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    Grammar2 Grammar2 Presentation Transcript

    • Avoiding Redundancy. Write concisely by eliminating redundant words, phrases, and clauses.
    • REDUNDANT: He used a baseball slightly deformed in shape to create a curve in the pitch. (Deformed already refers to shape.) CONCISE: He used slightly deformed baseball to create a curve in the pitch. REDUNDANT: Susan, who is just a beginning horseback rider, over-exaggerates the height of her jumps. (Exaggerate means “overstate.”) CONCISE: Susan, who is just a beginning horseback rider, exaggerates the height of her jumps. REDUNDANT: My friend, who loves to play musical instruments, enjoys playing the guitar, the piano, and the trumpet. (Enjoys playing and the rest of the sentence convey a love of playing musical instruments.) CONCISE: My friend enjoys playing the guitar, the piano, and the trumpet.
    • Avoiding Wordiness. When possible, reduce wordy phrases and clauses to shorter structures.
    • REDUCING WORDY STRUCTURES Wordy Phrase He spoke from an objective viewpoint. Concise He spoke objectively. (Phrase reduced to a single-word modifier.) Wordy Phrase Mr. Bloom will send roses to his wife. Concise Mr. Bloom will send his wife roses. (Phrase reduced to a noun and modifier.) Wordy Phrase Michael is an excellent singer, and he is also a member of the orchestra. Concise Michael is both an excellent singer and a member of the orchestra. (Clause reduced to part of a compound complement.) Wordy Clause At the door was a man who was selling magazines for charity. Concise At the door was a man selling magazines for charity. (Clause reduced to a participial phrase.) Wordy Clause Nicholas II, who was the czar of Russia, was overthrown during the revolution of 1917. Concise Nicholas II, czar of Russia, was overthrown during the revolution of 1917. (Clause reduced to an appositive.) Wordy Clause For biology experiments, we need specimens that are fresh. Concise For biology experiments, we need fresh specimens. (Clause reduced to a single-word modifier.)
    • Using Words in Special Ways
    • Using Figures of Speech Using Similes. A simile uses the words like or as to link two different items on the basis of certain shared qualities. Use similes to emphasize the shared qualities of otherwise dissimilar items. SIMILE: Like a wave of brush fires, droves of army ants swept across hundreds of acres of grasslands. SIMILE: The umbrella turned inside out as limply as a
    • Using Analogies. An a analogy is an extended comparison which develops and explains the various points of similarity between the things compared. Use analogies to clarify an item, experience, or set of circumstances by likening it point by point to another. ANALOGY: A free fall toward earth is like descending rapidly in a glass elevator. If you lose sight of the structures holding the glass walls, and if you ignore the feel of the floor through your shoes, you will have some sensation of what it is like to float in space, the pull of gravity is your only reality. Using Personification Use personification to endow an inanimate object with human traits for either humorous or vivid effects. PERSONIFICATION: The welcoming hands of sunlight touched my shoulders, and I looked up. PERSONIFICATION: The old train wheezed into the station and
    • Speaking and Listening Skills Communication is a two-way process. Communication is also a complex process.
    • Interviews An interview is a kind of communication in which one person has a definite purpose for speaking with another person. One person, the interviewer, speaks to another, the interviewee, for the purpose of obtaining information.
    • Conducting an interview requires careful preparation, management, and follow-up. Conducting an Interview
    • CONDUCTING AN INTERVIEW Preparing 1. Research the topic that you need information about. 2. Learn about the interviewee’s background and expertise. This will help determine what questions to ask. 3. List the questions you want to ask the interviewee. Ask only those questions that cannot be answered from other sources. Managing 1. Come prepared to the interview with paper and pencil and/or tape recorder to record the interviewee’s responses. 2. Arrive promptly and greet the interviewee by introducing yourself and explaining the purpose of the interview. 3. Encourage the interviewee to express his or her ideas freely, but keep the conversation related to the interview topic. 4. End the interview when your questions have been answered and you have the information you need. Thank the person. Following Up 1. If you conducted the interview as part of your research for a school report or speech, send a copy of your report or speech to the interviewee. 2. Include a letter that shares the outcome of the interview such as favorable comments by the audience. Close the letter by expressing your thanks for the person’s assistance.
