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  • 1. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Effective Assessments and Learning Welcome Principles in an Understanding based •  Please introduce yourself to your table mates Classroom and tell them what you teach and where. •  Tell them something interesting about yourself National Education Conference professionally. Manila •  When you’ve finished, please select someone to April 6 and 7, 2011 be a table facilitator for the day. Facilitator •  There will be a second facilitator, a UbD teacher Janie Ray Smith leader who will rotate among tables close to you. ASCD Faculty, UbD Cadre 2 – Review and refine your thinking and practice about using Understanding by -- Learn and use performance assessment Design (UbD) as a curriculum framework and instructional planning process. strategies that lead to authentic assessment. – Understand and use the principles of effective classroom assessment as they -- Maintain focus on developing apply to UbD and best practice understanding based classroom through assessment philosophy. use of learning principles of acquisition, – recognize and create varied meaning making, and transfer. assessments of, for, and engaging learning. 3 4 Understanding by Design: Understanding by Design Backward Design •  An 11-year national and international effort in improving the design skills of educators –  UbD is a textbook in over 300 school of education courses –  The text is in the hands of over 700,000 educators –  UbD has been used by NSF, National Geographic, the Peace Corps, ACTFL, and other national groups as a basis for curriculum design 5 6©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 1
  • 2. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Basic Rationale for Unit Planning Understanding by Design is using UbD !  Overcoming the prevalence of “Aimless ! A way of thinking about getting students to Activity” and “Superficial Coverage” explore the most important questions and concepts in their subjects in school !  Moving beyond micro-managing of teaching via discrete lesson plans ! A framework to help students transfer !  A focus on big ideas and complex knowledge and skill into novel contexts that performance leading to understanding require understanding through explanation, interpretation, application, empathy, perspective, or self-knowledge 7 8 7 KEY: 3 Stages of (“Backward”) Design What we typically do: 1. Identify desire results Identify content Without checking for ! alignment! 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence Brainstorm activities & methods Without checking for ! 3. Plan learning experiences alignment! & instruction Come up with an assessment 9 10 10 Why Understanding is transfer- UbD big idea If not… important? ability: Plans need to be Aimless activity Backward Design well aligned to be Understanding reveals itself as transfer: an effective & coverage !  appropriate and effective use of knowledge and It is the essence of skill, on one’s own; using good judgment, with understanding and Students fail to apply, Transfer as goal the point of poor results on tests minimal cues and prompting, in various important schooling situations, about which content is needed when that’s how transfer Learning is and why. happens, makes fragmented, Focus on big ideaslearning more more difficult, connected less engaging !  Without such understanding, we see: !  rigid knowledge – Whitehead’s “inert” ideas that’s what is most You lose many kids Meaningful learning engaging and inviting over time !  Student inability to see how the new task or situation is related to prior ones; it just looks new and strange 11 12 !  Persistent misunderstanding of key ideas.©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 2
  • 3. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Transfer: We often confuse the drills with the game in planning Writing a transfer goal !  ‘Drill-tests’ - test !  The ‘game’ - real items/exercises task, problems •  Students will be able to use their Out of context In context, with all !  !  its messiness and understanding and solve problems Discrete, isolated on their own, and in real-world !  interest value element Requires a situations !  !  Unrealistically set up repertoire, used and prompted wisely !  Doesn’t transfer !  Not prompted: you without practice in judge what to do, adapting it to new when situations 13 14 13 Simple Examples of Transfer Transfer Goals •  After learning and studying Newton’s 3 laws, solve a never-before-encountered roller-coaster or ballistics problem. •  What novel/creative/future uses of ‘content’ do want to prepare students •  After learning different forms of persuasive writing, for? tackle new and varied audience/purpose situations where someone is to be persuaded. •  What are the long-term complex •  After learning about the 3 branches of government, performance goals that school and your propose a policy/solution to a current related issue subjects are in business to cause? •  After reading Scarlet Letter, compare and contrast it to •  What do experts do with their a modern public shaming. expertise? •  Each new game/new opponent in an athletic season •  Novel and realistic challenges of language and culture in a real or simulated interaction. 15 16 The Uses of UbD Uses of UbD As a framework to plan: !  Curriculum To promote transfer and retention of learning through !  Assessment development of in-depth !  Instruction understanding 17 18©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 3
