Jefferson memorial v2[1]


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Jefferson Memorial

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Jefferson memorial v2[1]

  1. 1. Thomas Jefferson Memorial Honoring Our 3rd US PresidentFounder of Republicanism in America
  2. 2. Jefferson … Pre-Presidency • Born April 13, 1743 at Shadwell Plantation in Albemarle County Virginia to Peter Jefferson of Welsh ancestry and Jane Randolph, a descendent from kings of Scotland and England • Spent boyhood at Tuckahoe Plantation (1745-1752) – working farm established by prominent influential Randolph family • Educated in 1-room schoolhouse by private tutor William Douglas, a Scottish minister – avid learner of Greek, French and Latin from age 9 – read/wrote music and played violin by age 14 • Left fatherless at age 14 – became landowner, slave owner and head of family (1757) • Earned B.A. degree at College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia at age 19 (1762)
  3. 3. Jefferson … Pre-PresidencyMost Enlightened Man of the 18th Century • Studied law under George Wythe, distinguished jurist and prominent law professor – admitted to Virginia Bar (1767) • At age 25, elected to Virginia House of Burgesses – the 1st assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America (1769) • Served as Virginia delegate to Continental Congress in Philadelphia (1775) • Authored Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom creating doctrine of separation of church and state (1777) – became US law in 1786 • Primary author of Declaration of Independence drafted alongside John Adams and Benjamin Franklin – approved by Continental Congress on July 4, 1776
  4. 4. Jefferson … Pre-Presidency• Served as wartime Governor of Virginia (1779-1781) during American Revolution• Became US Ambassador to France succeeding Benjamin Franklin – stationed in Paris to negotiate commercial treaties (1785)• Appointed US‟ 1st Secretary of State under President Washington (1790-1793) – resigned due to sympathy for French Revolution (1789-1799), a decade of social and political upheaval by the people of France learning of democracy in America – resulted in collapse of monarchy, aristocracy and religious authority• As runner-up in 1st contested presidential election (defeated by 3 votes), became US‟ 2nd Vice-president (1797-1801) under President John Adams• While VP, wrote A Manual of Parliamentary Procedure to keep order in Senate (1797)• Became 3rd president of American Philosophical Society founded by Benjamin Franklin (1797)
  5. 5. Jefferson …The President Apostle of Democracy• As member of Democrat-Republican party, elected 3rd US president defeating John Adams and serving 2 terms (1801-1809) – his 1st term election known as „Revolution of 1800‟ when Republicans swept elections nationwide, marking 1st peaceful transfer of power from one party to another in American history• Established US Military Academy at West Point, NY through Military Peace Establishment Act (1802) – underscoring importance of useful sciences in educating corps of engineers to protect a young nation from enemy forces• Purchased 828,000-sq-mile Louisiana Territory from French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte for $15 million (roughly 4 cents an acre) effectively doubling size of US – known as “Louisiana Purchase” (1803)• Sent Lewis & Clark Expedition (1804-1806) to explore “new west”
  6. 6. Jefferson …The President • Oversaw Embargo Act (1807) forbidding all foreign commerce to persuade Britain to revise its maritime policies by applying economic pressure – at his request, Congress passes Enforcement Act increasing authority to intercept and seize cargoes suspected to be in violation of embargo • Non-Intercourse Act (1809) replaced Embargo Act – legalized trade with all nations except Britain and France – authorized re-opening trade with either or both if their maritime policies and American claims to neutral shipping rights were recognized • Laws resulted in great US economic distress – induced Britain to begin military operations against US eventually leading to War of 1812 • Left Washington DC for beloved estate Monticello – never to return, or to leave Virginia (1809)
  7. 7. President: Fast Facts• Throughout his lifetime, fiercely supported virtues of Republicanism – democracy, states‟ rights and limited Federal government• 1st president inaugurated in new capital city of Washington DC – took office at age 57• Sold personal 6,000+ volume library to Congress for $24,000 to pay down debts – collection begins Library of Congress, (1815), and is now the world‟s largest library • Founded University of Virginia (1819) fulfilling aspirations for both free and universal education and agrarian democracy in new Republic specifically free of church influences – university opens as 1st centered around a library rather than a church (1825)• Died at Monticello on July 4, 1826 (on 50th anniversary of Declaration of Independence signing and same day as rival statesman John Adams) – buried in hillside family cemetery beside his wife
