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Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
Chapter 4 periodic table
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Chapter 4 periodic table

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  • 1. CHAPTER 4 PERIODIC TABLE
  • 2. 4.1 THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
  • 3. <ul><li>You have learn that our earth consist of many types of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give some examples of element? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes! Oxygen,carbon, zinc, aluminium, helium… </li></ul><ul><li>all these are elements </li></ul>
  • 4. Why we learn elements? Are they important to us? Let’s take a look for the uses of some elements !!
  • 5. <ul><li>1. Cu, Al pure metals in the form of wires are used for carrying electrical currents. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fe, Al, Cu metals are used to make utensils used for cooking.   </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hg is used in thermometers </li></ul><ul><li>4. Zn is used for galvanizing iron to protect Fe from rusting.  </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>5.   NaCl, KCl are widely used as salts </li></ul><ul><li>6.   Na compounds are used for making soaps, washing soda and detergents.   </li></ul><ul><li>7.   Na bicarbonate is used for baking, in medicines, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>8.   Ca compounds are used for making cement, bleaching powders, plaster of Paris, etc. </li></ul>
  • 7. Let’s play BINGO!!
  • 8. Rules: - Winner in every round could earn 15 points - You can refer to elements list while writing symbol - You must state the full name of elements while playing - Those who can state full name of elements in whole one game could earn 5 points - The final winner is those who earn 50 points
  • 9. Cl Sn Na Br Fe Zn K Ag Pb Mg H He Ar Cu Al Be N B P I Ne Si Ca S O
  • 10. Scientist had discover hundreds types of elements in this earth. So can you guess how these elements been arranged in order to let us easier to recognise them?
  • 11. Examples of modern periodic table
  • 12. Yes! They’re arranged in periodic table But remember, periodic table was formed in many years and developed by a few chemist in different ways.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Who began the discovery of periodic table ??
  • 15. 1. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794AD) <ul><li>First scientist to classify substances </li></ul><ul><li>Classify them including light & heat into metals and nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Failed </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: light & heat </li></ul><ul><li>are not element </li></ul>
  • 16. 2. Johann Dobereiner (1780-1849AD) <ul><li>In 1829, divided the element into three groups with similar properties </li></ul><ul><li>Give the idea that there was a relationship between chemical properties with atomic mass </li></ul>
  • 17. 3. John Newlands (1837-1898AD) <ul><li>classified the 56 established elements into 11 groups based on physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Discover that elements with similar properties repeated every 8 elements </li></ul><ul><li>LAW OF OCTAVES </li></ul>
  • 18. 4. Lother Meyer (1830-1895AD) <ul><li>Plotted a graph of atomic volume against atomic mass </li></ul><ul><li>Successful in showing similar chemical properties form a periodic pattern against their atomic mass </li></ul>
  • 19. 5. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907AD) <ul><li>Rearrange the elements in order of increasing atomic mass </li></ul><ul><li>Group them according </li></ul><ul><li>to their similar chemical </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul><ul><li>Success to predict the </li></ul><ul><li>undiscovered elements !! </li></ul>
  • 20. 6. Henry J.G. Moseley (1887-1915AD) <ul><li>Studied the X-ray spectrum of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: proton number should be the basis in periodic arrange </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange the elements in order of increasing proton number </li></ul>
  • 21.  
  • 22. MOVIE Cute girl
  • 23. From this modern periodic table, can you find out what basic principle in arranging elements?
  • 24. Answer : all elements arranged in order of increasing proton number
  • 25.  