  • 4. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design UbD as a Curriculum Framework •  Effective Assessment that measure For designing: specific learning targets. (Stage 1) !  Programs !  Courses or grade level subjects •  Learning Principles: Acquisition, Meaning !  Specific units of study Making, and Transfer that lead students to !  Daily lessons understanding. (Stage 3) 19 20 Our “Understandings” Essential Questions for the Day about classroom assessment: •  How can we use formative assessments to Participants will understand that effective guide both teachers and students in assessment : progressing toward desired results? •  Is aligned with standards, curriculum, and instruction. (Stage 1 and 3 alignment) •  How can we use authentic performance •  Enables All students to demonstrate what they assessments to assess understanding and know and can do. transfer? •  Guides teaching and learning. It is about more •  How can using AMT learning principles in than grades for the grade book. classroom activities lead to understanding, •  Produces valid and reliable results about student learning. transfer, and retention •  Is considered relevant and worthwhile by students 21 in providing guidance and feedback. 22 Principles of Effective Classroom Principles of Effective Classroom Assessment Assessment, con’t, -Assessments should be used as a teaching –  Assessments should be matched to standards and and learning tool for teachers and students goals of the unit. -Assessment is an on-going process which –  Teachers should define what evidence they will provides feedback to students. accept that demonstrates proficiency (to show what they know and are able to do). -Teachers should use a variety of assessments over time. –  Assessments should be put into context as they relate to standards, benchmarks, and lessons. -Teachers should communicate expectations –  Assessment tools should be equitable for performances from the “get go”. 23 24©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 4
  • 5. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Stage 2 – Assessment 3 Stages of Design Evidence • Template fields ask: 1. Identify desired results –  How will I pre assess my students related to what they already know and can do related to the unit topic? What will I do with this information 2. Determine acceptable evidence –  What are key complex performance tasks indicative of understanding? –  What other evidence will be collected to build the case 3. Plan learning experiences for understanding, knowledge, and skill? & instruction –  How will I check for understanding of daily lesson 25 goals and how will students self-assess? 26 Two Views of Assessment -- ONGOING ASSESSMENT Assessment is for: Assessment is Gate keeping for: Some teachers Some teachers Judging Nurturing talk about--- talk about--- Right Answers Guiding VS. Control Self-Reflection Comparison to Information LEARNING GRADES others Comparison to Use with single task •  Can these two coexist peacefully? activities Use over multiple •  Should one receive emphasis over the other? activities 27 28 27 Use Formative and Summative assessments serve Assessments Formative Assessment (Assessment FOR Learning) Summative Assessment different purposes… •  Assessment occurring during •  (Assessment OF Learning) the process of a unit or a course. During the formation •  The assessment done at the of a concept or item. Answers end of a unit, course, grade question: How are students level. Provides a final doing? What are they summation of learning. learning? What misconceptions do they have? •  End of chapter, final exam, final draft of writing portfolio, •  Quiz, teacher observations, senior exhibition. mid-unit test, one-minute essay •  The adding-up or summary •  Gives feedback to either the stage. Summarizes the teacher or student (or both) 29 on what revisions to make to learning for both the teacher 30 teaching or to student work. and the student.©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 5
  • 6. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Formative assessment critical •  We do too much “testing” and not enough “feedback giving” Most teachers assess students at the –  The research is clear: lots of formative end of an instructional unit or sequence. assessment and opportunities to use it is key When assessment and instruction are to the greatest gains in learning, as measured interwoven, both the students and the on conventional tests teacher benefit. The next slide suggests •  See Black and William, “Inside the Black Box” in a diagnostic continuum for the Kappan; and How People Learn, Bransford et ongoing assessment. al. 31 32 32 On-going Assessment: A Diagnostic Continuum Feedback and Goal Setting In the packet that you printed out Pre-assessment Formative Assessment Summative Assessment (Finding Out) (Keeping Track & Checking -up) (Making sure) Pre-test Conference Exit Card SEE HANDOUTS ON Unit Test Graphing for Greatness Inventory KWL Peer evaluation 3-minute pause Observation Portfolio Check Quiz Journal Entry Performance Task Product/Exhibit TYPES OF ASSESSMENT AND Demonstration Checklist Observation Talk around Questioning Self-evaluation Portfolio Review SELF ASSESSMENT SURVEY: Self-evaluation Questioning COMPLETE THE SURVEY 33 34 33 Where Are You in Your Journey Toward Becoming an Effective Assessor? •  Given this short introduction on assessment, use your Designing Multiple Kinds of answers to the following questions to determine your goals during this day’s focus on assessment. Please Assessments within a Unit enter these on your own note paper . 1. What are my strengths in developing assessments? As we begin the design process, all 2. What are my assessment weaknesses that I would assessments will be aligned with Stage 1 of like to improve? your unit that you brought or you may choose a sample unit on your table that you This is your break ticket!! Write your responses on an index card and turn in to your table facilitator as you leave for a 15 believe you could teach. Read through the minute break. Names are not necessary. Stage 1 design carefully. 36©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 6