  8. 8. Jefferson: Private Life• Known as horticulturist, statesman, architect, archaeologist, inventor• Invented clocks, dumbwaiter, polygraph machine, Venetian blinds, moldboard for a plow and achromatic telescope• Mutual love of music cemented romance with Martha Wayles Skelton – fond of Chamber and Baroque for strings and keyboard – Italian Arcangelo Corelli known to be favorite composer• 10-year marriage (1772) produced 6 children – only 2 survived to adulthood – remained widower after Martha‟s death (1782)• Established residence at Monticello plantation estate on inherited land in Charlottesville, Virginia• Sally Hemings, Jefferson‟s mixed-race fair-skin slave inherited from his wife served as lady‟s maid to his daughters – in 2000, DNA tests and in-depth genealogy studies conducted by The Monticello Foundation, The National Geographical Society and The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation concluded Jefferson fathered Hemings‟ 6 children born between 1795-1808
  9. 9. Jefferson …The MemorialTribute to Philosopher & Statesman • Located in West Potomac Park on shore of Tidal Basin of Potomac River south of White House in Washington DC • Neoclassical Palladian-style architecture composed of circular marble steps, a portico, a circular colonnade of ionic order columns and a 129-ft high shallow dome modeled after Pantheon of Rome designed by architect John Russell Pope trained in tradition of Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris • Built by Philadelphia contractor John McShain (1939-1943) • 19-ft tall bronze statue of Jefferson by sculptor Rudulph Evans casted by Roman Bronze Company of NY – delayed installation (1947) due to shortage of bronze during World War II
  10. 10. Jefferson …The Memorial Interior walls engraved with passages from Jeffersons writings: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, that to secure these rights governments are instituted among men. We solemnly publish and declare, that these colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence, we mutually pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honour.” Southwest interior wall ~ Declaration of Independence (1776) • Triangular pediment relief above entrance created by sculptor Adolph A. Weinman depicts 5 members of Declaration of Independence Drafting Committee • Surrounded by cherry blossom trees given to US by Tokyo (1912)
  11. 11. Memorial: Fast Facts• Thomas Jefferson Memorial Commission was established to plan, design and construct memorial (1934) – 108 years after his death• Architectural style reflects Jeffersons documented tastes seen at Monticello and Rotunda at University of Virginia – critics view its imperial grandeur at odds with American democratic spirit• Architect Pope dies without seeing completion of his vision (1937) – partners Daniel P Higgins and Otto R. Eggers take over project• Cornerstone laid by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1939)• Dedicated by President Roosevelt on April 13, 1943 – 200th anniversary of Jeffersons birthday• Site of annual ceremonies including Easter Sunrise Services and Cherry Blossom Festival • Ranks 4th on list of Americas Favorite Architecture by American Institute of Architects (2007) • Final cost to build = $3,192,312
  12. 12. Other Honors & Tributes• Jefferson National Expansion Memorial ("Gateway Arch") in Saint Louis, Missouri• Statue sculpted by Moses Ezekial – University of Virginia (1910)• Depicted in stone at Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota• Portrait featured on US $2 bill and 5¢ nickel• Portrait appears 14 times on US Postage stamps (1856-1993) including 1st commemorative issue to ever honor US President (1904) – Memorial appears at least 6 times• Thomas Jefferson University & Hospital, Philadelphia• Washington & Jefferson College – Washington, Pennsylvania• Thomas Jefferson School of Law – San Diego, California• Thomas Jefferson Library, University of Missouri-St Louis• Mount Jefferson – Cascade Range, Oregon• Jefferson, Maine – Jefferson, New Hampshire – Jefferson City, Missouri• – In the spirit of Thomas Jefferson, legislative information from the Library of Congress
  13. 13. ReferencesJefferson Pre-Presidency - Content & Images Timeline - Tuckahoe Plantation - Thomas Jefferson –, St. Rosemary Educational Institution -, West Point - military-academy-west-pointThomas Jefferson, Famous People - Sally Hemings, Black History Month -jefferson-72.php Jefferson A Boy’s Life - to.htmljefferson/a-boys-life Photos:Jefferson Childhood - Statue of Thomas Jefferson - Rotunda - University of Virginia - www.virginia.eduJefferson the Violinist – Statue of Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia at Wise - Thomas Jefferson, Wikipedia - Jefferson – - Jefferson statue, Washington, D.C. Library of Congress - Jefferson Declaration Committee, National Park Service Statue at Monticello - Monticello Thomas Jeffersons home in Charlottesville, VirginiaJefferson – - Timeline - University of Virginia Rotunda - – Jefferson, The Memorial – Content & ImagesPhotos: Jefferson Memorial, National Park Service, - Jefferson Memorial – - Jefferson Memorial, Tour of DC - Plantation - memorial/ John Russell Pope, Wikipedia - of William and Mary Photos: Jefferson Memorial - ,in-early-american-landscape.html the Declaration of Independence 1776- Wikipedia - Other Honors & Tributes – Content09904.jpg List of Jefferson Tributes -Declaration of Independence - Arcangelo Corelli - Concerto Grosso Op. 6 No. 4 - 1. Adagio – Allegro, AdventChamber Orchestra - Wikipedia -, The President – ContentThomas Jefferson, Wikipedia - Jefferson, Famous People - – - Content and images on this site are believed to be posted within rights according to the U.S. Copyright Fair Use Act (title 17, U.S. Code.), are readily available in various places on Internet and believed to be in public domain. Compiled by Susan Senning, San Mateo CA 2012