Liongson Chair2000


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Liongson Chair2000

  1. 1. Professorial Chair Lecture Manila Rivers and Esteros: Imagery and Engineering by Leonardo Q. Liongson, PhD UPAE Professor of Water Resources Engineering sponsored by Department of Civil Engineering and National Hydraulic Research Center College of Enginering, U.P. Diliman 9-10 a.m., June 29, 2000 MH 237 (Hydraulics Seminar Room) NHRC, Melchor Hall - College of Engineering University of the Philippines, Diliman
  2. 2. Objectives and scope of the lecture <ul><li>To report on previous and present status of Manila rivers and esteros with regard to flood control capacities; </li></ul><ul><li>To present past and present engineering measures to improve river conditions to support varied human uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Photographic and graphical imageries </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrologic and hydraulic data and engineering plans </li></ul><ul><li>Results of analysis and modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Specific projects </li></ul>
  3. 3. METRO-MANILA: Meycauayan (until early 1980s) Kamanava: Kalookan, Malabon, Navotas, Valenzuela Manila Quezon City, Marikina, San Juan, Mandaluyong, Pasig, Makati, Pateros, Pasay, Taguig, Parañaque, Las Piñas, Muntinlupa.
  4. 4. Metro-Manila Rivers and Esteros: Name of River Basins Drainage Area ( Marikina RB 535 Mangahan Floodway-Taytay RB 63 Taguig-Napindan RB 45 Meycauayan RB 169 Obando-Malabon-Navotas Estuary 35 Novaliches Reservoir-Tullahan RB 72 San Juan RB 94 Pasig RB (north and south) 91 Parañaque-Las-Piñas RBs 73 Zapote-Bacoor-Imus RBs 168 Source: NHRC
  5. 5. Flood sectors: Meycauayan RB Malabon-Tullahan RB San Juan RB Marikina RB (upper) Pasig-Marikina Floodplain Pasig RB: North Manila South Manila Napindan-Mangahan RB Source: NHRC
  6. 6. The Esteros of Manila (Pasig RB) North Manila South Manila <ul><li>(north exit: Manila Bay) </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Sunog Apo </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Vitas </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de la Reina </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Binondo </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Magdalena </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de San Lazaro </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de San Miguel </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Sampaloc </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Valencia </li></ul><ul><li>(south exit: Pasig River) </li></ul><ul><li>(north exit: Pasig River) </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Balete </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Pandacan </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Paco </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Sta. Clara </li></ul><ul><li>Estero de Tripa de Gallina </li></ul><ul><li>Kalatagan Creek </li></ul><ul><li>Dilain Creek </li></ul><ul><li>(south exit: Parañaque River) </li></ul>
  7. 7. North Manila (Pasig RB) (north exit: Manila Bay) Estero de Sunog Apo Estero de Vitas Estero de la Reina Estero de Binondo Estero de Magdalena Estero de San Lazaro Estero de San Miguel Estero de Sampaloc Estero de Valencia (south exit: Pasig River)
  8. 8. Manila map in 1898: the extent of esteros in blue.
  9. 18. Estero de Binondo: Top left: in 1900. Top right: in 1999 Left: Garbage at Binondo Pumping Station
  10. 19. A cleaner stretch of Estero de Binondo viewed from Blanco Bridge, Feb. 1999 Another cleaner stretch along Estero de la Reina in Binondo, Feb. 1999.
  11. 23. Government’s Response to MM Flooding Problem (Source: DPWH) <ul><li>Mangahan Floodway & Napindan Hydraulic Control Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Flood Control Operations System (EFCOS) </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Pumping Stations and Floodgates </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance & Rehabilitation Programs/ Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Bantay Estero Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Flood Mitigation Equipment </li></ul>
  12. 24. Metro-Manila Area Flood Needs and Responses (Source: DPWH) Total Metro-Manila Area: 63,600 has. Flood-prone Areas: 10,600 has. Kamanava: 4,000 has. Central MM: 5,500 Upper Marikina: 600 North Laguna Lakeshore 500 Coverage of Flood Mitigation Facilities: Pumping Stations (PS): 15 large & 6 medium PS: 5,300 has. 18 small PS 200 has . Flood Conduits/Waterways: Esteros & creeks 290 km. Drainage mains 44 km. Drainage laterals 1,200 km. Mobile flood equipment 130 has. Mobile flood watch teams 4,970 has.
