Paase Koh Lecture Liongson

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  • 1. Benguet Laguna Bontoc Data, Models, Designs and Decisions: Meeting the Challenges of Water Resources Management LEONARDO Q. LIONGSON Institute of Civil Engineering and National Hydraulic Research Center College of Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines 29th Annual PAASE Meeting and Symposium (29APAMS) 13-15 July 2009 Ateneo de Manila University 2010 Loyola Heights, Quezon City UPCOE@100
  • 2. OUTLINE • Water resources management = (natural+engineering+social) sciences water for life, food, economy and the environment (a Water Mondrian), MDG (2000-2015) • Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) – multi-stakeholder, participatory; River Basin Management (RBM), River Basin Organization (RBO) • Drivers to change and their challenges (water sector) drivers & challenges - population growth, urbanization, land-use changes, environmental degradation (disasters, pollution, over-exploitation), climate change .… framework – e.g., energy-climate change-water-IWRM-MDG • Data needs for modeling of hydrological processes subject to change. types - meteorological, geographical, hydrological/hydraulic, hydrogeological, environmental. methods – surveys & mapping, sampling & analysis, field measurements & telemetry, remote sensing/image processing/interpretation/GIS, pilot & operational tests. • Models – physically-based models, statistical/stochastic models. purpose – prediction of hydrological processes under scenarios of change an example – high slope, short run-length , soil properties: semi-pervious to impervious, increase in rainfall intensity, hazards: flash flood, debris flow • Designs – structural (hard), non-structural (soft) measures; adaptation strategies • Decisions –investment in scientific data, application of models (as a scienctific culture), public consultation (awareness, consensus, advocacy), capacity building/education, advice to society, political will, legislation, funding, implementation, professionalism.
  • 3. The hydrologic cycle. (source: www.lexingtonwaterfacts.com)
  • 4. Water Resources Management = (natural + engineering + social) sciences • Water for Life (domestic water supply & sanitation) * Highest priority under the Water Code of the Philippines • Water for Food (irrigation, fisheries & aquaculture) • Water for the Economy (industrial & commercial water supply, hydropower, navigation, tourism, recreation, etc.) • Water for the Environment (upland catchment, floodplain, & coastal management; and wastewater management for sustainability, biodiversity, and preservation of scenic, cultural and historical places. Competition and conflict among & between: * Legal minimum is 10% of the Consumptive and non-consumptive users; 80% dependable flow at a river diversion site. In-stream and onsite users.
  • 5. DENR Water Quality Criteria / Water Usage & Classification for Fresh Water Class A - Public water supply II (require complete treatment to meet national standards for drinking water) Class B - Recreational water class I (for contact recreation as bathing and swimming) Class C - Fishery water for the propagation and growth of fish (also non-contact recreation & industrial use class I) Class D - For agriculture, irrigation, livestock watering and industrial water supply class II
  • 6. Left: Angat Reservoir monthly inflows, releases for irrigation and water supply, and water surface elevation, relative to the lower rule curve; right: policy summary for the WATER SUPPLY versus IRRIGATION: years 1997-2003: in scatter plots and 1997-1998 El Niño period (NWRB data). regression curves [Liongson (2003)].
  • 7. http://llda.gov.ph/SD_Mondriaan/WM_Main.htm The Water Mondriaan is a schematic map of the Laguna de Bay water system, showing the monitoring results in the lake and its tributaries compared with the DENR water quality criteria / water usage & classification for freshwater systems or when absent the LLDA expert opinion. The parameters included, focus on factors of significant ecological, human health and resource use importance or on the processes that are crucial to them: oxygen and oxygen demand (%DO, BOD5 and COD), bacterial pollution (Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, eutrophic level (phosphate, dissolved nitrogen, chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton abundance), and hazardous substances (oil & grease and on a quarterly basis lead, hexavalent chromium &
  • 8. Impact of El Niño on aquaculture and fisheries Small fisherman engaged in open lake fishing. Fish pens (top) & Fish cages (bottom) used for aquaculture in Laguna de Bay. [Liongson (2003)]
  • 9. Impact of El Niño on aquaculture and fisheries Rainfall (in drought conditions), lake stage (severe drawdown), & salinity (maximized conditions) during the El Niño months of 1997-1998. This situation was most advantageous for the brackish-water aquaculture and fisheries, but disadvantageous for potential water-supply and irrigation uses. [Liongson (2003)]
  • 10. Impact of El Niño on aquaculture and fisheries Monthly measurements of salinity, transparency and turbidity at Laguna de Bay West-Bay-I station during the years 1997-1999. (a). Time series plots and (b). Scatter plots and fitted regression lines of salinity versus transparency and turbidity. [Liongson (2003)]
  • 11. Integrated Water Resources Management or IWRM, having been promoted in the last twelve years (1997-2009), is an international movement which advocates the multi-stakeholder and participatory manner of managing the water resources among the competing users. The Global Water Partnership (GWP) "was founded in 1996 by the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) to foster integrated water resource management (IWRM), and to ensure the coordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources by maximizing economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of vital environmental systems." (http://www.gwpforum.org). Philippine Water Partnership (PWP) - established in 2002; the local network partner of GWP and GWPSEA; recognized (by NEDA InfraCom) as the principal NGO for the promotion of IWRM.
