Chapter 4 periodic table

4,414 views
4,199 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Sports
1 Comment
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • This is really helpful! Thank you so much
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,414
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
133
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
362
Comments
1
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 4 periodic table

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 PERIODIC TABLE
  2. 2. 4.1 THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
  3. 3. <ul><li>You have learn that our earth consist of many types of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give some examples of element? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes! Oxygen,carbon, zinc, aluminium, helium… </li></ul><ul><li>all these are elements </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why we learn elements? Are they important to us? Let’s take a look for the uses of some elements !!
  5. 5. <ul><li>1. Cu, Al pure metals in the form of wires are used for carrying electrical currents. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fe, Al, Cu metals are used to make utensils used for cooking.   </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hg is used in thermometers </li></ul><ul><li>4. Zn is used for galvanizing iron to protect Fe from rusting.  </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>5.   NaCl, KCl are widely used as salts </li></ul><ul><li>6.   Na compounds are used for making soaps, washing soda and detergents.   </li></ul><ul><li>7.   Na bicarbonate is used for baking, in medicines, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>8.   Ca compounds are used for making cement, bleaching powders, plaster of Paris, etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Let’s play BINGO!!
  8. 8. Rules: - Winner in every round could earn 15 points - You can refer to elements list while writing symbol - You must state the full name of elements while playing - Those who can state full name of elements in whole one game could earn 5 points - The final winner is those who earn 50 points
  9. 9. Cl Sn Na Br Fe Zn K Ag Pb Mg H He Ar Cu Al Be N B P I Ne Si Ca S O
  10. 10. Scientist had discover hundreds types of elements in this earth. So can you guess how these elements been arranged in order to let us easier to recognise them?
  11. 11. Examples of modern periodic table
  12. 12. Yes! They’re arranged in periodic table But remember, periodic table was formed in many years and developed by a few chemist in different ways.
  13. 14. Who began the discovery of periodic table ??
  14. 15. 1. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794AD) <ul><li>First scientist to classify substances </li></ul><ul><li>Classify them including light & heat into metals and nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Failed </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: light & heat </li></ul><ul><li>are not element </li></ul>
  15. 16. 2. Johann Dobereiner (1780-1849AD) <ul><li>In 1829, divided the element into three groups with similar properties </li></ul><ul><li>Give the idea that there was a relationship between chemical properties with atomic mass </li></ul>
  16. 17. 3. John Newlands (1837-1898AD) <ul><li>classified the 56 established elements into 11 groups based on physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Discover that elements with similar properties repeated every 8 elements </li></ul><ul><li>LAW OF OCTAVES </li></ul>
  17. 18. 4. Lother Meyer (1830-1895AD) <ul><li>Plotted a graph of atomic volume against atomic mass </li></ul><ul><li>Successful in showing similar chemical properties form a periodic pattern against their atomic mass </li></ul>
  18. 19. 5. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907AD) <ul><li>Rearrange the elements in order of increasing atomic mass </li></ul><ul><li>Group them according </li></ul><ul><li>to their similar chemical </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul><ul><li>Success to predict the </li></ul><ul><li>undiscovered elements !! </li></ul>
  19. 20. 6. Henry J.G. Moseley (1887-1915AD) <ul><li>Studied the X-ray spectrum of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: proton number should be the basis in periodic arrange </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange the elements in order of increasing proton number </li></ul>
  20. 22. MOVIE Cute girl
  21. 23. From this modern periodic table, can you find out what basic principle in arranging elements?