  • 7. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Diagnostic or Pre-assessment Is... Pre-Assessment Any method, strategy or process used to determine a •  What the student already knows about what is being student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to planned plan for appropriate instruction. •  What standards, objectives, concepts & skills the individual student understands •  provides data to determine options for students •  What further instruction and opportunities for mastery •  helps determine differences before planning are needed • helps teacher design activities that are respectful and •  What requires re-teaching or enhancement challenging •  What areas of interests and feelings are in the • allows teachers to meet students where they are different areas of the study • identifies starting point for instruction •  How to set up flexible groups: Whole, individual, • identifies learning gaps partner, or small group • makes efficient use of instructional time 37 38 Common Types of Readiness or Determining the use Pre- Assessments Of pre-assessments •  K-W-L Check •  These are to inform the teacher about upcoming •  Pre-test instruction in the unit. •  Skills Check •  Adjustments in strategies should be made based •  Misconception check on an analysis of prior knowledge of concepts •  Writing samples or journal with prompt and skills for both the class and individual •  Mind mapping (graphic organizer) students. •  Checklist through observation, cruising •  Traditional grading is not appropriate for pre- •  Student products and work samples assessments. •  Interviews or oral defense •  The pre-assessment can be part of the last unit •  Draw what you know summation or part of the introduction of the new •  Anticipation/reaction guide unit. 39 40 •  Informal Q and A Constructing Pre-assessments Data Use and Feedback to For Readiness or Diagnosis Students on Pre Assessment •  Given the previous information, examine your Stage 1 •  How might you use the data from this design for the unit you will be teaching. assessment to make instructional decisions •  Identify the key concepts, knowledge and skills that are about teaching the unit? defined as desired results. •  What are some instructional or classroom •  Construct one or more pre-assessments to determine what students already know about the key concepts, organizational approaches (groupings, knowledge and skills. Place this in the appropriate box strategies, materials) you might use to address on the unit template. the data. •  Determine how you will organize this information about •  What kind of feedback might you give to the class and how you will use it to adjust plans for students regarding their performance on the pre- instruction. assessment? Discuss these questions with a colleague in your Use the Stage 2 and 3 template on your table 41 table group . 42©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 7
  • 8. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Checking for Understanding Of Pre-Assessment Design Using one of the following prompts, demonstrate what you now understand about pre- assessments: Formative Assessment Including •  Write a 3 minute essay of what you now Ongoing Assessment understand about pre-assessments •  Answer the 3-2-1 questions as follows: This is assessment OF learning and as ENGAGEMENT 3 things I now understand about pre-assessment Assessment is part of the teaching and 2 things I want to learn more about in pre-assessing learning cycle and should occur in 1 thing I’m not sure about designing pre-assessments every lesson. 43 Formative Assessment is Formative Assessment Is... Assessment for Learning A process of accumulating information about a student’s progress to help make instructional decisions that will improve his/her understandings and achievement levels. “formative” and “diagnostic” is feedback and guidance for learners and their teachers or •  Depicts student’s life as a learner “coaches”. •  used to make instructional adjustments •  alerts the teacher about student misconceptions •  The purpose, not the format or content, is “early warning signal” what determines whether an assessment •  allows students to build on previous experiences •  provides regular feedback is summative (of learning) vs. formative •  provides evidence of progress (for learning) •  aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes 45 46 Characteristics of Effective THINKING ABOUT Formative Assessment ON-GOING ASSESSMENT STUDENT DATA TEACHER DATA •  Specific and targeted user-friendly SOURCES MECHANISMS feedback 1.  Journal entry 1.  Anecdotal records 2.  Short answer test 2.  Observation by checklist •  Helpful advice, based on the feedback; 3.  Open response test 3.  Skills checklist and opportunities to use it. 4.  Home learning 4.  Class discussion 5.  Notebook 5.  Small group interaction •  Reflects long term not just recent short- 6.  Oral response 6.  Teacher – student term learning goals 7.  Portfolio entry conference •  Low stakes; emphasis is on helpful, 8.  Exhibition 7.  Assessment stations 9.  Culminating product 8.  Exit cards honest feedback/self-assessment 9.  Problem posing 10.  Question writing •  Informs subsequent instruction. 11.  Problem solving 10. Performance tasks and 47 rubrics 48©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 8