  • 26. METALS NON-METALS
  • 27. Conclusion: Left side -Group 1-13  metals Right side -Group 14-18  non - metals
  • 28. Period  1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 29. Period  <ul><li>The maximum electrons in the 1 st shell = 2 e - </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum electrons in the 2 nd shell = 8 e- </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum electrons in the 3 rd shell = 8 e- </li></ul>1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5
  • 30. Conclusion: - number of electron shells = period - 2 electron shells = period 2 - 3 electron shells = period 3 - 2.8.8.1 = period 4
  • 31. Group Q1 Example 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 32. Group 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 33. Group 1 Li (2.1) Na (2.8.1) K (2.8.8.1) Rb (2.8.18.8.1) Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) Fr (2.8.18.32.18.8.1) back All elements in Group 1 has 1 valence electron 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 34. Group 2 back All elements in Group 2 has 2 valence electrons Be (2.2) Mg (2.8.2) Ca (2.8.8.2) Sr (2.8.18.8.2) Ba (2.8.18.18.8.2) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 35. Group 13 back All elements in Group 1 3 has 3 valence electrons B (2.3) Al (2.8.3) Ga (2.8.18.3) In (2.8.18.8.3) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 36. Group 17 back All elements in Group 17 has 7 valence electrons F (2.7) Cl (2.8.7) Br (2.8.18.7) I (2.8.18.8.7) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 37. Group 18 back He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Kr (2.8.18.8) All elements in Group 18 has 8 valence electrons Except Helium 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 38. Conclusion: - number of valence electrons = group - 2 valence electrons = Group 2 - 3 valence electrons = Group 13 - 2.8.7 = Group 17
  • 39. Example: -proton number = 6 -number of electron= 6 -electron arrangement=2.4 -LOCATION in periodic table: period 2 (2 electron shells) group 14 (4 electron valence) Refer PT C 12 6
  • 40. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 41. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 42. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 43. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 44. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 45. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 46. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 47. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 48. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 49. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 50. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 51. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 52. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Refer PT Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 53. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Refer PT Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 54. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 55. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 56. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 57. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 Cl 2.8.7
  • 58. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 Cl 2.8.7
  • 59. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 Cl 2.8.7
  • 60. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7
  • 61. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3
  • 62. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3
  • 63. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3 7
  • 64. Q1 Fill in the blanks (demo) Elements Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group Be 2.2 2 2 2 2 Mg 2.8.2 3 3 2 2 Al 2.8.3 3 3 3 13 Ne 2.8 2 2 8 18 S 2.8.6 3 3 6 16 Cl 2.8.7 3 3 7 17
  • 65. Try out this !!
  • 66. Q2 Fill in the blanks Ele-ment Proton number Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group H 1 He 2 Ca 20 O 8 P 15 B 5
  • 67. Q2 Check your answers Proton number Electron arrange-ment Number of shells occupied by electrons Period Number of valence electrons Group H 1 1 1 1 1 1 He 2 2 1 1 2 18 Ca 20 2.8.8.2 4 4 2 2 O 8 2.6 2 2 6 16 P 15 2.8.5 3 3 5 15 B 5 2.3 2 2 3 13
  • 68. Q3 Write the location of elements below in periodic table of elements 40 18 Ar 14 7 N 32 16 S
  • 69. Q3 Check out your answer Given in periodic table Period 3 Group 18 40 18 Ar Period 2 Group 15 14 7 N Period 3 Group 16 32 16 S
  • 70. 4.2 Group 18 Elements Noble Gas
  • 71. <ul><li>Consists of helium (He), </li></ul><ul><li>neon (Ne), </li></ul><ul><li>argon (Ar), </li></ul><ul><li>krypton (Kr), </li></ul><ul><li>xenon (Xe), and </li></ul><ul><li>radon (Rn). </li></ul><ul><li>Known as noble gases </li></ul><ul><li>They are monoatomic </li></ul>next
  • 72. Monoatomic <ul><li>Exist as individual </li></ul><ul><li>Mono- means one </li></ul><ul><li>Monoatomic – one atom </li></ul>back #71. Slide 71
  • 73. Group 18 back All elements in Group 18 has 8 valence electrons Except Helium He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Kr (2.8.18.8) 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  • 74. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Argon Krypton Xenon
  • 75. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Krypton Xenon
  • 76. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Xenon
  • 77. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon
  • 78. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  • 79. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  • 80. Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  • 81. Boiling Point/K Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr Xenon Xe
  • 82. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe
  • 83. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • 84. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • 85. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • 86. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • 87. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 Xenon Xe 54
  • 88. Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54
  • 89. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • 90. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • 91. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • 92. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • 93. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • 94. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130
  • 95. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • 96. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • 97. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • 98. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • 99. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107
  • 100. Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107 -112
  • 101. next Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1     1st Ionisation Energy/kJ mol -1 Atomic Radius/nM He 2372.3 0.128 Ne 2080.6 0.160 Ar 1520.4 0.174 Kr 1350.7 0.189 Xe 1170.4 0.218 Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Boiling Point/K He 2   4.003   4.216   Ne 10   20.180   27.10   Ar 18   39.948   87.29   Kr 36   83.30   120.85   Xe 54   131.29   166.1   Noble gases Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Helium He 2 0.050 -269 -270 Neon Ne 10 0.070 -246 -248 Argon Ar 18 0.094 -186 -189 Krypton Kr 36 0.109 -152 -156 Xenon Xe 54 0.130 -107 -112
  • 102. He (2) Ne (2.8) Ar (2.8.8) Group 18 back <ul><li>When elements </li></ul><ul><li>going down the </li></ul><ul><li>group 18 </li></ul><ul><li>The electron shells </li></ul><ul><li>become more </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the </li></ul><ul><li>increasing of </li></ul><ul><li>atomic radius </li></ul>
  • 103. <ul><li>The animation above schematically shows how van der Waals forces are induced. </li></ul><ul><li>Van der Waals forces are found in molecules, </li></ul>
  • 104. <ul><li>such as hydrogen gas (H 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), and in the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, ) </li></ul><ul><li>The bigger the molecule, the stronger the van der Waals </li></ul>back
  • 105. <ul><li>1.Insoluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>2.do not conduct electricity or heat (not metals) </li></ul>Physical Properties of Group 18 elements
  • 106. <ul><li>3.Low melting and boiling points but increase when going down the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>-the size of the atoms increases down the group, </li></ul><ul><li>-the Van der Waals’ force of attraction become stronger. </li></ul>
  • 107.  
  • 108. <ul><li>4. Low densities but increases down the group </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing in the relative atomic mass of the element </li></ul>
  • 109.  
  • 110. MOVIE Drift
  • 111. MOVIE Car1
  • 112. <ul><li>All noble gases are inert which means chemically unreactive . </li></ul><ul><li>Helium has 2 valence electrons (duplet electron arrangement) </li></ul>Chemical Properties of Group 18 Elements
  • 113. <ul><li>The other noble gases have 8 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>(octet electron arrangement) </li></ul><ul><li>These electron arrangement are very stable </li></ul><ul><li>**Reason: the outermost shell has fully occupied by electrons </li></ul>
  • 114. <ul><li>Therefore, they do not need to gain, lose or share electrons with other elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Exist as monoatomic gases. </li></ul>
  • 115. Uses of Noble Gases
  • 116. <ul><li>Helium </li></ul><ul><li>Fill airships and weather balloons </li></ul><ul><li>Used as superconductors </li></ul><ul><li>Used by divers </li></ul>
  • 117. MOVIE Helium girl
  • 118. MOVIE Helium boy
  • 119. <ul><li>Neon </li></ul><ul><li>Used in advertising lights and television tubes. </li></ul>
  • 120. <ul><li>Argon </li></ul><ul><li>Used to fill light bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Used in welding </li></ul>
  • 121. <ul><li>Krypton </li></ul><ul><li>Used in laser to repair the retina of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to fill photo graphic flash lamp. </li></ul>
  • 122. <ul><li>Xenon </li></ul><ul><li>Used for making electron tubes stroboscopic lamps. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in bubble chambers in atomic energy reactors </li></ul>
  • 123. <ul><li>Radon </li></ul><ul><li>Used in the treatment of cancer </li></ul>
  • 124. 4.3 GROUP 1 ALKALI METALS
  • 125. Group 1 name: alkali metal <ul><li>Lithium </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Rubidium </li></ul><ul><li>Caesium </li></ul><ul><li>Francium </li></ul>
  • 126. Electron arrangement <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rb (2.8.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Fr (2.8.18.32.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Same number of </li></ul><ul><li>valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>Same chemical </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul>
  • 127.  
