Chapter 4 periodic table
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Chapter 4 periodic table Chapter 4 periodic table Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 4 PERIODIC TABLE
  • 4.1 THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
    • You have learn that our earth consist of many types of elements
    • Can you give some examples of element?
    • Yes! Oxygen,carbon, zinc, aluminium, helium…
    • all these are elements
  • Why we learn elements? Are they important to us? Let’s take a look for the uses of some elements !!
    • 1. Cu, Al pure metals in the form of wires are used for carrying electrical currents.
    • 2. Fe, Al, Cu metals are used to make utensils used for cooking.  
    • 3. Hg is used in thermometers
    • 4. Zn is used for galvanizing iron to protect Fe from rusting. 
    • 5.   NaCl, KCl are widely used as salts
    • 6.   Na compounds are used for making soaps, washing soda and detergents.  
    • 7.   Na bicarbonate is used for baking, in medicines, etc.
    • 8.   Ca compounds are used for making cement, bleaching powders, plaster of Paris, etc.
  • Let’s play BINGO!!
  • Rules: - Winner in every round could earn 15 points - You can refer to elements list while writing symbol - You must state the full name of elements while playing - Those who can state full name of elements in whole one game could earn 5 points - The final winner is those who earn 50 points
  • Cl Sn Na Br Fe Zn K Ag Pb Mg H He Ar Cu Al Be N B P I Ne Si Ca S O
  • Scientist had discover hundreds types of elements in this earth. So can you guess how these elements been arranged in order to let us easier to recognise them?
  • Examples of modern periodic table
  • Yes! They’re arranged in periodic table But remember, periodic table was formed in many years and developed by a few chemist in different ways.
  •  
  • Who began the discovery of periodic table ??
  • 1. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794AD)
    • First scientist to classify substances
    • Classify them including light & heat into metals and nonmetals
    • Failed
    • Reason: light & heat
    • are not element
  • 2. Johann Dobereiner (1780-1849AD)
    • In 1829, divided the element into three groups with similar properties
    • Give the idea that there was a relationship between chemical properties with atomic mass
  • 3. John Newlands (1837-1898AD)
    • classified the 56 established elements into 11 groups based on physical properties
    • Discover that elements with similar properties repeated every 8 elements
    • LAW OF OCTAVES
  • 4. Lother Meyer (1830-1895AD)
    • Plotted a graph of atomic volume against atomic mass
    • Successful in showing similar chemical properties form a periodic pattern against their atomic mass
  • 5. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907AD)
    • Rearrange the elements in order of increasing atomic mass
    • Group them according
    • to their similar chemical
    • properties
    • Success to predict the
    • undiscovered elements !!
  • 6. Henry J.G. Moseley (1887-1915AD)
    • Studied the X-ray spectrum of elements
    • Conclusion: proton number should be the basis in periodic arrange
    • Rearrange the elements in order of increasing proton number
  •  
  • MOVIE Cute girl
  • From this modern periodic table, can you find out what basic principle in arranging elements?
  • Answer : all elements arranged in order of increasing proton number
  •  
  • METALS NON-METALS
  • Conclusion: Left side -Group 1-13  metals Right side -Group 14-18  non - metals
  • Period  1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Period 
    • The maximum electrons in the 1 st shell = 2 e -
    • The maximum electrons in the 2 nd shell = 8 e-
    • The maximum electrons in the 3 rd shell = 8 e-
    1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5
  • Conclusion: - number of electron shells = period - 2 electron shells = period 2 - 3 electron shells = period 3 - 2.8.8.1 = period 4
  • Group Q1 Example 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • Group 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • Group 1 Li (2.1) Na (2.8.1) K (2.8.8.1) Rb (2.8.18.8.1) Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) Fr (2.8.18.32.18.8.1) back All elements in Group 1 has 1 valence electron 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • Group 2 back All elements in Group 2 has 2 valence electrons Be (2.2) Mg (2.8.2) Ca (2.8.8.2) Sr (2.8.18.8.2) Ba (2.8.18.18.8.2) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • Group 13 back All elements in Group 1 3 has 3 valence electrons B (2.3) Al (2.8.3) Ga (2.8.18.3) In (2.8.18.8.3) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • Group 17 back All elements in Group 17 has 7 valence electrons F (2.7) Cl (2.8.7) Br (2.8.18.7) I (2.8.18.8.7) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • Group 18 back He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Kr (2.8.18.8) All elements in Group 18 has 8 valence electrons Except Helium 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • Conclusion: - number of valence electrons = group - 2 valence electrons = Group 2 - 3 valence electrons = Group 13 - 2.8.7 = Group 17
  • Example: -proton number = 6 -number of electron= 6 -electron arrangement=2.4 -LOCATION in periodic table: period 2 (2 electron shells) group 14 (4 electron valence) Refer PT C 12 6
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Refer PT Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Refer PT Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3 7
  • Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3 7 17
  • Try out this !!