  • 9. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Determining Needed Formative What are some types of formative Assessments for your Unit based assessment you want to use and are On Stage 1 comfortable using? Using the chart you just completed on the need for •  Continue reviewing your Stage 1 design for the formative assessments, identify types of upcoming unit you will be teaching. assessments and the purpose of the •  Identify key understandings, essential questions assessments you have in mind? For instance, and concepts or knowledge and skills that you how will you determine students’ ability to use should examine progress toward the goals of key vocabulary, what type of preliminary review Stage 1. Some of these assessments might be ongoing and some might be pre-cursors to and feedback will you give on writing summative evaluations. assignments, performance tasks? How will you Use the Stage 2 template to outline what formative assess understandings, essential questions, assessments you think you need. prior to the summative performance tasks? 49 50 Some examples of Formative and ongoing differentiated assessments assessment are engaging which could be formative or learning activities summative to assess The key criteria in making an progress toward activity an assessment is the kind feedback given to students understandings 52 Beyond IQ STERNBERG’S INTELLIGENCES •  Robert Sternberg ANALYTICAL Linear – Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential use of intellect rather than quantity of it PRACTICAL Street smart – Contextual – Focus on Use intelligence as problem-solving CREATIVE Innovator – Outside the Box – What If analytical An idea for assessing students according to Sternberg’s intelligences would be to use the following scenario: practical Triarchic Theory! Imagine you are driving with your parents and they are listening to the radio. An interesting piece comes on about something you do not know. As creative you listen, you get more and more interested. What do you want to know? Do you want to know all the little details that go into it? Do you want to know how it is being used? Do you want to know only enough information to think of other things to do? Students who choose the first question fall into the analytic intelligence, the second corresponds to practical and those who choose the final question 53 are the creative learners. 54 54©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 9
  • 10. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences ANALYTICAL Linear – Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential Show the parts of _________ and how they work. Biology Explain why _______ works the way it does. Diagram how __________ affects __________________. Identify the key parts of _____________________. Present a step-by-step approach to _________________. PRACTICAL Street-smart – Contextual – Focus on Use Analytical Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work. Use a cause/effect chain or some other Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____. format you develop to show how each Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used. Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of part of a cell affects other parts as well ______________, develop a plan to address the problem. as the whole. Use labels, directional CREATIVE Innovator – Outside the Box – What If - Improver markers, and other symbols as Find a new way to show _____________. appropriate to ensure that someone Use unusual materials to explain ________________. who is pretty clueless about how a cell Use humor to show ____________________. Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________. works will be enlightened after they Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________. study your work. Become a ____ and use your “new” perspectives to help us think about ____________. 55 56 55 Biology Biology Practical Look around you in your world or the broader world Creative for systems that could serve as analogies for the Use unlikely stuff to depict the structure and cell. Select your best analogy (“best” meaning most function of the cell, with emphasis on clearly matched, most explanatory or enlightening). interrelationships among each of the parts. Devise a way to make the analogy clear and visible You should select your materials carefully to to an audience of your peers, ensuring that they will reveal something important about the cell, its develop clearer and richer insights about how a cell parts, and/or their interrelationships. Your works by sharing in your work. Be sure to emphasize both the individual functions of cell parts “ahas” should trigger ours. and the interrelationships among the parts. 57 58 Learning Modalities Parallel Lines Cut by a Transversal •  Visual: Make posters showing all the Visual angle relations formed by a pair of parallel lines cut by a transversal. Be sure to color Auditory code definitions and angles, and state the relationships between all possible angles. Kinesthetic 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 59 60©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 10