  • 128. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  • 129. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  • 130. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium Rubidium Caecium
  • 131. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Caecium
  • 132. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium
  • 133. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  • 134. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  • 135. next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  • 136. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb Caecium Cs
  • 137. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs
  • 138. next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • 139. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • 140. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • 141. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • 142. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 Caecium Cs 55
  • 143. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55
  • 144. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • 145. next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • 146. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • 147. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • 148. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • 149. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26
  • 150. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26 678 28
  • 151. next Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Lithium Li 3 0.15 1347 181 Sodium Na 11 0.19 886 98 Potassium K 19 0.23 774 64 Rubidium Rb 37 0.25 688 39 Caecium Cs 55 0.26 678 28
  • 152. Electron arrangement <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>When elements </li></ul><ul><li>going down the </li></ul><ul><li>group 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The electron shells </li></ul><ul><li>become more </li></ul><ul><li>increasing of </li></ul><ul><li>atomic radius </li></ul>back
  • 153. 1. Physical properties <ul><li>Low melting points </li></ul><ul><li>Silvery and shiny surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Good conductors of heat and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Soft metals with low densities </li></ul>
  • 154. How soft the alkali metals are? <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rb (2.8.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) </li></ul>
  • 155. Before we study the chemical properties, draw out the table first! Alkali Metals Reacts with water Reacts with Oxygen gas Reacts with chlorine gas Lithium / Li Sodium / Na Potassium / K
  • 156. 2. Chemical properties - Have similar chemical properties, why? - answer: all have one valence electron A . water B. Oxygen C . Chlorine - All of alkali metals could reacts with: Next to reactivity
  • 157. A . Alkali metals react with water <ul><li>Lithium with water </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium with water </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium with water </li></ul>
  • 158. Chemical properties <ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><li>Word equation: </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali metal + water  alkaline metal hydroxide solution +hydrogen gas </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical equation: </li></ul><ul><li>2Li + 2H 2 O  2LiOH + H 2 </li></ul><ul><li> 2Na + 2H 2 O  2NaOH + H 2 </li></ul><ul><li> 2K + 2H 2 O  2KOH + H 2 </li></ul>
  • 159. B. Alkali metals react with Oxygen <ul><li>Lithium with oxygen (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium with oxygen (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium with oxygen (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>**refer to CD ROM </li></ul>
  • 160. <ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><li>Word equations: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alkali metals + Oxygen  white solid metal oxides </li></ul><ul><li>2. metal oxides + water  alkaline metal </li></ul><ul><li> hydroxide solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry equations: </li></ul><ul><li>4M + O 2  2M 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>M 2 O + H 2 O  2MOH </li></ul>Chemical properties
  • 161. Observation : Reaction with oxygen <ul><li>Lithium burns slowly with a red-flame </li></ul><ul><li>forms white solid (lithium oxide) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Li + O 2  2Li 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Lithium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution </li></ul><ul><li>Li 2 O + H 2 O  2LiOH </li></ul>
  • 162. Observation : Reaction with oxygen <ul><li>sodium burns rapidly with yellow flame. </li></ul><ul><li>forms white solid (sodium oxide) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Na + O 2  2Na 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution </li></ul><ul><li>Na 2 O + H 2 O  2NaOH </li></ul>