  22. 24. Answer : all elements arranged in order of increasing proton number
  23. 26. METALS NON-METALS
  24. 27. Conclusion: Left side -Group 1-13  metals Right side -Group 14-18  non - metals
  25. 28. Period  1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  26. 29. Period  <ul><li>The maximum electrons in the 1 st shell = 2 e - </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum electrons in the 2 nd shell = 8 e- </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum electrons in the 3 rd shell = 8 e- </li></ul>1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5
  27. 30. Conclusion: - number of electron shells = period - 2 electron shells = period 2 - 3 electron shells = period 3 - 2.8.8.1 = period 4
  28. 31. Group Q1 Example 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  29. 32. Group 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  30. 33. Group 1 Li (2.1) Na (2.8.1) K (2.8.8.1) Rb (2.8.18.8.1) Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) Fr (2.8.18.32.18.8.1) back All elements in Group 1 has 1 valence electron 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  31. 34. Group 2 back All elements in Group 2 has 2 valence electrons Be (2.2) Mg (2.8.2) Ca (2.8.8.2) Sr (2.8.18.8.2) Ba (2.8.18.18.8.2) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  32. 35. Group 13 back All elements in Group 1 3 has 3 valence electrons B (2.3) Al (2.8.3) Ga (2.8.18.3) In (2.8.18.8.3) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  33. 36. Group 17 back All elements in Group 17 has 7 valence electrons F (2.7) Cl (2.8.7) Br (2.8.18.7) I (2.8.18.8.7) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  34. 37. Group 18 back He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Kr (2.8.18.8) All elements in Group 18 has 8 valence electrons Except Helium 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  35. 38. Conclusion: - number of valence electrons = group - 2 valence electrons = Group 2 - 3 valence electrons = Group 13 - 2.8.7 = Group 17
  36. 39. Example: -proton number = 6 -number of electron= 6 -electron arrangement=2.4 -LOCATION in periodic table: period 2 (2 electron shells) group 14 (4 electron valence) Refer PT C 12 6
  37. 40. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  38. 41. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  39. 42. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  40. 43. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  41. 44. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  42. 45. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  43. 46. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  44. 47. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  45. 48. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  46. 49. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  47. 50. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  48. 51. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  49. 52. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Refer PT Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  50. 53. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Refer PT Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  51. 54. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  52. 55. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  53. 56. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  54. 57. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 Cl 2.8.7
  55. 58. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 Cl 2.8.7
  56. 59. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 Cl 2.8.7
  57. 60. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7
  58. 61. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3
  59. 62. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3
  60. 63. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3 7
  61. 64. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3 7 17
  62. 65. Try out this !!
  63. 66. Q2 Fill in the blanks Ele-ment Proton number Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group H 1 He 2 Ca 20 O 8 P 15 B 5
  64. 67. Q2 Check your answers Proton number Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group H 1 1 1 1 1 1 He 2 2 1 1 2 18 Ca 20 2.8.8.2 4 4 2 2 O 8 2.6 2 2 6 16 P 15 2.8.5 3 3 5 15 B 5 2.3 2 2 3 13
  65. 68. Q3 Write the location of elements below in periodic table of elements 40 18 Ar 14 7 N 32 16 S
  66. 69. Q3 Check out your answer Given in periodic table Period 3 Group 18 40 18 Ar Period 2 Group 15 14 7 N Period 3 Group 16 32 16 S
  67. 70. 4.2 Group 18 Elements Noble Gas
  68. 71. <ul><li>Consists of helium (He), </li></ul><ul><li>neon (Ne), </li></ul><ul><li>argon (Ar), </li></ul><ul><li>krypton (Kr), </li></ul><ul><li>xenon (Xe), and </li></ul><ul><li>radon (Rn). </li></ul><ul><li>Known as noble gases </li></ul><ul><li>They are monoatomic </li></ul>next
  69. 72. Monoatomic <ul><li>Exist as individual </li></ul><ul><li>Mono- means one </li></ul><ul><li>Monoatomic – one atom </li></ul>back #71. Slide 71
  70. 73. Group 18 back All elements in Group 18 has 8 valence electrons Except Helium He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Kr (2.8.18.8) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  71. 74. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Argon Krypton Xenon
  72. 75. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Krypton Xenon
  73. 76. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Xenon
  74. 77. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon
  75. 78. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  76. 79. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  77. 80. Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  78. 81. Boiling Point/K Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  79. 82. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe
  80. 83. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  81. 84. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  82. 85. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  83. 86. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  84. 87. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  85. 88. Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54