  • 11. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Parallel Lines Cut by a Transversal Parallel Lines Cut by a •  Auditory: Play “Shout Out!!” Given the Transversal diagram below and commands on strips of paper •  Kinesthetic: Walk It (with correct answers provided), players take Tape the diagram below on the floor with turns being the leader to read a command. The masking tape. Two 1 first player to shout out a correct answer to the players stand in 2 4 3 command, receives a point. The next player assigned angles. As a 5 team, they have to tell 6 8 becomes the next leader. Possible commands: what they are called 7 –  Name an angle supplementary (i.e.: vertical angles) supplementary to angle 1. and their relationships 2 1 3 (i.e.: congruent). Use –  Name an angle congruent 5 4 all angle combinations, 6 8 to angle 2. 7 even if there is not a name or relationship. Smith & Smart, 2005 61 (i.e.: 2 and 7) Smith & Smart, 2005 62 The Road Not Taken The Road Not Taken 10th Grade English 10th Grade English "  Research Frost’s life, making a “stepping stones” diagram of his life, similar to the ones you created for your own life earlier The task card reads: this month. We have been working with how writers’ lives (and ours) are "  Develop a sounds cape which takes us along Frost’s “journey like metaphors which they (we) create through actions an deeds in the woods” using music, found sounds, sound effects, and —including writing. Robert Frost wrote a poem called “The appropriate mime, body sculpture or narration to help your Road Not Taken.” Your task is to analyze the poem as a audience understand the feelings which a “journeyer in the woods” would have as they come to straight places, metaphor for Frost’s life. To do that, you should: landmarks, decision points, etc. "  Find the poem, read it, interpret it, and reach consensus on what’s "  Create an “overlay” of his life and the poem, using words and going on with it and what it means. images in such a way that they illustrate the metaphorical relationships between the two. "  Transfer the key ideas in the poem to the life and experience of a noted person about whom we are all likely to know a bit – and about whom we are likely to be able to learn a bit more. Your “transfer” must be shared with the class in a way which is clear in regard to the person and the poem, and clarifying in regard to ways in which literature can help us understand 63 ourselves. 64 64 The Road Not Taken Design an engaging assessment 10th Grade English where there are options for demonstrating learning •  Using the examples you have just seen: "  Be certain that your final products demonstrate your understanding of metaphor, the relationship between varied art forms in communicating human meaning, and details of the people and Sternberg’s Triarchic or Learning Modalities poem with whom/which you are working. "  As usual, you should appoint a group leader and materials monitor. Visual, Auditory, and kinesthetic, Determine the best roles for each person in your group to play in completing your task. Develop a written work plan, including a timeline and group conference times. In the end, be ready to share design an assessment based on a the rubric by which your group’s work should be assessed component in Stage 1- either an (including required elements as well as your own sense of what else constitutes an appropriate product.) You may have up to 30 minutes to make your presentation(s) – plus a ten minute question understanding or essential question. Enter exchange with others in the class who view your work. this on your template 65 You have 12 minutes for this task. 66©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 11
  • 12. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Some other types of formative Other formative Assessment Strategies assessments to use for exercises or and Checks for Understanding checks for understandings Work alone or with a partner. The following slides provide information on •  Read over the examples in the next some types of formative assessments that 12 slides. may be new to you. We will review and •  Make note of any questions you may discuss these using a jigsaw approach. have. •  How could you use these strategies to drive instruction? •  How will ongoing assessment help you teach for success? 67 68 YES Squaring Off Yes/No Cards NO •  Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on one side Whole Group Assessment and NO on the other. 1. Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the following words or phrases that are effective ways to group according to •  When a question is asked the students hold up YES or NO. learner knowledge. 1.  Ask the students if they know the following vocabulary Rarely ever Sometimes Often I have it! words and what they mean. Dirt road Paved road Highway Yellow brick road 2.  Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES they may be 2.  Tell the students to go to the corner of the room that matches called on to give the correct answer. their place in the learning journey. 3.  Remind them that if they don’t know the words it is OK 3.  Participants go to the corner that most closely matches their because they will be learning them. own learning status and discuss what they know about the topic and why they chose to go there. 4.  You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas, etc. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press. 69 Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t 70 Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press. 70 Thumb It! Fist of Five •  Have students respond with the position of their Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1 thumb to get an assessment of what their current being lowest and 5 the highest. understanding of a topic being studied. •  Where I am now in my understanding of ______? Ask, How well do you feel you know this information? 5.  I know it so well I could explain it to anyone. Up Sideways Down 5.  I can do it alone. Full Speed Ahead! Slow Down, I’m getting Stop! I’m lost. 5.  I need some help. confused. 5.  I could use more practice. 1. I am only beginning. 71 Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t 72 Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 12