  • 163. Observation : <ul><li>potassium burns very rapidly & brightly with a lilac flame </li></ul><ul><li>Form white solid (potassium oxide) </li></ul><ul><li>4 K + O 2  2K 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium oxide dissolved in water to form a alkaline solution </li></ul><ul><li>K 2 O + H 2 O  2KOH </li></ul>Reaction with oxygen
  • 164. C. Alkali metals react with Chlorine <ul><li>Lithium with chlorine (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium with chlorine (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium with chlorine (observation) </li></ul><ul><li>Animation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Animation 2 </li></ul>
  • 165. <ul><li>Observations: </li></ul><ul><li>Word equations: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alkali metals + Chlorine  white solid metal oxides </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry equations: </li></ul><ul><li>2M + Cl 2  2MCl </li></ul>Chemical properties
  • 166. Observation : <ul><li>Lithium burns slowly with a red-flame </li></ul><ul><li>forms white solid (lithium chloride) </li></ul><ul><li>2Li + Cl 2  2LiCl </li></ul>C. Reaction with chlorine
  • 167. Observation : C. Reaction with chlorine <ul><li>sodium burn rapidly with a yellow flame. </li></ul><ul><li>forms white solid (sodium chloride) </li></ul><ul><li>2 Na + Cl 2  2NaCl </li></ul>
  • 168. Observation : <ul><li>potassium burn very rapidly & brightly with a lilac flame </li></ul><ul><li>Form white solid (potassium chloride) </li></ul><ul><li>2 K + Cl 2  2KCl </li></ul>C. Reaction with chlorine
  • 169. MOVIE CEMENT
  • 170. MOVIE CRASHPROOF
  • 171. The Chemical properties of alkali metls are SAME but Reactivity DIFFEREFENCE
  • 172. What is the trend of their reactivity when going down the Group 1? <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rb (2.8.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>** movie </li></ul>
  • 173. The trend of their reactivity when going down the Group 1 is ……. <ul><li>Li (2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Na (2.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>K (2.8.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Rb (2.8.18.8.1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cs (2.8.18.18.8.1) </li></ul>Becomes more reactive BUT WHY?? slow faster Very fast
  • 174. Q: Why reactivity of Group 1 increase when going down the group? <ul><li>A: </li></ul><ul><li>When the atomic size increases </li></ul><ul><li>The valence electron is more further away from the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>attraction between nucleus & valence electron weaker </li></ul><ul><li>easier for atom to release valence electron </li></ul>
  • 175. Safety precautions in handling Group 1 elements <ul><li>Extremely reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Li, Na & K must be stored in paraffin oil in bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Use forceps to take alkali metals </li></ul><ul><li>To wear safety goggles & gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Only a small piece is used </li></ul>
  • 176. <ul><li>Rubidium and caesium are normally stored in sealed glass tubes to prevent air getting at them. </li></ul><ul><li>They are stored either in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere of, say, argon . </li></ul><ul><li>The tubes are broken open when the metal is used. </li></ul>dO yOu KnOw ?
  • 177. <ul><li>Lithium is used to make batteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium is required by our nerves and muscles. It is present in almost everything which we eat. Table salt is Sodium Chloride. </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium is also required by nerves and muscles. It is also present in almost everything we eat. </li></ul>Uses of alkali metals
  • 178. Thank you!
  • 179. 4.4 GROUP 17 HALOGENS
  • 180.  
  • 181. Group 17 name: HALOGEN <ul><li>Fluorine </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Bromine </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine </li></ul><ul><li>Astatine </li></ul>
  • 182.  
  • 183.  
  • 184. <ul><li>Exist as diatomic </li></ul><ul><li>Di- double </li></ul><ul><li>Diatomic – double atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorine – F 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine – Cl 2 </li></ul>
  • 185.  
  • 186. GROUP 17 HALOGENS A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES B. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES C. REACTIVITY GOING DOWN THE GROUP
  • 187. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  • 188. Pale yellow Purple solid brownish Yellow greenish White solid
  • 189. fluorine chlorine iodine bromine
  • 190. Metal pin Solid iodine
  • 191. Solid iodine Metal plate
  • 192. Solid iodine vaporises
  • 193.  