    • Group discussion takes place when three or more people meet to work together for a specific purpose or to achieve a common goal. Large groups often use parliamentary procedure to conduct meetings in a direct and democratic manner. Group Discussion and Parliamentary Procedure
    • Recognizing Different Kinds of Group Discussions A group discussion is formed to achieve a specific common goal.
    • A round-table discussion involves a small group whose goal is to share information or to inform those taking part. A committee is a small group of a larger organization whose goal is to discuss specific ideas and perform certain tasks. A leader keeps the discussion on tack. A secretary or recorder takes notes from which a report is made to the organization. A panel is a group of several informed people whose goal is to share ideas with an audience. Members may meet before the discussion to work out each speaker’s strategy, the amount of time each can speak, and whether the audience will participate. A symposium is a group of people each of whom delivers a short prepared speech on the topic under discussion. Each member is an authority on a particular aspect of the topic. There may be a discussion among members after the speeches are given. Audience participation may follow. Four major kinds of Discussion
    • A group discussion should focus on a topic that is timely, interesting, and one the members are involved with and prepared to discuss.
    • PLANNING A GROUP DISCUSSION 1. Hold a prediscussion meeting to determine the discussion topic. The topic should be timely and interesting. 2. Define the topic precisely. After it is defined, phrase the topic as a question, not a statement. 3. Make an outline of points to be discussed. Include a history of the problem, alternatives, or solutions, and possible action to be taken. 4. Research the topic by reading, thinking, and getting as much information as possible before the discussion.
    • Duties of a Discussion Leader LEADING A DISCUSSION 1. Introduce members of the group to each other and to the audience if one is present. 2. Introduce the topic. Phrase it as a question. 3. Invite and encourage all members to speak freely, especially a member who is silent. 4. Keep participation balanced by tactfully diverting discussion from a member who is talking too much to one who has said less. 5. Keep the discussion on track. Summarize for the group after they have completed major parts of the discussion. 6. Watch the time limit. Move on to a major point not yet covered to speed things up. 7. Conclude the discussion by summarizing main ideas. Allow time for any member to add summary points or opinions.
    • Participation. Members of a discussion group should remember the following: 1. Do not monopolize the discussion. Be brief in your statements and stay on track. 2. Keep the discussion goal in mind even if you are opposed to it.
    • Parliamentary procedure guarantees that the rights of the majority and minority are respected and that a meeting is conducted in an orderly way. Using Parliamentary Procedure
    • PRINCIPLES OF PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE 1. One issue at a time can be debated and voted on. If an issue is not voted on, it must be disposed of in some way before members can consider another issue. 2. The decision of the majority rules. A simple majority consists of more than one half of the people voting on an issue. 3. Minority rights are protected in part by allowing those in the minority to present their views and to change the minds of those in the majority. 4. Every member has a right to speak or remain silent, to vote or not to vote. 5. Open discussion of every issue is protected so that members can vote in an informed way in an informed way on every issue. A two-thirds vote is needed to limit debate or to end it completely.
    • Rules of Order. Parliamentary rules of order specify the way the business of a meeting is conducted and also the duties of the chairperson. The rules are fully outlined in a book called Robert’s Rules of Order, but the main rules are given here. 1. The chairperson or presiding officer must decide if a quorum is present. A quorum is the agreed-upon number of persons that must be present to hold the meeting, say one-third of the active membership of the group.
    • 2. The meeting follows certain steps called the order of business. The order of business is listed in an agenda that the presiding officer has prepared. The chairperson brings up each item on the agenda at the meeting. The chairperson also helps maintain order during the meeting and sees that the members are heard impartially. STEPS FOR CONDUCTING A MEETING a) Call to order b) Roll call c) Reading and approval of minutes from last meetings d) Reading of reports of officers e) Reading of reports of committees f) Consideration of old (unfinished) business g) Consideration of new business h) Adjournment
    • 3. The business of a meeting is conducted through the making of motions. A motion is a formal suggestion or proposal by a member that something be discussed and acted upon.