  • 13. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Assessment Strategies to Support Success 1. Whip Around: Assessment) Assessment Strategies to Support Success •  Teacher poses question •  Students write response 3. Quartet Quiz: (Assessment) •  Students read written responses rapidly, in –  Teacher poses question specified order. –  Students write/prepare response •  Teacher takes notes •  Develop closure / clarification / summary –  Students meet in quads and check answers 2. Status checks: (Assessment) –  Summarizer reports, “We know/ We •  Thumbs up/thumbs down/ wiggle palm wonder” •  Colored cards (red, green, yellow) –  Teacher records on board •  Windshield –  Closure/clarification/next steps –  73 74 Assessment Strategies to Support Success Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Civil Rights. 4. Jigsaw Check: (Review/Assessment) •  Teacher assigns students to groups of 5-6 Write as much as you can. •  Teacher gives each student a question card, posing a Key understanding question •  Students read their question to group Definition Information •  Scorecard Keeper records # of students for each question who are: •  Really sure •  Pretty sure •  Foggy •  clueless Patriotism •  Students scramble to groups with same question they have/ Examples Non-Examples prepare solid answer •  Go back to original groups, share answers •  Re-read questions •  Re-do scoreboard •  Report before and after scoreboards 75 76 Journal Prompts for Ongoing Assessment PICTURE WORDS A. Write a step by step B. Write a set of directions set of directions, for someone who is including diagrams going to solve a problem in their life by using the and computations, to kind of math problem show someone who we’ve studied this week. has been absent how Explain their problem Variables to do the kind of first. Be sure the directions address their problem we’ve problem, not just the worked with this computations. week. 77 78©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 13
  • 14. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Checks for Understanding and Self Assessment Teacher prepared pretests KWL charts and other graphic organizers •  Student rubric Writing prompts/samples Questioning •  Check list Guess Box Picture Interpretation •  Journal entries for reflection Prediction •  Informal checks for understanding Teacher observation/checklists Student demonstrations and discussions -Hand signals Initiating activities Informational surveys/Questionnaires/Inventories -Index card summaries and questions (3-2-1, big Student interviews ideas of lesson, something you don’t fully Student products and work samples Self-evaluations understand. Portfolio analysis -Think and draw Game activities Show of hands to determine understanding •  Web or concept map Drawing related to topic or content Standardized test information •  Two minutes essay Anticipation journals 79 80 Checks for Understanding and More Traditional Formative Self Assessments Assessments Using your Stage 2 template, list 5 or There are times within when a daily quiz or more checks for understanding or self short answer or multiple choice formative assessments you can use at the end assessment is appropriate. For example, vocabulary quiz, timelines, problems, etc. of daily lessons in your unit on a specific component of Stage 1. List and specific traditional paper and pen assessments on knowledge and skill from Stage 1 on your Stage 2 template. 81 82 Why have students self assess and reflect on their learning? •  To gain insight into how sophisticated and accurate a student’s view is of the tasks, criteria, and standards he or she is to master (for both the student’s and teacher’s Student Self Assessment benefit) •  To evaluate ongoing progress •  To establish goals for improvement •  To identify prejudices and habits related to learning 84©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 14
  • 15. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design The goal of self assessment Types of Self Assessments and reflection and Reflections 1. Rubrics and other scoring tools to evaluate •  The long term goal is for students to understanding of content and skills that are used practice enough self assessment by both the teacher and the student for both specific tasks and long term progress (developed by the teacher and under the 2. Self reflections about the process and products teacher’s guidance) to create their own of their work and learning prejudices assessments or checklist about their 3. Ongoing short self assessments and reflections progress, evaluate their performance, and to determine the level of understanding and require the student to be self-critical in daily set goals independently lessons and activities 85 86 6 Steps in Using Rubrics Some criteria to consider for to Improve Proficiency habits of mind rubrics 1.  Involve students in developing the rubric •  I am aware of my own thinking. 2.  Teach students to apply the criteria •  I plan carefully before I begin work. 3.  Give students a new task to perform •  I am aware of available resources that 4.  Teach students to evaluate the performances could help me complete a task. of peers or have students evaluate their own •  I listen to and evaluate feedback to decide performance if I need to change my approach to a task. 5.  