  • 12. The River Basin Management (RBM) approach is an integral part of IWRM, in which all stakeholders present within the river basin boundary are ideally convened, and are empowered to participate in the exercise of IWRM. • consist of representatives of • national government units: DA, DENR, DILG, DPWH, NWRB • government corporations: LLDA, MWSS, NIA, NPC, water districts • local government units (LGUs) including regional units: MMDA • the civil society such as those organized as NGOs, • the academe and research institutions, and • the private sector (suppliers, utilities, contractors and consultants), • should be able to participate in the • multi-stakeholder dialogues, • advocacy in the arena of important water issues, • information/educational/research (IER) programs, and • capacity-building (training) – • both in the neutral forum such as the Philippine Water Partnership (PWP), • or formally in River Basin Organizations (RBOs) (such as the LLDA), politically mandated for decisions and policy making, and established by law and regulations.
  • 13. IWRM FOR IMPROVED GOVERNANCE The basic problem of governance in the water resources sector • recognized to be the major issue to be resolved by IWRM in the Philippines as well as in other Southeast Asian countries. • IWRM implies that constant dialogues and consultations among the stakeholders in the water sector should be maintained, so that feasible solutions to problems and pressing issues may develop or evolve. • Whereas, separate government agencies had in past decades managed and developed water resources for irrigation, domestic and industrial water supply, flood control, hydropower, and other uses, often in separate and fragmented manner, • with minimal coordination and cooperation at the planning and implementation stages.
  • 14. • IWRM hinges on the river-basin concept in both planning and implementation stages (SEATAC 2000), • coupled with the multi-stakeholder approach through the practice of • regular dialogues, • capacity-building programs, • advocacy of certain actions, • information exchange and research by and among stakeholders. Within the framework of IWRM, • the issues on basic water policies and reforms, and • the issues of competing water uses have begun to be dealt with by the national and regional water resource agencies of government, in regular consultative meetings with other stakeholders such as • private industry, • academe, • local government units and • non-government organizations (NGO). Among the issues of concern are the competing uses and management of water for domestic and industrial water supply, irrigation, flood control, aquaculture/fisheries and hydropower, and the related land-use and environmental problems.
  • 15. The Philippine Water Partnership (PWP 2002) defines IWRM is an approach to land and water management that seeks to balance human, industrial, agricultural and environmental needs. To do this successfully, every one involved in water use – government agencies, academe, community groups, agricultural and business interest, NGOs and other interest groups – must join forces and work in partnership to share information, understand data and solve problems.
  • 16. Southeast Asian Vision for Water in the 21st Century (2nd World Water Forum, The Hague, March 2000) Access to safe, adequate and affordable water supply, hygiene, and sanitation; Provision of sufficient water that will ensure food security for the region; Provision of sufficient water to spur and sustain the economies of the region; Protection of the water environment to preserve flow regimes, bio-diversity, and cultural heritage as well as the mitigation of water related hazards.
  • 17. The Global Water Partnership (GWP) Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) states in “IWRM - AT A GLANCE” (GWP) Why is water resources management critical? Population growing Economy growing ⇓ ⇓ Increasing demand for water Growing pollution ⇓ ⇓ Constant amount of water in the cycle ⇓ ⇓ Increased competition for scarce water ⇓ Need for allocation and conflict resolution Water resources management is prevention and resolution of conflicts.
  • 18. The Dublin Principles show the way Four simple, yet powerful messages were provided in 1992 in Dublin. They were the basis for the Rio Agenda 21 and for the millennium Vision-to-Action The four principles are: Freshwater is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment I.e. one resource, to be holistically managed. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels. I.e. manage water with people - and close to people. Women play a central role in the provision, management and safeguarding of water I.e. involve women all the way ! Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good I.e. having ensured basic human needs, allocate water to its highest value and move towards full cost pricing to encourage rational use and recover costs Poor water management hurts the poor most! The Dublin principles aim at wise water management with focus on poverty.
  • 19. Towards a new paradigm - from sub-sectoral to cross-sectoral water management IWRM is the ‘integrating handle’ leading us from sub-sectoral to cross-sectoral water management. CROSS-SECTORAL DIALOGUE THROUGH IWRM People Food Eco- Industry system & others IWRM WATER USE SECTORS IWRM is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems (GWP/TAC).
  • 20. How do the Dublin principles translate into action? The ENABLING ENVIRONMENT sets the rules, the INSTITUTIONAL ROLES and functions define the players who make use of the MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS. ECOSYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY Enabling Environment Policies Legislation Management Institutional Instruments Roles Assessment Central-local Information Public-private Allocation tools River basin ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY SOCIAL EQUITY All this depends on the existence of popular awareness and political will to act!