  • 194. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Chlorine Iodine Astatine
  • 195. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Iodine Astatine
  • 196. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine Astatine
  • 197. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine
  • 198. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  • 199. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  • 200. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl Iodine I Astatine As
  • 201. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I Astatine As
  • 202. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As
  • 203. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  • 204. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  • 205. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  • 206. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 Astatine As 85
  • 207. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • 208. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • 209. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • 210. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • 211. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 Astatine As 85 -
  • 212. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 184 114 Astatine As 85 - - -
  • 213. Alkali metals Symbol Proton Number Atomic Radius / nm Boiling Point / °C Melting Point / °C Fluorine F 9 0.071 -188 -220 Bromine Br 17 0.099 -35 -101 Chlorine Cl 35 0.114 59 -7 Iodine I 53 0.133 184 114 Astatine As 85 - - -
  • 214. When going down the group : <ul><li>Atomic size increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: electron shells increase </li></ul>
  • 215. <ul><li>2. Boiling point & melting point increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>- when atomic size increase </li></ul><ul><li>- the attraction force between molecules become stronger </li></ul><ul><li>- Thus, more heat is needed to overcome the attraction force </li></ul>halogen
  • 216. MOVIE FITNESS STUDIO
  • 217. Electron arrangement <ul><li>F 2 (2.7) </li></ul><ul><li>Cl 2 (2.8.7) </li></ul><ul><li>Br 2 (2.8.18.7) </li></ul><ul><li>I 2 (2.8.18.18.7) </li></ul><ul><li>At 2 (2.8.18.32.18.7) </li></ul><ul><li>Same number of </li></ul><ul><li>valence electron </li></ul><ul><li>Same chemical </li></ul><ul><li>properties </li></ul>
  • 218. High Electronegativity - which means the strength of its atom in a molecule to pull electrons towards in nucleus
  • 219. 2. Chemical properties - Have similar chemical properties, why? - Answer:all have seven valence electrons A . water B. alkali C. Iron metal - All of alkali metals could reacts with: Next to reactivity
  • 220. A . Halogens react with water <ul><li>chlorine with water </li></ul><ul><li>bromine with water </li></ul><ul><li>iodine with water </li></ul>Cl 2 + H 2 O  HCl + HOCl Chlorine water hydrochloric hydrochlorus acid acid Chemical properties
  • 221. Br 2 + H 2 O  HBr + HOBr Bromine water hydrobromic hypobromus acid acid I 2 + H 2 O  HI + HOI Iodine water hydroiodic hypoiodus acid acid Chemical properties
  • 222. <ul><li>chlorine with sodium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>bromine with sodium hydrocide </li></ul><ul><li>iodine with sodium hydroxide </li></ul>B . Halogens react with Alkali Cl 2 + 2NaOH  NaCl + NaOCl + H 2 O Chlorine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide chloride chlorate(I)
  • 223. Br 2 + 2NaOH  NaBr + NaOBr + H 2 O Bromine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide bromide bromate(I) I 2 + 2NaOH  NaI + NaOI + H 2 O Iodine sodium sodium sodium water hydroxide iodide iodate(I) Chemical properties
  • 224. C . Halogens react with Iron <ul><li>chlorine with iron </li></ul><ul><li>bromine with iron </li></ul><ul><li>iodine with iron </li></ul>3Cl 2 + 2Fe  2FeCl 3 Chlorine Iron Iron (III) chloride
  • 225. 2Br 2 + 3Fe  2FeBr 3 Bromine Iron Iron (III) bromide 2I 2 + 3Fe  2FeI 3 Iodine Iron Iron (III) iodide
  • 226. Observations : halogen
  • 227. Observations : halogen
  • 228. Observations : halogen
  • 229. <ul><li>All atoms of halogens have 7 valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>So, all halogens exhibit similar chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>But they differ in reactivity. </li></ul>Reactivity of halogens
  • 230. <ul><li>The atomic size increases when going down group 17 </li></ul><ul><li>the outermost occupied shell becomes further away from the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>so, the attraction of the nucleus to outer electron become weaker </li></ul>
  • 231. <ul><li>the strength of nucleus to attract 1 more electron decreases </li></ul><ul><li>This causes the reactivity of halogens decrease when going down Group 17. </li></ul>
  • 232. <ul><li>A: when going down the Group 17, </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic size become bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction between nucleus and outer electron become weaker </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult to gain electron </li></ul><ul><li>Less reactive </li></ul>Q: Why reactivity of Group 17 decreases going down the group?