  • Q2 Fill in the blanks Ele-ment Proton number Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group H 1 He 2 Ca 20 O 8 P 15 B 5
  • Q2 Check your answers Proton number Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group H 1 1 1 1 1 1 He 2 2 1 1 2 18 Ca 20 2.8.8.2 4 4 2 2 O 8 2.6 2 2 6 16 P 15 2.8.5 3 3 5 15 B 5 2.3 2 2 3 13
  • Q3 Write the location of elements below in periodic table of elements 40 18 Ar 14 7 N 32 16 S
  • Q3 Check out your answer Given in periodic table Period 3 Group 18 40 18 Ar Period 2 Group 15 14 7 N Period 3 Group 16 32 16 S
  • 4.2 Group 18 Elements Noble Gas
    • Consists of helium (He),
    • neon (Ne),
    • argon (Ar),
    • krypton (Kr),
    • xenon (Xe), and
    • radon (Rn).
    • Known as noble gases
    • They are monoatomic
    next
  • Monoatomic
    • Exist as individual
    • Mono- means one
    • Monoatomic – one atom
    back #71. Slide 71
  • Group 18 back All elements in Group 18 has 8 valence electrons Except Helium He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Kr (2.8.18.8) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Argon Krypton Xenon
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Krypton Xenon
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Xenon
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  • Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  • Boiling Point/K Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107 -112
  • next Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107 -112
  • He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Group 18 back
    • When elements
    • going down the
    • group 18
    • The electron shells
    • become more
    • Due to the
    • increasing of
    • atomic radius
    • The animation above schematically shows how van der Waals forces are induced.
    • Van der Waals forces are found in molecules,
    • such as hydrogen gas (H 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), and in the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, )
    • The bigger the molecule, the stronger the van der Waals
    back
    • 1.Insoluble in water
    • 2.do not conduct electricity or heat (not metals)
    Physical Properties of Group 18 elements
    • 3.Low melting and boiling points but increase when going down the group.
    • Reason:
    • -the size of the atoms increases down the group,
    • -the Van der Waals’ force of attraction become stronger.
  •  
    • 4. Low densities but increases down the group
    • Reason:
    • Increasing in the relative atomic mass of the element
  •  
  • MOVIE Drift
  • MOVIE Car1
    • All noble gases are inert which means chemically unreactive .
    • Helium has 2 valence electrons (duplet electron arrangement)
    Chemical Properties of Group 18 Elements
    • The other noble gases have 8 valence electrons
    • (octet electron arrangement)
    • These electron arrangement are very stable
    • **Reason: the outermost shell has fully occupied by electrons
    • Therefore, they do not need to gain, lose or share electrons with other elements.
    • Exist as monoatomic gases.
  • Uses of Noble Gases
    • Helium
    • Fill airships and weather balloons
    • Used as superconductors
    • Used by divers
  • MOVIE Helium girl
  • MOVIE Helium boy
    • Neon
    • Used in advertising lights and television tubes.
    • Argon
    • Used to fill light bulbs
    • Used in welding
    • Krypton
    • Used in laser to repair the retina of the eye.
    • Used to fill photo graphic flash lamp.
    • Xenon
    • Used for making electron tubes stroboscopic lamps.