  86. 89. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  87. 90. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  88. 91. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  89. 92. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  90. 93. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  91. 94. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  92. 95. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  93. 96. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  94. 97. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  95. 98. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  96. 99. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  97. 100. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107 -112
  98. 101. next Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107 -112
  99. 102. He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Group 18 back <ul><li>When elements </li></ul><ul><li>going down the </li></ul><ul><li>group 18 </li></ul><ul><li>The electron shells </li></ul><ul><li>become more </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the </li></ul><ul><li>increasing of </li></ul><ul><li>atomic radius </li></ul>
  100. 103. <ul><li>The animation above schematically shows how van der Waals forces are induced. </li></ul><ul><li>Van der Waals forces are found in molecules, </li></ul>
  101. 104. <ul><li>such as hydrogen gas (H 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), and in the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, ) </li></ul><ul><li>The bigger the molecule, the stronger the van der Waals </li></ul>back
  102. 105. <ul><li>1.Insoluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>2.do not conduct electricity or heat (not metals) </li></ul>Physical Properties of Group 18 elements
  103. 106. <ul><li>3.Low melting and boiling points but increase when going down the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>-the size of the atoms increases down the group, </li></ul><ul><li>-the Van der Waals’ force of attraction become stronger. </li></ul>
  104. 108. <ul><li>4. Low densities but increases down the group </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing in the relative atomic mass of the element </li></ul>
  105. 110. MOVIE Drift
  106. 111. MOVIE Car1
  107. 112. <ul><li>All noble gases are inert which means chemically unreactive . </li></ul><ul><li>Helium has 2 valence electrons (duplet electron arrangement) </li></ul>Chemical Properties of Group 18 Elements
  108. 113. <ul><li>The other noble gases have 8 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>(octet electron arrangement) </li></ul><ul><li>These electron arrangement are very stable </li></ul><ul><li>**Reason: the outermost shell has fully occupied by electrons </li></ul>
  109. 114. <ul><li>Therefore, they do not need to gain, lose or share electrons with other elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Exist as monoatomic gases. </li></ul>
  110. 115. Uses of Noble Gases
  111. 116. <ul><li>Helium </li></ul><ul><li>Fill airships and weather balloons </li></ul><ul><li>Used as superconductors </li></ul><ul><li>Used by divers </li></ul>
  112. 117. MOVIE Helium girl
  113. 118. MOVIE Helium boy
  114. 119. <ul><li>Neon </li></ul><ul><li>Used in advertising lights and television tubes. </li></ul>
  115. 120. <ul><li>Argon </li></ul><ul><li>Used to fill light bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Used in welding </li></ul>
  116. 121. <ul><li>Krypton </li></ul><ul><li>Used in laser to repair the retina of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to fill photo graphic flash lamp. </li></ul>
  117. 122. <ul><li>Xenon </li></ul><ul><li>Used for making electron tubes stroboscopic lamps. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in bubble chambers in atomic energy reactors </li></ul>
  118. 123. <ul><li>Radon </li></ul><ul><li>Used in the treatment of cancer </li></ul>
  119. 124. 4.3 GROUP 1 ALKALI METALS
  120. 125. Group 1 name: alkali metal <ul><li>Lithium </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Rubidium </li></ul><ul><li>Caesium </li></ul><ul><li>Francium </li></ul>
  121. 126. Electron arrangement <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rb (2.8.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Fr (2.8.18.32.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Same number of </li></ul><ul><li>valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>Same chemical </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul>
  122. 128. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  123. 129. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  124. 130. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  125. 131. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Caecium
  126. 132. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium
  127. 133. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  128. 134. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  129. 135. next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  130. 136. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  131. 137. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs
  132. 138. next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  133. 139. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  134. 140. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  135. 141. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  136. 142. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  137. 143. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55
  138. 144. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  139. 145. next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  140. 146. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  141. 147. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  142. 148. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  143. 149. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  144. 150. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26 678 28
  145. 151. next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26 678 28
  146. 152. Electron arrangement <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>When elements </li></ul><ul><li>going down the </li></ul><ul><li>group 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The electron shells </li></ul><ul><li>become more </li></ul><ul><li>increasing of </li></ul><ul><li>atomic radius </li></ul>back
