India

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  • http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1971.htm http://www.warchat.org/history-asia/indo-pakistani-war-of-1971.html http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1965.htm http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_781531179/indo-pakistan_wars.html http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1947.htm
  • E xamples of terrorist attacks In October 1, 2001 Pakistan terrorist killed 27people from a car bomb attack near Jammu and Kashmir state. In 1997, 7 Kashmiri Pandits where killed in Sangrampora village in the Budgam district (n ewly formed district of the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India.)
  • http://www.goaholidayhomes.com/map-of-goa.php (map)
  • Those elements may be formulaic, but not randomly distributed The more important the encounter, the more elaborate the descriptions of the elements of guest reception These cultural behavior remains important in the present day
  • Indian festivals provide enough tourists as customers to support the running of hospitality industry.
  • brief introduction to the table: Very high score in Power Distance Relatively high score in Individualism and Masculinity Very low score in Uncertainty Avoidance High score in Long Term Orientation Explanation:
  • Changes in women’s mobility and interaction 50% of women group members had visited new places and traveled longer distances; and 94% had experienced new interactions with staff of institutions Changes in women’s labor patterns 30% of women who had taken bank loans reported a marked change in gender roles 70% reported a small change However, the income-generating activities of the majority of women in male-headed households continued to be managed by men The workload of 94% of the women who had taken loans increased compared with their previous workload Changes in access to and control over resources a number of the groups undertook activities that would give their communities better infrastructure or services 4. Changes in intra-household decision-making a slight improvement in women's involvement in household decision-making in male-headed households However, the traditional gender-based divisions persist in intra-household decision-making
  • India

    1. 2. <ul><li>Full Name : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic of India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bharat, Hindustan among locals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form of Government : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Federal form of Government) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capital City : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Delhi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currency : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Rupee </li></ul></ul>National Flag : BASIC FACTS
    2. 3. <ul><li>Total Area : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seventh largest country in the world: 3,287,240km 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second largest population : 1,198,003,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo Aryan 72% , Dravidian 25% , Mongoloid and other 3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally, linguistically and genetically diverse geographical entity after the African continent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summers (April - October) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winters (November - March) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monsoons (July - September) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>1. Independence </li></ul><ul><li>2. Wars between Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>3. India – Goa </li></ul><ul><li>4. Guest Reception in Ancient India </li></ul>BASIC HISTORY
    4. 5. 1. Independence History of India Independence Aug 12 1947 <ul><li>gained independence from the British </li></ul><ul><li>separated a state, Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties after independence: </li></ul><ul><li>Religious violence </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Casteism (believer of peace) </li></ul><ul><li>N axalism (believer of violence) </li></ul>Jan 26 1950 <ul><li>B ecame a republic </li></ul>20th century <ul><li>L ed a non-violent civil disobedience </li></ul><ul><li>( Indian National Congress & </li></ul><ul><li>other political organizations ) </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>– English in India </li></ul><ul><li>Under colony of British, </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Medium of instruction and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used in India </li></ul><ul><li>national affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cultural shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the understanding and communication with western tourists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hospitality industries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>serve English-speaking guests properly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve the satisfaction of the guests </li></ul></ul>Impact on Culture Impact on Hospitality
    6. 7. 2. Wars between Pakistan History of War between Pakistan 1947-1948 19 65 Dec. 6 1971 <ul><li>Fighting over Kashmir from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan : control of third of Kashmir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India : control of Kashmir valley & Jammu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fighting over Kashmir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UN ceasefire no territorial changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh Liberation War </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh and Indian Victory </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan surrendered and East Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B ecame the border between India and Pakistan </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Impact on Culture <ul><li>After three dreadful wars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F ar more than “remote” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naxalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(believers of violence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casteism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(believers of peace) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Violence in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan and India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ultural bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E thnocentrism upon one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ontinuous violent terrorist attacks </li></ul></ul>Impact on Hospitality <ul><li>Pakistan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighboring country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few people visiting India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitality industries in the states where near Pakistan can’t benefited from influx of Pakistani tourists </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. 3. India – Goa <ul><ul><li>Alfonso-de-Albuquerque made the first conquest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1543, able to extend their control over Salcette, Mormugao and Bardez, thus ending their first phase of expansion into Goa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After driven away, Portuguese culture stayed for 450 years </li></ul></ul>History of Portuguese in Goa
    9. 10. <ul><li>Goa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I nfluence of Portuguese culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H istoric city of Margao </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>places of worship and heritage architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A ttracting international and local tourists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in summer and winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism : primary industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitality industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>now flourishing because of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the well-developed tourism industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>originated from Portuguese culture </li></ul></ul></ul>Impact on Culture and Hospitality