    • Used in bubble chambers in atomic energy reactors
    • Radon
    • Used in the treatment of cancer
  • 4.3 GROUP 1 ALKALI METALS
  • Group 1 name: alkali metal
    • Lithium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Rubidium
    • Caesium
    • Francium
  • Electron arrangement
    • Li (2.1)
    • Na (2.8.1)
    • K (2.8.8.1)
    • Rb (2.8.18.8.1)
    • Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1)
    • Fr (2.8.18.32.18.8.1)
    • Same number of
    • valence electron
    • Same chemical
    • properties
  •  
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Caecium
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  • next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs
  • next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26 678 28
  • next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26 678 28
  • Electron arrangement
    • Li (2.1)
    • Na (2.8.1)
    • K (2.8.8.1)
    • When elements
    • going down the
    • group 1
    • The electron shells
    • become more
    • increasing of
    • atomic radius
    back
  • 1. Physical properties
    • Low melting points
    • Silvery and shiny surfaces
    • Good conductors of heat and electricity
    • Soft metals with low densities
  • How soft the alkali metals are?
    • Li (2.1)
    • Na (2.8.1)
    • K (2.8.8.1)
    • Rb (2.8.18.8.1)
    • Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1)
  • Before we study the chemical properties, draw out the table first! Alkali Metals Reacts with water Reacts with Oxygen gas Reacts with chlorine gas Lithium / Li Sodium / Na Potassium / K
  • 2. Chemical properties - Have similar chemical properties, why? - answer: all have one valence electron A . water B. Oxygen C . Chlorine - All of alkali metals could reacts with: Next to reactivity
  • A . Alkali metals react with water
    • Lithium with water
    • Sodium with water
    • Potassium with water
  • Chemical properties
    • Observations:
    • Word equation:
    • Alkali metal + water  alkaline metal hydroxide solution +hydrogen gas
    • Chemical equation:
    • 2Li + 2H 2 O  2LiOH + H 2
    • 2Na + 2H 2 O  2NaOH + H 2
    • 2K + 2H 2 O  2KOH + H 2
  • B. Alkali metals react with Oxygen
    • Lithium with oxygen (observation)
    • Sodium with oxygen (observation)
    • Potassium with oxygen (observation)
    • **refer to CD ROM
    • Observations:
    • Word equations:
    • 1. Alkali metals + Oxygen  white solid metal oxides
    • 2. metal oxides + water  alkaline metal
    • hydroxide solutions
    • Chemistry equations:
    • 4M + O 2  2M 2 O
    • M 2 O + H 2 O  2MOH
    Chemical properties
  • Observation : Reaction with oxygen
    • Lithium burns slowly with a red-flame
    • forms white solid (lithium oxide)
    • 4 Li + O 2  2Li 2 O
    • Lithium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution
    • Li 2 O + H 2 O  2LiOH
  • Observation : Reaction with oxygen
    • sodium burns rapidly with yellow flame.
    • forms white solid (sodium oxide)
    • 4 Na + O 2  2Na 2 O
    • Sodium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution
    • Na 2 O + H 2 O  2NaOH
  • Observation :
    • potassium burns very rapidly & brightly with a lilac flame
    • Form white solid (potassium oxide)
    • 4 K + O 2  2K 2 O
    • Potassium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution
    • K 2 O + H 2 O  2KOH
    Reaction with oxygen
  • C. Alkali metals react with Chlorine
    • Lithium with chlorine (observation)
    • Sodium with chlorine (observation)
    • Potassium with chlorine (observation)
    • Animation 1
    • Animation 2
    • Observations:
    • Word equations:
    • 1. Alkali metals + Chlorine  white solid metal oxides
    • Chemistry equations:
    • 2M + Cl 2  2MCl
    Chemical properties
  • Observation :
    • Lithium burns slowly with a red-flame
    • forms white solid (lithium chloride)
    • 2Li + Cl 2  2LiCl
    C. Reaction with chlorine
  • Observation : C. Reaction with chlorine
    • sodium burn rapidly with a yellow flame.