  147. 153. 1. Physical properties <ul><li>Low melting points </li></ul><ul><li>Silvery and shiny surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Good conductors of heat and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Soft metals with low densities </li></ul>
  148. 154. How soft the alkali metals are? <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rb (2.8.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) </li></ul>
  149. 155. Before we study the chemical properties, draw out the table first! Alkali Metals Reacts with water Reacts with Oxygen gas Reacts with chlorine gas Lithium / Li Sodium / Na Potassium / K
  150. 156. 2. Chemical properties - Have similar chemical properties, why? - answer: all have one valence electron A . water B. Oxygen C . Chlorine - All of alkali metals could reacts with: Next to reactivity
  151. 157. A . Alkali metals react with water <ul><li>Lithium with water </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium with water </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium with water </li></ul>
  152. 158. Chemical properties <ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><li>Word equation: </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali metal + water  alkaline metal hydroxide solution +hydrogen gas </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical equation: </li></ul><ul><li>2Li + 2H 2 O  2LiOH + H 2 </li></ul><ul><li> 2Na + 2H 2 O  2NaOH + H 2 </li></ul><ul><li> 2K + 2H 2 O  2KOH + H 2 </li></ul>
  153. 159. B. Alkali metals react with Oxygen <ul><li>Lithium with oxygen (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium with oxygen (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium with oxygen (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>**refer to CD ROM </li></ul>
  154. 160. <ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><li>Word equations: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alkali metals + Oxygen  white solid metal oxides </li></ul><ul><li>2. metal oxides + water  alkaline metal </li></ul><ul><li> hydroxide solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry equations: </li></ul><ul><li>4M + O 2  2M 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>M 2 O + H 2 O  2MOH </li></ul>Chemical properties
  155. 161. Observation : Reaction with oxygen <ul><li>Lithium burns slowly with a red-flame </li></ul><ul><li>forms white solid (lithium oxide) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Li + O 2  2Li 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Lithium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution </li></ul><ul><li>Li 2 O + H 2 O  2LiOH </li></ul>
  156. 162. Observation : Reaction with oxygen <ul><li>sodium burns rapidly with yellow flame. </li></ul><ul><li>forms white solid (sodium oxide) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Na + O 2  2Na 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution </li></ul><ul><li>Na 2 O + H 2 O  2NaOH </li></ul>
  157. 163. Observation : <ul><li>potassium burns very rapidly & brightly with a lilac flame </li></ul><ul><li>Form white solid (potassium oxide) </li></ul><ul><li>4 K + O 2  2K 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution </li></ul><ul><li>K 2 O + H 2 O  2KOH </li></ul>Reaction with oxygen
  158. 164. C. Alkali metals react with Chlorine <ul><li>Lithium with chlorine (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium with chlorine (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium with chlorine (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Animation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Animation 2 </li></ul>
  159. 165. <ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><li>Word equations: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alkali metals + Chlorine  white solid metal oxides </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry equations: </li></ul><ul><li>2M + Cl 2  2MCl </li></ul>Chemical properties
  160. 166. Observation : <ul><li>Lithium burns slowly with a red-flame </li></ul><ul><li>forms white solid (lithium chloride) </li></ul><ul><li>2Li + Cl 2  2LiCl </li></ul>C. Reaction with chlorine
  161. 167. Observation : C. Reaction with chlorine <ul><li>sodium burn rapidly with a yellow flame. </li></ul><ul><li>forms white solid (sodium chloride) </li></ul><ul><li>2 Na + Cl 2  2NaCl </li></ul>
  162. 168. Observation : <ul><li>potassium burn very rapidly & brightly with a lilac flame </li></ul><ul><li>Form white solid (potassium chloride) </li></ul><ul><li>2 K + Cl 2  2KCl </li></ul>C. Reaction with chlorine
  163. 169. MOVIE CEMENT
  164. 170. MOVIE CRASHPROOF
  165. 171. The Chemical properties of alkali metls are SAME but Reactivity DIFFEREFENCE
  166. 172. What is the trend of their reactivity when going down the Group 1? <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rb (2.8.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>** movie </li></ul>
  167. 173. The trend of their reactivity when going down the Group 1 is ……. <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rb (2.8.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) </li></ul>Becomes more reactive BUT WHY?? slow faster Very fast
  168. 174. Q: Why reactivity of Group 1 increase when going down the group? <ul><li>A: </li></ul><ul><li>When the atomic size increases </li></ul><ul><li>The valence electron is more further away from the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>attraction between nucleus & valence electron weaker </li></ul><ul><li>easier for atom to release valence electron </li></ul>
  169. 175. Safety precautions in handling Group 1 elements <ul><li>Extremely reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Li, Na & K must be stored in paraffin oil in bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Use forceps to take alkali metals </li></ul><ul><li>To wear safety goggles & gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Only a small piece is used </li></ul>
  170. 176. <ul><li>Rubidium and caesium are normally stored in sealed glass tubes to prevent air getting at them. </li></ul><ul><li>They are stored either in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere of, say, argon . </li></ul><ul><li>The tubes are broken open when the metal is used. </li></ul>dO yOu KnOw ?