    • STEPS FOR CARRYING OUT A MOTION 1. A member asks to be recognized by the chairperson and introduces the motion by saying, “I move _____________.” 2. Some other member must “second the motion, that is, agree to its introduction for discussion. 3. The chairperson restates the motion so that all members will clearly know what has been proposed for discussion. 4. Discussion of the motion begins; members may agree, disagree, explain, or attempt to change the motion. 5. When the chairperson feels that the motion has been thoroughly discussed, he or she asks the members if they are ready to vote. If two-thirds of the members agree, discussion is ended. 6. The chairperson restates the motion which may now include an amendment, a change in the original motion; such an amendment would be included only if a majority present had voted to include it during the discussion. 7. The chairperson asks the members to vote. 8. The chairperson announces the result of the vote by saying, “The motion carried” if the majority favored the motion or “The motion is lost” if the majority was against the motion.
    • Public Speaking Recognizing Different Kinds of Speeches Choose the kind of speech you will give by considering both the purpose of the speech and your audience.
    • An expository speech uses facts to explain an idea, a process, or an object. A persuasive speech uses opinion supported by facts to persuade the audience to agree with the speaker’s position or to take some action. An entertaining speech offers the audience something to enjoy. Humor can offer variety or emphasis when it is part of another kind of speech. An extemporaneous speech requires the speaker o rely on knowledge and speaking skills to speak without a formally prepared manuscript.
    • GATHERING INFORMATION 1. Research the subject using the library or other sources, especially if the speech is expository or persuasive 2. Consider interviewing authorities on the topic. PREPARING AN OUTLINE 1. Begin with any necessary background material. 2. Arrange information in a logical sequence. 3. Include major points and supporting details. PREPARING NOTE CARDS 1. Use only a few small index cards. 2. Print all information in the order used in the outline. 3. Write beginning and ending statements. 4. Rely mainly on key words and phrases to jog your memory. 5. Letter and indent all details under the ideas they support. 6. Use underlining and capital letters to make important information stand out. PRACTICING YOUR SPEECH 1. Study outline and note cards until you know the material. 2. Be aware of the verbal form of language you are using, such as the pitch, and loudness of your voice, the rate at which you speak, and pronunciation of words. 3. Be aware of the nonverbal forms of language you are using, such as the way you move, posture, facial expressions, gestures, and appearance. DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH 1. As you stand in front of your audience, try to establish eye contact with several people. 2. Look over your note cards to refresh your mind before speaking; and refer to them only if needed as you speak.
    • Evaluate a speech in a way that offers benefits to the speaker and to yourself. Evaluating a Speech CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATING A SPEECH What was said? 1. What type of speech was given—expository, persuasive, entertaining, or extemporaneous? 2. Did the speaker introduce the topic clearly, develop it well, and end in a conclusive fashion? 3. Did the speaker support main ideas with appropriate details? How was it said? 1. Did the speaker approach the platform confidently and establish eye contact with the audience? 2. Did the speaker’s gestures and movements confirm or contradict his or her own words? Where? How? 3. Did the speaker project his or her voice loudly enough? 4. Did the speaker vary the pitch of his or her voice? 5. Did the speaker vary the rate of his or her speaking? 6. Did the speaker pronounce all words clearly and correctly?
    • Public Debate The Nature of Debate Debate is a formal public discussion in which opposing sides use reasoned argument to arrive at a decision with one side of the winner.
    • State the Proposition. Example: Resolved, that the current ten-month school year be lengthened to eleven months.
    • Two Sides of Debate Affirmative Negative The affirmative upholds the proposition by demanding that the status quo, the present situation, be changed. The affirmative has the responsibility of proving that a problem exists and that its plan will work better than any other to solve the problem. This responsibility for proving the proposition is true is called the affirmative’s burden of proof. The negative presents arguments to disprove or refute the attacks on the status quo made by the affirmative. The negative has the responsibility of proving that the present system or status quo is satisfactory or that the plan the affirmative proposes is not workable.