    • forms white solid (sodium chloride)
    • 2 Na + Cl 2  2NaCl
  • Observation :
    • potassium burn very rapidly & brightly with a lilac flame
    • Form white solid (potassium chloride)
    • 2 K + Cl 2  2KCl
    C. Reaction with chlorine
  • MOVIE CEMENT
  • MOVIE CRASHPROOF
  • The Chemical properties of alkali metls are SAME but Reactivity DIFFEREFENCE
  • What is the trend of their reactivity when going down the Group 1?
    • Li (2.1)
    • Na (2.8.1)
    • K (2.8.8.1)
    • Rb (2.8.18.8.1)
    • Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1)
    • ** movie
  • The trend of their reactivity when going down the Group 1 is …….
    • Li (2.1)
    • Na (2.8.1)
    • K (2.8.8.1)
    • Rb (2.8.18.8.1)
    • Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1)
    Becomes more reactive BUT WHY?? slow faster Very fast
  • Q: Why reactivity of Group 1 increase when going down the group?
    • A:
    • When the atomic size increases
    • The valence electron is more further away from the nucleus
    • attraction between nucleus & valence electron weaker
    • easier for atom to release valence electron
  • Safety precautions in handling Group 1 elements
    • Extremely reactive
    • Li, Na & K must be stored in paraffin oil in bottles
    • Use forceps to take alkali metals
    • To wear safety goggles & gloves
    • Only a small piece is used
    • Rubidium and caesium are normally stored in sealed glass tubes to prevent air getting at them.
    • They are stored either in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere of, say, argon .
    • The tubes are broken open when the metal is used.
    dO yOu KnOw ?
    • Lithium is used to make batteries.
    • Sodium is required by our nerves and muscles. It is present in almost everything which we eat. Table salt is Sodium Chloride.
    • Potassium is also required by nerves and muscles. It is also present in almost everything we eat.
    Uses of alkali metals
  • Thank you!
  • 4.4 GROUP 17 HALOGENS
  •  
  • Group 17 name: HALOGEN
    • Fluorine
    • Chlorine
    • Bromine
    • Iodine
    • Astatine
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    • Exist as diatomic
    • Di- double
    • Diatomic – double atoms
    • Examples:
    • Fluorine – F 2
    • Chlorine – Cl 2
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  • GROUP 17 HALOGENS A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES B. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES C. REACTIVITY GOING DOWN THE GROUP
  • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  • Pale yellow Purple solid brownish Yellow greenish White solid
  • fluorine chlorine iodine bromine
  • Metal pin Solid iodine
  • Solid iodine Metal plate
  • Solid iodine vaporises
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  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Chlorine Iodine Astatine
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Iodine Astatine
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine Astatine
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I Astatine As
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 184 114 Astatine As 85 - - -
  • Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 184 114 Astatine As 85 - - -
  • When going down the group :
    • Atomic size increasing
    • Reason: electron shells increase
    • 2. Boiling point & melting point increasing
    • Reason:
    • - when atomic size increase
    • - the attraction force between molecules become stronger
    • - Thus, more heat is needed to overcome the attraction force
    halogen
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  • Electron arrangement
    • F 2 (2.7)
    • Cl 2 (2.8.7)
    • Br 2 (2.8.18.7)
    • I 2 (2.8.18.18.7)
    • At 2 (2.8.18.32.18.7)
    • Same number of
    • valence electron
    • Same chemical
    • properties
  • High Electronegativity - which means the strength of its atom in a molecule to pull electrons towards in nucleus
  • 2. Chemical properties - Have similar chemical properties, why? - Answer:all have seven valence electrons A . water B. alkali C. Iron metal - All of alkali metals could reacts with: Next to reactivity
  • A . Halogens react with water
    • chlorine with water
    • bromine with water
    • iodine with water
    Cl 2 + H 2 O  HCl + HOCl Chlorine water hydrochloric hydrochlorus acid acid Chemical properties
  • Br 2 + H 2 O  HBr + HOBr Bromine water hydrobromic hypobromus acid acid I 2 + H 2 O  HI + HOI Iodine water hydroiodic hypoiodus acid acid Chemical properties
    • chlorine with sodium hydroxide
    • bromine with sodium hydrocide
    • iodine with sodium hydroxide
    B . Halogens react with Alkali Cl 2 + 2NaOH  NaCl + NaOCl + H 2 O Chlorine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide chloride chlorate(I)
  • Br 2 + 2NaOH  NaBr + NaOBr + H 2 O Bromine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide bromide bromate(I) I 2 + 2NaOH  NaI + NaOI + H 2 O Iodine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide iodide iodate(I) Chemical properties
  • C . Halogens react with Iron
    • chlorine with iron
    • bromine with iron
    • iodine with iron
    3Cl 2 + 2Fe  2FeCl 3 Chlorine Iron Iron (III) chloride
  • 2Br 2 + 3Fe  2FeBr 3 Bromine Iron Iron (III) bromide 2I 2 + 3Fe  2FeI 3 Iodine Iron Iron (III) iodide
  • Observations : halogen
  • Observations : halogen
  • Observations : halogen
    • All atoms of halogens have 7 valence electrons.
