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Reasoning

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  • 1. Reasoning
    “When an argument includes both quality evidence and a valid reasoning foundation, the argument is considered to be sound”
    By: Eric Melara
  • 2.
    • Reasoning is the process of creating conclusions from evidence
    Types of reasoning:
    Inductive reasoning
    Example reasoning
    Causal reasoning
    Sign reasoning
    Comparison reasoning
    Reasoning from authority
    • Deductive reasoning
    • 3. Major premise
    • 4. Minor premise
    • 5. Conclusion
  • INDUCTIVE REASONING
    The process of reasoning from specifics to a general conclusion related to those specifics
  • 6. Inductive reasoningExample reasoning
    Using specific instances as a basis for making a valid conclusion
    Case #1 Case #2 Case #3 Case #4
  • 7. Inductive reasoningCausal reasoning
    For every action there is a reaction
    Two forms of causal reasoning:
    Cause to effect: cause capable of producing some unknown effect
    Effect to cause: some known effect has been produced by some unknown cause
  • 8. Inductive reasoningSign reasoning
    A connection between two related things
    The presence of an attribute indicating that something else exists.
  • 9. Inductive reasoningComparison reasoning
    Drawing comparisons between two similar things and concluding that, what is correct about one is also correct about the other.
  • 10. Inductive reasoningReasoning from authority
    Accepting an argument because it came from a credible source or authority.
  • 11. Deductive reasoning
    Reasoning from general statements to a logically certain conclusion
    A deductive argument
    has three parts: a
    major premise, a
    minor premise, and
    a conclusion.
  • 12. Deductive reasoningMajor premise
    The major premise is a general statement
    “ONLINE CLASSES ARE NOT EASIER THAN REGULAR CLASSES”
  • 13. Deductive reasoningMinor premise
    A statement of a specific instance related to the major premise
    “I AM TAKING AN ONLINE CLASS AND IT HAS BEEN HARDER THAN SOME OTHER CLASSES I HAVE HAD”
  • 14. Deductive reasoningConclusion
    The statement derived from the minor premises relationship to the major premise
    “MY ONLINE CLASS IS NOT EASIER THAN MY OTHER CLASSES”

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