  • 233. Safety precautions in handling Group 17 elements: <ul><li>Fluorine gas, chlorine gas and bromine vapour are poisonous. </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine vapour is harmful to the respiratory system of living things including human beings. </li></ul>
  • 234. <ul><li>Safety precautions must be taken when handling halogens: </li></ul><ul><li>Handle halogens in the fume chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear safety goggles. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear gloves. </li></ul>
  • 235. Q: Compare the reactivity between Group 1 and Group 17 when going down the group Group 1 Group 17 <ul><li>2.1 </li></ul><ul><li>2.8.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Need to release one e - to achieve stable e- arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 </li></ul><ul><li>2.8.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Need to gain one e - to achieve stable e- arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>When going down the group: </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic size bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction between nucleus and outer electron become weaker </li></ul><ul><li>easier to realese electron </li></ul><ul><li>When going down the group: </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic size bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Attraction between nucleus and electron become weaker </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult to gain electron </li></ul>More reactive Less reactive
  • 236. 4.6 Transition Metal
  • 237.  
  • 238. The position in the Periodic Table <ul><li>In Group 3 to Group 12 </li></ul><ul><li>of the Periodic Table </li></ul>
  • 239. Physical Properties of Transition Elements <ul><li>All transition elements are metals. </li></ul><ul><li>They are solids with shiny surfaces . </li></ul><ul><li>They are ductile and malleable . </li></ul><ul><li>They have high tensile strength. </li></ul>
  • 240. <ul><li>They have high melting and boiling points. </li></ul><ul><li>They have high densities. </li></ul><ul><li>They are good conductors of electricity and heat. </li></ul>
  • 241. The first-row Transition Metals
  • 242. **Special Characteristic of Transition Elements <ul><li>Form coloured ions/compounds </li></ul>
  • 243. Colours of some of the first-row Transition Metal ions in solution
  • 244. <ul><li>(2) Exhibit different oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>numbers in compounds </li></ul>
  • 245. <ul><li>(3) Form complex ions </li></ul>
  • 246.  
  • 247. <ul><li>(4) Act as catalysts </li></ul>
  • 248. Uses of some Transition Metals <ul><li>Titanium is used in aircraft construction </li></ul>
  • 249. <ul><li>The filament of an electric light bulb is made from tungsten </li></ul>
  • 250. <ul><li>A chromium-plated teapot </li></ul>
  • 251.  
  • 252. Fireworks <ul><li>Made by mixing gunpowder (mixture of potassium nitrate. Sulphur and charcoal) with different salts of transition metals </li></ul>
  • 253. <ul><li>The colorful display shown by the fireworks is due to the presence of different salts of transition elements </li></ul>
  • 254. <ul><li>Difference in colour of people’s hair is due to the presence of different transition metals compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Common brown hair contains compounds of iron, cobalt and copper. </li></ul><ul><li>Red hair contains molybdenum compounds and blonde hair contains titanium compounds. </li></ul>
  • 255. Indian Hair cut
  • 256. THANK YOU!!!
  • 257.  
  • 258.  
  • 259.  

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