    • So, all halogens exhibit similar chemical properties.
    • But they differ in reactivity.
    Reactivity of halogens
    • The atomic size increases when going down group 17
    • the outermost occupied shell becomes further away from the nucleus.
    • so, the attraction of the nucleus to outer electron become weaker
    • the strength of nucleus to attract 1 more electron decreases
    • This causes the reactivity of halogens decrease when going down Group 17.
    • A: when going down the Group 17,
    • Atomic size become bigger
    • Attraction between nucleus and outer electron become weaker
    • More difficult to gain electron
    • Less reactive
    Q: Why reactivity of Group 17 decreases going down the group?
  • Safety precautions in handling Group 17 elements:
    • Fluorine gas, chlorine gas and bromine vapour are poisonous.
    • Iodine vapour is harmful to the respiratory system of living things including human beings.
    • Safety precautions must be taken when handling halogens:
    • Handle halogens in the fume chamber.
    • Wear safety goggles.
    • Wear gloves.
  • Q: Compare the reactivity between Group 1 and Group 17 when going down the group Group 1 Group 17
    • 2.1
    • 2.8.1
    • Need to release one e - to achieve stable e- arrangement
    • 2.7
    • 2.8.7
    • Need to gain one e - to achieve stable e- arrangement
    • When going down the group:
    • Atomic size bigger
    • Attraction between nucleus and outer electron become weaker
    • easier to realese electron
    • When going down the group:
    • Atomic size bigger
    • Attraction between nucleus and electron become weaker
    • More difficult to gain electron
    More reactive Less reactive
  • 4.6 Transition Metal
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  • The position in the Periodic Table
    • In Group 3 to Group 12
    • of the Periodic Table
  • Physical Properties of Transition Elements
    • All transition elements are metals.
    • They are solids with shiny surfaces .
    • They are ductile and malleable .
    • They have high tensile strength.
    • They have high melting and boiling points.
    • They have high densities.
    • They are good conductors of electricity and heat.
  • The first-row Transition Metals
  • **Special Characteristic of Transition Elements
    • Form coloured ions/compounds
  • Colours of some of the first-row Transition Metal ions in solution
    • (2) Exhibit different oxidation
    • numbers in compounds
    • (3) Form complex ions
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    • (4) Act as catalysts
  • Uses of some Transition Metals
    • Titanium is used in aircraft construction
    • The filament of an electric light bulb is made from tungsten
    • A chromium-plated teapot
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  • Fireworks
    • Made by mixing gunpowder (mixture of potassium nitrate. Sulphur and charcoal) with different salts of transition metals
    • The colorful display shown by the fireworks is due to the presence of different salts of transition elements
    • Difference in colour of people’s hair is due to the presence of different transition metals compounds.
    • Common brown hair contains compounds of iron, cobalt and copper.
    • Red hair contains molybdenum compounds and blonde hair contains titanium compounds.
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