    • Preparing to Debate Prepare debate by analyzing the proposition, preparing sound evidence and reasoning, and working with you partner to build the case. Analyze the Proposition ANALYZING THE PROPOSITION 1. Are there any problems being created by the status quo? 2. What, other approach, if any, is available to solve the problems? Is the approach feasible? Practical? Too costly? 3. Are there any disadvantages to another solutions 4. Why is the proposed solution the best of those offered? Prepare Evidence Use Reasoning
    • 1. Induction is reasoning from specific instances to general principles. Induction relies on evidence – facts, statistics, examples – that point to a logical conclusion. EVIDENCE: Statistics show that seatbelts save lives. EVIDENCE: In 1985, states with seat-belts laws had fewer traffic accident fatalities. CONCLUSION: Therefore, all states should have seat-belt laws. 2. Deduction is reasoning from general principles to specific instances. It is a way of applying known principles to new evidence to arrive at a logical conclusion. Deduction uses a form of reasoning called syllogism. A syllogism uses three statements – a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. An example on the following page uses a syllogism. MAJOR PREMISE: All dinosaurs are extinct. MINOR PREMISE: The brontosaurus is a dinosaur. CONCLUSION: The brontosaurus is extinct. Methods of Reasoning
    • 3. Cause and effect is a method of reasoning showing that one condition or event is brought about by another. You may start with the cause and reason to the effect, showing that one event will cause another event. You may also reason from effect to cause, showing first an effect and then its cause. CAUSE TO EFFECT: Mortgage rates have increased. As a result, fewer young couples can afford to buy their first house. EFFECT TO CAUSE: Fewer young couples can afford to buy their first house because of the increase in the mortgage rates.
    • Build a Case. In debate a case is a team’s total argument on a proposition. After you have analyzed the proposition and gathered strong evidence, you are ready to build a case. Work with your partner to build a brief or a complete outline of your case. One way to do this is to gather all your evidence cards and write an outline from them. Another way is to use the cards as an outline by numbering the individual pieces of evidence on each card in the order you plan to present them.
    • Holding a Debate In a debate each team must present a strong case and refute the oppositions’ arguments as well. DEBATE STRATEGIES First Affirmative Speaker 1. States the debate proposition 2. Defines key terms 3. Shows the need for change in the status quo Second Affirmative Speaker 1. Presents the affirmative side’s plan for change 2. Shows advantages of the plan 3. Summarizes the affirmative’s case First Negative Speaker 1. Confirms or redefines the affirmative’s definitions 2. Refutes the affirmative’s argument about a need for change Second Negative Speaker 1. Attacks the affirmative’s plan 2. Refutes the advantages of the affirmative’s plan
    • After the affirmative and negative sides have presented their arguments, they begin rebuttals. Rebuttals give each side a chance to refute the opposition’s arguments and to answer objections to its own case. During this part of a debate, the order of the speakers is reversed so that the negative speaks first. This is done so that the affirmative has an opportunity to make both the opening and the closing remarks.
    • Listening Skills Improving Your Listening Skills Learn to take mental and written notes on main ideas and major details as you listens.
    • LISTENING FOR MAIN IDEAS 1. Listen carefully to the beginning statements of the speaker and to the points the speaker emphasizes, repeats, and enumerates. 2. Visualize the main ideas. Restate them in your own words. 3. Decide whether the speaker’s examples, definitions, facts, and statistics support the main ideas you have in mind. LISTENING FOR MAJOR DETAILS 1. As you listen, ask yourself what makes each main idea true. Keep the details that answer that question in mind. 2. Try to predict details the speaker will mention. 3. Try to link the main ideas and supporting details into some sort of visual pattern
    • VERBAL SIGNALS Introduction we will discuss open your books to today’s lecture covers let’s look first at Main Ideas a point to be made of major importance make note of remember that let me repeat I want to stress Change in Direction next turning now to let us move on to however on the other hand even though Major Details for instance the following reasons for example in support of namely that is to say Conclusion finally in conclusion in the last point in summation in brief all in all
    • Nonverbal Language. In addition to verbal signals, a speaker may alert you to maid ideas, changes in direction, and the conclusion by movements and gestures. A speaker often reinforces words by speaking more loudly, raising an arm, approaching the audience, allowing down, or speeding up. NOTE-TAKING AID 1. Have your notebook and pen or pencil ready. Label the top of each page with the date, subject, and topic. 2. Write down only main ideas and supporting details in your own words. Underline main ideas. 3. Write down anything that the speaker says is important or is something you will need to know. 4. Write notes in short phrases, using abbreviations and symbols. 5. Summarize sections of notes with a main idea statement to make it easy to find when you review. STEPS TO HELP YOU UNDERSTAND DIRECTIONS 1. Prepare to concentrate. 2. Visualize each step in the directions. Ask yourself questions about how you would follow the directions. 3. After hearing the directions, repeat them mentally. 4. Ask to have the directions repeated if they are unclear. 5. Take notes if the directions are long and complicated.