter, methods and materials than improving the curriculum. Curriculum managers look at curriculumchanges and innovations as they administer the resources and restructure the schools.
SYSTEMS APPROACH This was influenced by systems theory, where the parts of the total school district or school areexamined in terms of how they relate to each other.The organizational chart of the school represents a systems approach. It shows the line-staff relationships of personnel and how decisions are made. The following are of equal importance: a) administration b) counselling c) curriculum d) instruction e) evaluation.
HUMANISTIC APPROACH This approach is rooted in the progressivephilosophy and child - centered movement. It considers the formal or planned curriculum and the informal or hidden curriculum. Itconsiders the whole child and believes that in curriculum the total development of the individual is the prime consideration. The learner s at the center of the curriculum.
ROLE OF CURRICULUM SUPERVISOR a. help develop the schools education goalsb. plan curriculum with students, parents, teachers and other stakeholders c. design programs of study by grade levels d. plan or schedule classes or school calendar
e. prepare curriculum guides or teacher guides by grade level or subject areaf. help in the evaluation and selection of textbooks g. observe teachers h. assist teachers in the implementation of the curriculum i. encourage curriculum innovation and change j. develop standards for curriculum and instructional evaluation
PEOPLE WHO ARE INVOLVED INTERNAL: Teachers, Students, Administration, DepEd/CHED EXTERNALAlumni,Parents,Professional,Organizations, Business Organizations