    10. 11. 4. Guest Reception in Ancient India Normal guests Important guests Hospitality culture <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>A seat </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Food: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a superior quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carefully prepared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cup of water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with flowers and grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixture of honey and curds </li></ul><ul><li>Seat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mighty, polished, golden, great </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><ul><li>Hindi (the official language) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>started to be used in writing during the 4th century AD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>about 487 million speakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other 17 major languages recognized by the Constitution and 844 Dialects. </li></ul></ul>LANGUAGE
    12. 13. <ul><li>Hindu - 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim - 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Christian - 2.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Sikh - 2% </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist - 0.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Jain - 0.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Zoroastrian and others - 0.4% </li></ul>RELIGLIONS
    13. 14. <ul><li>Ancient religions in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Colorful religion </li></ul><ul><li>Henotheistic : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize a single deity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes other gods and goddesses </li></ul></ul>Hinduism
    14. 15. <ul><ul><li>dharma: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Righteousness in their religious life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the most important of the three </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>artha: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Success in their economic life; material prosperity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kama: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gratification of the senses; pleasure; sensual, sexual, and mental enjoyment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moksa: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberation from &quot; samsara .&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is considered the supreme goal of mankind </li></ul></ul></ul>Hinduism
    15. 16. <ul><li>Do not eat beef </li></ul><ul><li>Do not destroy or injure anything (non-violence) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lie (be truthful) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not steal </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be envious (Continence) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be greedy </li></ul>Law and Taboos in Hinduisms :
    16. 17. <ul><li>Must not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut body hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat Kosher meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, drugs, or intoxicants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have faith in black magic, superstitions, charms and rituals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>always wear Katchera and turban </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may or may not tie turban </li></ul></ul>Law and Taboos in Iskhisms :
    17. 18. <ul><li>1. RELIGIONS TOURS </li></ul><ul><li>India: </li></ul><ul><li>many religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li> greatest religious tour destination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> visit temples and religious monuments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> provided enough tourists as customers to support the running of hospitality industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> live in hotels and eat at restaurants </li></ul></ul>Impact of Religion on Hospitality
    18. 19. <ul><li>2. Religious restrictions affect F&B </li></ul><ul><li>Indian people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>own religious belief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>religious restrictions in food and drinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> affect food and beverage industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F&B industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodate themselves to fit the needs of different religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduisms – Do not eat beef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims – eat halal food only and don’t drink alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhists – eat vegetables only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sikhs – don’t eat halal food and some sects of Sikhs are vegetarian </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>DIWALI </li></ul><ul><li>HOLI </li></ul><ul><li>ONMA </li></ul>FESTIVALS
    20. 21. <ul><li>Five-day festival </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration of victory of good over evil and the glory of light </li></ul><ul><li>People prepare themselves by cleaning and decorating their premises </li></ul><ul><li>Lamps are lit on the roofs and windowsills of the houses </li></ul><ul><li>Offer prayers to the deity, then exchange gifts and bursting crackers </li></ul>DIWALI (Rows of Lights)
    21. 22. <ul><li>Festival of Colors </li></ul><ul><li>a popular Hindu spring festival </li></ul><ul><li>celebrated by people throwing colored powder and colored water at each other </li></ul>HOLI
    22. 23. <ul><li>Biggest festival in the South Indian </li></ul><ul><li>Ten days Carnival </li></ul><ul><li>Grand way celebration </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Impress upon their dear King that they are happy and wish him well </li></ul></ul>ONAM <ul><li>1) Onasadya: the grand feast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine course meal consisting of 11 to 13 essential dishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be served on banana leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People sit on a mat laid on the floor to have the meal </li></ul></ul>4 Remarkable features:
    23. 24. <ul><li>2) Vallamkali: Snake Boat Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held on the river Pampa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorful sight decorated boat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be oared by hundreds of boatmen amidst chanting of songs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheering by spectators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Onakalikal: a tradition to play games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men : go in for rigorous sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Talappanthukali (played with a ball), Ambeyyal (Archery).etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 ) Pookalam: intricately designed flower mats made by women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the front courtyard of the house to welcome King Mahabali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women: perform two graceful dances (Kaikotti kali and Thumbi Thullal) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Impact of Festival on Hospitality <ul><li>DIWALI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest festival in India, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long popular events for attracting inbound tourists to experience the Indian culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOLI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Braj region (North India) : most celebrated Holi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Krishna : Mathura, Vrindavan, Barsana, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become tourist destinations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ONAM </li></ul><ul><li>Snake Boat Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International tourist attraction </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>SOCIETY </li></ul><ul><li>GREETING </li></ul><ul><li>CUISINE </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN in INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>DRESSING </li></ul><ul><li>WEDDING </li></ul>TRADITION
    26. 27. <ul><li>Caste system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and wealth are not equally distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy </li></ul>SOCIETY