  • 21. Drivers to change and their challenges (water sector) Population growth • growth in water demand and overexploitation of water sources for domestic, agricultural, commercial, and industrial uses. • more competition and conflict over sources, allocation and distribution of water among various users (across both space and time). • more demand for land space as well as related technical and social services for agriculture, housing, transportation, waste management, and disaster management (land and water issues). Urbanization and land-use changes • higher runoff volume on catchments due to reduced interception by vegetation. • higher runoff volume on catchments due to lower soil infliltration capacities resulting from conversion of pervious open surfaces to impervious pavements. • higher runoff rate due to lower roughness on paved roads and gutters. • slower drainage through and from lower and buried collecting water bodies (such as culvert drains, canals and creeks) due to encroachment (loss of flow capacities) and clogging due to solid waste dumped on the waterways. • loss of groundwater recharge due to poor soil infiltration and percolation to the water table.
  • 22. Environmental degradation • increased vulnerability to natural water hazards (floods) due to reduced flood-carrying capacities of encroached creeks and rivers. • loss of natural flood storage capacities due to settlement of floodplains and reclamation of wetlands for agriculture, commerce and industry. • pollution of surface water bodies and groundwater aquifers by domestic, commercial, industrial and agricultural sources. • upland erosion and associated deposition and siltation in downstream rivers, lakes and coastal areas due to deforestation and other upland activities. • increased hazards of flash floods, debris flow and landslides due to poor soil condition and vegetation cover on steep slopes during storm and tectonic events (also leads to loss of topsoil and biodiversity, aside from loss of human lives and property). • overexploitation of groundwater aquifers leading to seawater intrusion as well as land subsidence, leading to higher and wider flooding during high tides. Climate change: for river basins - higher high flows and lower low flows!!! ?higher temperature = higher evaporation rate ?more intense cyclonic conditions – stronger winds and storm surges, more intense rainfall, higher flood intensities and volumes over short durations, revised design storm criteria. ?accelerated melting of glaciers and ice caps = sea level rise = extensive flooding ?relationship and correlation with ENSO (El Niño), SW and NE Monsoons, typhoons.
  • 23. ADAPTATION STRATEGY An important first step: the mutual awareness of these drivers and the nature of the challenges that they pose to the water stakeholders. (one product of the IWRM exercise). Second step: recognizing, appreciating and quantifying the relative importance and influence of the factors and the impacts associated with them (role of data and models). Third step: adjustment and revision of so-called water design criteria (design procedure, formulas, parameters) and consequently, a properly adapted design product. Fourth step: the development of an adaptation strategy (validated by data and models) which confronts the impacts brought about by the drivers of change, such that it is: • capable of addressing the combined/parallel/similar/common impacts of population growth, urbanization, land-use changes, environmental degradation and climate change; • if, for example, the adverse flooding effects of urbanization overwhelm the projected effects of climate change in the near future, then the “good deed” of having prepared for either one or both is already one enabling step. When the situation reverses in the long term (climate change dominates), then the applicable experience gained and lessons learned in dealing with urbanization have equipped the stakeholders with the capacity and confidence to confront and adapt to the long-term impacts of climate change.
  • 24. A D B a n d C it ie s A llia n c e (2 0 0 6 ). U r b a n iz a t io n a n d S u s t a in a b ilit y in A s ia – Case Studies of Good Practice. Edited by Brian Roberts and Trevor Kanaley.
  • 25. Millennium Development Goals (Sept. 2000). Deadline: 2015 ADB (2008). Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2008. 39th Edition WATER SUPPLY & SANITATION
  • 26. Domestic hygeine ≠ Environmental hygeine!!! DENR UPDATES (2007).
  • 27. DENR UPDATES (2007).
  • 28. A simple physically-based model - admits effects of urbanization & climate change on flash floods.
  • 29. Prof. Torkil J∅ nch-Clausen is also a Technical Advisor of GWP.
  • 30. In conclusion… Designs – Structural (hard) measures – construction and hardware diversion and storage dams, sediment retention structures (sabo dams) river bank protection: river walls, dikes (levees), revetments floodways, flood gates, pumping stations, viaducts coastal protection: seawalls, breakwaters ,barrages, etc. Non-structural (soft) measures – land-use zoning, watershed management; soil conservation practices; water conservation – “green” practices such as rainfall harvesting, riverbank restoration, etc. rainfall and flood telemetry, forecasting and warning – natural disaster management strict regulation of surface water and groundwater withdrawals; pollution control. community-based actions/advocacy , capacity-building – in water scarcity, water disasters, pollution control, etc. R&D in software, instrumentation, process and equipment design in water resources technology Adaptation Strategies – in broad terms address simultaneously the problem of adapting to the impacts of all drivers to change: population growth, urbanization, land-use changes, environmental degradation, and climate change since the pay-off lies in greater awareness, more experience and lessons, and versatility and robustness of the design capacities in the adaptation measures. consistent and continuous policy of water conservation – “green” practices Decisions –investment in scientific data, application of models (as a scienctific culture), public consultation (awareness, consensus, advocacy), capacity building/education, advice to society, political will, legislation, funding, implementation, professionalism.
  • 31. THANK YOU Yahoo newsphotos