  13. 25. Major Pumping Stations Pump Capacities Drainage Area (Source: DPWH) (cu.m./s) (hectares) 1. Vitas PS 32 578 2. Binondo PS 11.6 279 3. Escolta PS 1.5 (included with Binondo) 4. Quiapo PS 9.5 225 5. Aviles PS 14.1 356 6. Valencia PS 10.5 246 7. Balut PS 2 49 8. Pandacan PS 4.4 180 9. Paco PS 7.59 182 10. Sta. Clara PS 5.3 133 11. Balete PS 2.5 52 12. San Andres PS 19.0 356 13. Makati PS 7.0 151 14. Libertad PS 42.0 779 15. Tripa de Gallina PS 56.0 1,769 Total 224.99 cms 5,335 has
  14. 26. Name of Annual Average Volume of Pumping Stations Garbage Collected/Disposed (1997-1998) (cubic meters) 1. Vitas PS 670 2. Binondo PS: 1,302 3. Escolta PS 74 4. Quiapo PS 800 5. Aviles PS 210 6. Valencia PS 614 7. Pandacan PS 728 8. Paco PS 692 9. Sta. Clara PS 324 10. Balete PS 93 11. San Andres PS 162 12. Makati PS 28 13. Libertad PS 3,922 14. Tripa de Gallina PS 3,200 15. Buendia PS 2,118 Total 14,934 cu.m./yr = 41 cu.m./day
  15. 27. EFCOS: Effective Flood Control Operations System Source: DPWH
  16. 28. EFCOS: Effective Flood Control Operations System (located in Metro-Manila & Rizal province) <ul><li>Aims to achieve an effective flood control operation for Pasig-Marikina-Laguna Lake Complex through </li></ul><ul><li>real time rainfall and water level data collection at the Rosario Master Control Station via telemetry system; </li></ul><ul><li>the effective use of the warning system along Mangahan Floodway; and </li></ul><ul><li>the multiplex communication system among Rosario MCS, Napindan HCS, DPWH Central Office and PAGASA Data Information Center. </li></ul>
  17. 29. The Mangahan Floodway diverts floodwaters of Marikina River to Laguna de Bay. The Napindan Hydraulic Control Structure (NHCS) regulates flow between Pasig River and the lake via the Napindan Channel The navigation lock of the NHCS allows water traffic between Pasig River and Laguna de Bay through the Napindan Channel.
  18. 30. Pasig River Rehabilitation Program (PRRP) (Source: Pasig River Alive! by Riverwatch, Unilever,1998) Goal: to improve the water quality of Pasig River by year 2008 through the following means: <ul><li>eliminating the offensive dry-season odor; </li></ul><ul><li>reducing the BOD from 330 m.tons/day (1991) to 200 m.tons/day; </li></ul><ul><li>reducing the amount of solid waste dumped into the rivers and creeks, and regularly removing floating solid wastes from navigable portions of the Pasig and its main tributaries; </li></ul><ul><li>increasing and controlling the flow of water in the Pasig during the dry season. </li></ul>
  19. 31. Pasig River Rehabilitation Program (PRRP) The Positive Results as of 1998 <ul><li>Water Quality Improvement: </li></ul><ul><li>BOD reduction: 330 m.t./day (1991) ==> 230 m.t./day (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Needed to sustain aquatic life: < 200 m.t./day BOD </li></ul><ul><li>1990: 45% domestic liquid, 55% industrial waste </li></ul><ul><li>1998: 60% domestic liquid, 40% industrial waste </li></ul><ul><li>solid waste proportion: reduced from 10% to 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Partners’ Performance: </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine Coast Guard: hauled 116,676 cu.m. garbage from the rivers in 1994; </li></ul><ul><li>MMDA and its partners: collected 1711 cu.m. rubbish in 1994; </li></ul><ul><li>75 firms (59 inside river basin): BOD reduction of 34.5 m.t./day in 1997. </li></ul>
  20. 32. PCAMRD-LLDA-NHRC BAYWATS Models: watershed hydrologic model, 1-d river network hydraulic model and 2-d lake hydrodynamic model with management functions (1998-2000).
  21. 33. Types & Causes of rain-induced floods <ul><li>Local flooding (flooding by temporary accumulation of undrained water on road surfaces, urban lots, farm lands and other open spaces due to excessive local rains) </li></ul><ul><li>River flooding (overflow of water from major channels into adjoining banks and floodplains) </li></ul><ul><li>High rainfall intensity of long duration (thunderstorms, monsoons, typhoons) </li></ul><ul><li>Impervious surfaces (asphalt and concrete pavements, roofs) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat topography </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate road drainage design-capacity (curbs, culverts) </li></ul><ul><li>Clogging of road drainage by garbage and other debris </li></ul><ul><li>Obstruction or encroachment of small natural ditches and creeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Large tributary and overland inflows </li></ul><ul><li>High tide and storm surge at the downstream reaches; land subsidence </li></ul><ul><li>Channel narrowing by property encroachment (loss of waterway) </li></ul><ul><li>Siltation with sediment, garbage and other debris </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream flow obstruction by bridge log-jams, debris and other constrictions </li></ul>
  22. 34. Flood Mitigation Measures <ul><li>Structural Measures (hardware & construction: upstream (u/s) downstream (d/s)) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-structural Measures (software & community-based) </li></ul><ul><li>Dams, spillways & reservoirs; sabo & check dams (u/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Roadway curb inlets, culverts, drop-shafts (u/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Dikes, levees, super levees (d/s) </li></ul><ul><li>River walls & revetments (d/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Floodways (open, underground ) (d/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges & viaducts (elevated, overflow) (d/s) </li></ul><ul><li>River widening & dredging, cut-off channels (d/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping stations, garbage screens (d/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Flood gates, storm barrage or barrier (d/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed, floodplain & coastal management (soil, forest, flora, fauna, wetlands, local communities) </li></ul><ul><li>River protection & preservation (people’s participation) </li></ul><ul><li>Flood forecasting and warning (telemetry, computers & telecommunications, sirens, traffic mgmt.) </li></ul><ul><li>Flood evacuation, rescue & relief (housing, health, food) </li></ul><ul><li>Land-use & zoning plans (open spaces, lagoons) </li></ul><ul><li>House/building rainwater collection & infiltration facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal building-code enforcement, flood proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Insurance </li></ul>