    27. 28. <ul><li>Treats guests as god </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves them and takes care of them as if they are a part and parcel of the family itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though we don’t have anything to eat, the guests are never left hungry and are always looked after by the members of the family. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respect for Elders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving force for any family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual takes blessings from his elders by touching their feet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elders drill and pass on the Indian culture </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><li>Respect one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All people are alike and respecting one another is ones duty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Relation between the boss and the employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign countries  a master and slave and is purely monetary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian culture  like homely relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Helpful nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are taught to help one another in need of help and distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not monetary then at least in kind or non-monetary ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To multiply and distribute joy and happiness and share sadness and pain </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. <ul><li>India on Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions </li></ul>Source: G. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work- Related Values
    30. 31. <ul><li>Traditional Indian Families: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All about love and patience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint family system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All members live under one roof </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share the same kitchen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three generations living together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Income and expenditure in a common pool property held together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A common place of worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern Nuclear Families: </li></ul>
    31. 32. Impact of Society on Hospitality <ul><li>a) Socialites (Upper class) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very brand conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prefer to go to well-known hotels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spend a good amount on luxury goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always looking for something different </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hotel : </li></ul><ul><li>Provide something special and unique or some exclusive product </li></ul>1. Caste System
    32. 33. <ul><li>b) Conservatives (Middle-class and lower class) </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer the traditional Indian culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cautious in purchasing, focus more on savings than spending </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more time with family than in parties </li></ul><ul><li>Slow in decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seek a lot of information before making any purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hotels: </li></ul><ul><li>Keep some traditional elements instead of modern new developlments </li></ul><ul><li>Offer lower cost room rates </li></ul><ul><li>Promote family package </li></ul>
    33. 34. 2. Treats guests as god + Respect one another + Respect for Elders <ul><li>Hotel: </li></ul><ul><li>Good relationship between guest and staff in hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Increase consumer’s satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>All ages care atmosphere </li></ul>
    34. 35. <ul><li>Namaste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greet each other (and say good-bye) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressing the palms together (fingers up) below the chin & nodding the head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A slight bow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> greeting superiors or to show respect </li></ul></ul></ul>GREETING
    35. 36. <ul><li>Shake hands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Meeting foreigners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> X Shake hands with or touch women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian women (are educated or familiar with international customs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Offer their hands to foreigners as a courtesy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Meeting a woman: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A man should wait for her to initiate a handshake, if she does not, then he should just smile and nod slightly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>Indians Won't Say &quot;No&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too unkind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the habit of shaking their head to say yes or no. Please confirm what they mean, if you are not familiar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India’s don’t talk bad about their country and people openly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Name Calling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To elderly: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Never address their first name, unless they allow you to. advisable you call them sir or madam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To youngsters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Choose to be informal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In school/ business aspect, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Do use titles, &quot;Professor&quot; or &quot;Doctor&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Does not have a title, use &quot;Mr&quot;, 'Mrs&quot;, or &quot;Miss&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Impact of Greeting on Hospitality <ul><li>Serving Indian guest </li></ul><ul><li>Elders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best to greet with a “Namaste” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call them sir or madam instead of first name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid saying &quot;no&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace other non-verbal cues and indirect communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be careful shaking hands to Indian males and females </li></ul>
    38. 39. <ul><li>What an Indian Meal Consists Of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetarianism is quite common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic factors & religious dictates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat in small quantities, because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhists and Hindus avoid eating beef and pork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes and cereals are the major components of meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice, wheat and beans are particularly well suited to agricultural conditions in India </li></ul></ul></ul>CUISINE
    39. 40. <ul><ul><li>Food patterns: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul></ul>Main dishes (vegetables and/or meat) Indian bread (chappathi, roti, or naan) <ul><ul><ul><li>Side dishes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(salad, papad, and pickles) </li></ul></ul></ul>Dal (a waterly lentil dish)
    40. 41. <ul><li>Eating Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing the Chappathi Over the Meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picking the Meat Up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining the Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a Ball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice Ready to Eat </li></ul></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><ul><li>Wash your hands before start eating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right hand (eating) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left hand (functions associated with going to the toilet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never pass or receive anything with left hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burping (a sign of contentment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid licking your fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After eating, if you’re a guest in someone’s home, wait until everyone has finished then get up to wash your hands again to clean them </li></ul></ul>Manners in eating