  171. 177. <ul><li>Lithium is used to make batteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium is required by our nerves and muscles. It is present in almost everything which we eat. Table salt is Sodium Chloride. </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium is also required by nerves and muscles. It is also present in almost everything we eat. </li></ul>Uses of alkali metals
  172. 178. Thank you!
  173. 179. 4.4 GROUP 17 HALOGENS
  174. 181. Group 17 name: HALOGEN <ul><li>Fluorine </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Bromine </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine </li></ul><ul><li>Astatine </li></ul>
  175. 184. <ul><li>Exist as diatomic </li></ul><ul><li>Di- double </li></ul><ul><li>Diatomic – double atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorine – F 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine – Cl 2 </li></ul>
  176. 186. GROUP 17 HALOGENS A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES B. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES C. REACTIVITY GOING DOWN THE GROUP
  177. 187. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  178. 188. Pale yellow Purple solid brownish Yellow greenish White solid
  179. 189. fluorine chlorine iodine bromine
  180. 190. Metal pin Solid iodine
  181. 191. Solid iodine Metal plate
  182. 192. Solid iodine vaporises
  183. 194. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Chlorine Iodine Astatine
  184. 195. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Iodine Astatine
  185. 196. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine Astatine
  186. 197. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine
  187. 198. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  188. 199. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  189. 200. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  190. 201. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I Astatine As
  191. 202. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As
  192. 203. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  193. 204. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  194. 205. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  195. 206. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  196. 207. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  197. 208. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  198. 209. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  199. 210. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  200. 211. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  201. 212. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 184 114 Astatine As 85 - - -
  202. 213. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 184 114 Astatine As 85 - - -
  203. 214. When going down the group : <ul><li>Atomic size increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: electron shells increase </li></ul>
  204. 215. <ul><li>2. Boiling point & melting point increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>- when atomic size increase </li></ul><ul><li>- the attraction force between molecules become stronger </li></ul><ul><li>- Thus, more heat is needed to overcome the attraction force </li></ul>halogen
  205. 216. MOVIE FITNESS STUDIO
  206. 217. Electron arrangement <ul><li>F 2 (2.7) </li></ul><ul><li>Cl 2 (2.8.7) </li></ul><ul><li>Br 2 (2.8.18.7) </li></ul><ul><li>I 2 (2.8.18.18.7) </li></ul><ul><li>At 2 (2.8.18.32.18.7) </li></ul><ul><li>Same number of </li></ul><ul><li>valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>Same chemical </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul>
  207. 218. High Electronegativity - which means the strength of its atom in a molecule to pull electrons towards in nucleus
  208. 219. 2. Chemical properties - Have similar chemical properties, why? - Answer:all have seven valence electrons A . water B. alkali C. Iron metal - All of alkali metals could reacts with: Next to reactivity
  209. 220. A . Halogens react with water <ul><li>chlorine with water </li></ul><ul><li>bromine with water </li></ul><ul><li>iodine with water </li></ul>Cl 2 + H 2 O  HCl + HOCl Chlorine water hydrochloric hydrochlorus acid acid Chemical properties
  210. 221. Br 2 + H 2 O  HBr + HOBr Bromine water hydrobromic hypobromus acid acid I 2 + H 2 O  HI + HOI Iodine water hydroiodic hypoiodus acid acid Chemical properties
  211. 222. <ul><li>chlorine with sodium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>bromine with sodium hydrocide </li></ul><ul><li>iodine with sodium hydroxide </li></ul>B . Halogens react with Alkali Cl 2 + 2NaOH  NaCl + NaOCl + H 2 O Chlorine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide chloride chlorate(I)
  212. 223. Br 2 + 2NaOH  NaBr + NaOBr + H 2 O Bromine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide bromide bromate(I) I 2 + 2NaOH  NaI + NaOI + H 2 O Iodine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide iodide iodate(I) Chemical properties
  213. 224. C . Halogens react with Iron <ul><li>chlorine with iron </li></ul><ul><li>bromine with iron </li></ul><ul><li>iodine with iron </li></ul>3Cl 2 + 2Fe  2FeCl 3 Chlorine Iron Iron (III) chloride
  214. 225. 2Br 2 + 3Fe  2FeBr 3 Bromine Iron Iron (III) bromide 2I 2 + 3Fe  2FeI 3 Iodine Iron Iron (III) iodide
  215. 226. Observations : halogen
  216. 227. Observations : halogen
  217. 228. Observations : halogen
  218. 229. <ul><li>All atoms of halogens have 7 valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>So, all halogens exhibit similar chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>But they differ in reactivity. </li></ul>Reactivity of halogens
  219. 230. <ul><li>The atomic size increases when going down group 17 </li></ul><ul><li>the outermost occupied shell becomes further away from the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>so, the attraction of the nucleus to outer electron become weaker </li></ul>
  220. 231. <ul><li>the strength of nucleus to attract 1 more electron decreases </li></ul><ul><li>This causes the reactivity of halogens decrease when going down Group 17. </li></ul>
  221. 232. <ul><li>A: when going down the Group 17, </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic size become bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction between nucleus and outer electron become weaker </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult to gain electron </li></ul><ul><li>Less reactive </li></ul>Q: Why reactivity of Group 17 decreases going down the group?
