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Vt2 afstoten en repatriatie
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Vt2 afstoten en repatriatie


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  • 1. Afstoten en Repatriëring 1
  • 2. Collection Development selection: • accessioning • de-accessioning internal editing core collection community collection interpretive collection poor quality critical mass “Internal editing” - objects that are not part of the collection - objects that are part of the collection “Internal editing” Objects that are not part of the collection - office furniture. - requisites - educational collection - loans 2
  • 3. “Internal editing” Objects that are part of the collection - in storage - in open storage - in permanent exhibition - in temporary exhibition - on loan non-disposal for other reasons than collection-development • • • • “the collection as object” Legal limitations (donations,bequests) No legal property (loans) No moral property (colonial heritage) Deltaplan 1990 Nationale musea A 22 % B 44 % C 32 % D 1% disposal for other reasons than collection development • Disputed legal ownership (theft) • Disputed moral ownership disposal for reasons of collection development • reduction (= manageable) of the collection • collectionsharper profiling of the collection Hilversum 1987 3
  • 4. International Council of Museums LAMO Leidraad voor het afstoten van museale objecten Netherlands guidelines for deaccessioning museum objects 1986 2001 LAMO procedure Congres “Grenzen aan de groei” (Amsterdam, 29-30 Nov. 1999) 4
  • 5. Declaration of Amsterdam Declaration of Amsterdam 28 maart 2008 28 maart 2008 … acknowledge the growth of museum collections and the responsibility that museums have to - improve collections - make collections effectively used - make collections accessible for the society contested ownership • legal ownership • intellectual ownership • guardianship … agree that - disposal of museum collections is an integrated part of a clearly defined collections policy, - disposal should be solely undertaken for the benefit of the collection and the public, - a disposal process should be conducted in an accurate, responsible and transparent way ….. contested ownership • legal ownership - theft - changed legal context - moral rights gift Marcel Mauss, ‘Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l'échange dans les sociétés archaïques’, l'Année Sociologique, seconde série, 1923-1924, tome I. • Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (1990) 5
  • 6. De Volkskrant 25-09-2008 Primary Context Museological Context legal famework restitution - return UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970) Unidroit Convention on Stolen and Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995) 6
  • 7. “El Negro” Natural History Museum Banyoles (Spanje) Issues Exhibited 1916-1997 - Burried in Gaborone (Botswana) 5 oktober 2000 human remains illegal excavations Jewish property Russia – Germany former colonies Central Europe Saartje Baartman (rond 1790 – 1815) From 1810 living “exhibit” in Englandand France Body parts (skeleton, genitals, brains) in presentation Musée de l’Homme (Paris) till 1974 Plaster cast shown till 1976 Burried in South Africa 9 april 2002 7
  • 8. Hector Feliciano Le Musée Perdu (1995) The Lost Museum (1997) Lucas Cranach the Elder Adam and Eve - Stroganoff family 1918 Soviet Union 1931 Jacques Goudstikker 1940 Alois Miedl 1940 Hermann Goering 1945 Netherlands 1966 Stroganoff family 1971 Norton Simon Museum Passadena 2000 Claim Goudstikker descendants 8
  • 9. Heinrich Schliemann, Troi Pushkin Museum, Moscow (april 1998) 9