    42. 43. <ul><li>Still disadvantaged with respect to inheritance and property rights </li></ul><ul><li>High female mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Selective infanticide, general neglect, abuse of female children </li></ul><ul><li>Although infant mortality rates have halved since independence, still eight times compares with USA </li></ul>WOMEN in INDIA PAST STATUS
    43. 44. <ul><li>Changes in women’s mobility and interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% visited new places and traveled longer distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>94% had experienced new interactions with staff of institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in women’s labor patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% who had taken bank loans reported a marked change in gender roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in access to and control over resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give their communities better infrastructure or services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in intra-household decision-making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a slight improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women :decide on food preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men: make the financial decisions </li></ul></ul>PRESENT STATUS
    44. 45. Impact of Female View on Hospitality <ul><li>India Women </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in females’ mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More female travel around </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Income of females increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some female may have a high level of consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hospitality Industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the restrictions on serving a female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Never shake hands, touch or sit close or next to a woman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know female Indian employees’ needs when they work in hotel </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>1) Sari: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>five or six yards long of cloth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the Vedas, about 600 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of silk (Wealthy women) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of cotton (most women) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brightly colored saris (Younger women) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only white saris (widows and other women in mourning ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Other decorations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silver or gold jewelry (earrings and nose-rings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bindi (a spot of red on their foreheads) </li></ul></ul>DRESSING
    46. 47. <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>1) Dhoti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one long piece of cloth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generally white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrapped around their legs to make sort of pants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>didn’t have the part that covered the chest and shoulders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Other decoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turbans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long cotton cloths wrapped around their heads </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 48. Impact of Dressing on Hospitality <ul><li>Dress Code ( business aspect ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm condition, many wear safari suits or go without tie and suit </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. <ul><li>Arranged marriages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ccount factors : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age, height, personal values and tastes, the backgrounds of their families (wealth, social standing) and their castes and the astrological compatibility of the couples‘ horoscopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D ivorce rate is extremely low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(India1.1% vs USA50% ) </li></ul></ul>WEDDING
    49. 50. <ul><li>Wedding themes of India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweets (sweet life) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs (fertility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money (prosperity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hindu wedding ceremony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ward off evil spirits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wedding vows exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showers flower petals on the newlyweds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds a coconut over newlyweds’ heads & circles it around them three times </li></ul></ul>
    50. 51. <ul><li>Indian Wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Bright events </li></ul><ul><li>Continue for several days </li></ul><ul><li>Often 400-1000 people attending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of whom are unknown to the bride & groom </li></ul></ul>Impact of Wedding on Hospitality <ul><li>Hotel: </li></ul><ul><li>Take benefit to holding the wedding celebration </li></ul><ul><li>Providing F&B service </li></ul>
    51. 52. CONCLUSION
    52. 53. Reference: <ul><li>Guidebooks for India Travel. India Travel Tips. Retrieved from http://www.bharatonline.com/travel-tips/guide-books.html </li></ul><ul><li>Doing Business in India: A Cultural Perspective. Retrieved from http://www.stylusinc.com/business/india/business_india.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals of India, Retrieved from http://www.festivalsofindia.in/ </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals of India, Retrieved from http://www.festivalsofindia.in/ </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage of India, Retrieved from http://www.pilgrimage-india.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes from India, Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/09/scenes_from_india.html </li></ul><ul><li>History, India, Languages , Retrieved from http://www.indohistory.com/languages.html </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism, Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://www.thaiexotictreasures.com/hinduism.html </li></ul>
    53. 54. Reference: <ul><li>Hinduism-The Religious Life, Retrieved from http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/religionet/er/hinduism/HRLIFE.HTM </li></ul><ul><li>Negative behaviors by some Hindus, Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism4.htm </li></ul><ul><li>India Facts - General, Retrieved from http://www.india-tourism.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>G. Kofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values </li></ul><ul><li>Henderson, Carol E (2002) Culture and customs of India. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainments In India. Retrieved from http://www.gladindiaholidays.com/index.php?menu=11&GEcountry=India&id=2 </li></ul><ul><li>Women's empowerment. Retrieved from http://www.ifad.org/gender/learning/role/labour/in_tamil.htm India </li></ul>
    54. 55. <ul><li>N.A, (2005, April 27).  Bangladeshi war of independence indo-pakistani war of 1971 . Retrieve from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1971.htm </li></ul><ul><li>N.A, (2005, April 27).  Indo-pakistan war of 1965 . Retrieved from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1965.htm </li></ul><ul><li>N.A, Initials. (2005, April 27).  Indo-pakistani conflict of 1947-48 . Retrieved from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/indo-pak_1947.htm </li></ul><ul><li>N.A, (2000).  China india war 1962-1963 . Retrieved from http://www.onwar.com/aced/nation/cat/china/findiachina1962.htm </li></ul><ul><li>N.A, (2001, December 16).  India and pakistan: tense neighbours . Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/102201.stm </li></ul>
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