  222. 233. Safety precautions in handling Group 17 elements: <ul><li>Fluorine gas, chlorine gas and bromine vapour are poisonous. </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine vapour is harmful to the respiratory system of living things including human beings. </li></ul>
  223. 234. <ul><li>Safety precautions must be taken when handling halogens: </li></ul><ul><li>Handle halogens in the fume chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear safety goggles. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear gloves. </li></ul>
  224. 235. Q: Compare the reactivity between Group 1 and Group 17 when going down the group Group 1 Group 17 <ul><li>2.1 </li></ul><ul><li>2.8.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Need to release one e - to achieve stable e- arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 </li></ul><ul><li>2.8.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Need to gain one e - to achieve stable e- arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>When going down the group: </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic size bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction between nucleus and outer electron become weaker </li></ul><ul><li>easier to realese electron </li></ul><ul><li>When going down the group: </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic size bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction between nucleus and electron become weaker </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult to gain electron </li></ul>More reactive Less reactive
  225. 236. 4.6 Transition Metal
  226. 238. The position in the Periodic Table <ul><li>In Group 3 to Group 12 </li></ul><ul><li>of the Periodic Table </li></ul>
  227. 239. Physical Properties of Transition Elements <ul><li>All transition elements are metals. </li></ul><ul><li>They are solids with shiny surfaces . </li></ul><ul><li>They are ductile and malleable . </li></ul><ul><li>They have high tensile strength. </li></ul>
  228. 240. <ul><li>They have high melting and boiling points. </li></ul><ul><li>They have high densities. </li></ul><ul><li>They are good conductors of electricity and heat. </li></ul>
  229. 241. The first-row Transition Metals
  230. 242. **Special Characteristic of Transition Elements <ul><li>Form coloured ions/compounds </li></ul>
  231. 243. Colours of some of the first-row Transition Metal ions in solution
  232. 244. <ul><li>(2) Exhibit different oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>numbers in compounds </li></ul>
  233. 245. <ul><li>(3) Form complex ions </li></ul>
  234. 247. <ul><li>(4) Act as catalysts </li></ul>
  235. 248. Uses of some Transition Metals <ul><li>Titanium is used in aircraft construction </li></ul>
  236. 249. <ul><li>The filament of an electric light bulb is made from tungsten </li></ul>
  237. 250. <ul><li>A chromium-plated teapot </li></ul>
  238. 252. Fireworks <ul><li>Made by mixing gunpowder (mixture of potassium nitrate. Sulphur and charcoal) with different salts of transition metals </li></ul>
  239. 253. <ul><li>The colorful display shown by the fireworks is due to the presence of different salts of transition elements </li></ul>
  240. 254. <ul><li>Difference in colour of people’s hair is due to the presence of different transition metals compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Common brown hair contains compounds of iron, cobalt and copper. </li></ul><ul><li>Red hair contains molybdenum compounds and blonde hair contains titanium compounds. </li></ul>
  241. 255. Indian Hair cut
  242. 256. THANK YOU!!!

×