Give students feedback on their self-evaluation •  I evaluate how well I am doing. 6.  Help students develop plans for improvement Fairfax Co Public Schools. Performance Assessing Student Outcomes, Assessment for Language Students 87 88 Marzano, Pickering, McTighe. 1993 Some criteria to consider Where to use self assessments and for habits of mind rubrics reflections in the design process •  I am accurate in my work. •  In gathering evidence of a student’s •  I am clear in my work. understanding (as part of stage 2) as part of performance tasks or other evidence •  I am open-minded. •  In designing lessons and activities which •  I avoid acting without thinking. will provide students ongoing feedback on •  I state my ideas or opinion if the issue or there progress at the beginning, middle situation warrants it. and end of units •  I am sensitive to the feelings, knowledge, •  In having students reflect, over time, their and abilities of others. progress toward meeting standards, learning goals, and habits of learning Assessing Student Outcomes. 89 90 Marzano, Pickering, McTighe. 1993©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 15
  • 16. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Some guidelines for constructing rubrics Some criteria to consider and other scoring tools for students for habits of mind rubrics •  Use reiterative core performance tasks and accompanying •  I work hard on tasks when the answers or scoring tools to assess whether student understanding is solutions are difficult to find. becoming more sophisticated over time. •  I push myself to try things that I’m not sure I can •  Use scoring tools that will evoke misunderstanding. do. •  Require students to self-assess their previous as well as •  I create, trust, and use standards for evaluating their present work. my own work. •  Use longitudinal rubrics along a novice-expert continuum •  I find new ways of looking at situations that are (scoring standards that remain the same over time) not different from the usual ways in which people merely task-specific rubrics. look at them. •  Use rubrics and scoring tools that get at whether or not the student sees the big picture Assessing Student Outcomes. Educative Assessment, Grant Wiggins, 1998. Chapter 4 91 92 Marzano, Pickering, McTighe. 1993 Short self assessments for daily Using data from self lessons and activities assessments and reflections •  Short essays during or at end of class •  To set goals for future learning related to understanding key concepts or the day’s lessons •  To correct misconceptions •  Assessing a complex or difficult task •  To improve current performance task •  Exploring feelings about habits of learning •  To determine strengths and weaknesses •  Informal checks for understanding on specific task or longitudinal work •  To evaluate learning prejudices 93 94 Student Self Assessment •  Design at least two student self assessments that you can use at the end of a daily lesson that will take around 5 Providing Feedback minutes. Match these to a specific component in Stage 1. Enter on student On Assessments self assessment in your Stage 2 template. •  You have about 7 minutes for this task. 95©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 16
  • 17. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design What does this research based Feedback Strategies quote mean for your assessments? •  Timing: When given and how often “The quality and quantity of •  Amount: Prioritize: how many points made, and feedback is directly how much about each point proportionate to the increase in •  Mode: Oral, written, visual/demonstration achievement.” Grant Wiggins •  Audience: Individual or group/class Susan Bookhart: How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students 98 Strategies to Help Students Learn Feedback Content To Use Feedback •  Focus: On the work or process, on self-regulation, •  Model giving and using feedback yourself. on student personally •  Teach students self- and peer assessments. •  Comparison: To criteria for good work (criterion), •  Be clear about the learning target and the to other students( norm referenced) criteria for good work. (clear directions, rubrics, •  Function: Description, evaluation/judgment etc. Have students practice writing rubrics. •  Valence: positive or negative •  Design lessons in which students use feedback •  Clarity: clear to the student or unclear on previous work to produce better work or with •  Specificity: Nitpicky, just right or overly general similar assignments with same learning targets. •  Tone: Implications and what the student will hear. •  Provide opportunities for students to make Susan Bookhart: How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students connections between feedback and 99 improvement. Susan Bookhart: Effective Feedback 100 Alternatives to consider for feedback Examining Feedback Match to and grading not related to a numerical or letter grade scale Student Assessments •  Labels of levels of responses: i.e., excellent, •  Given what you’ve just seen and satisfactory, progressing, needs improvement or discussed, now examine the formative advanced, complete, incomplete, incorrect or not assessments you’ve created to determine accurate. what feedback strategies and the content •  Written comments: i.e., full grasp of concepts, of that feedback would be most misunderstanding of___, creative response, full appropriate for each of the assessments understanding, partial understanding. you have designed so far. •  Formative assessments, if graded with a letter grade, should not “count” as much as summative •  Use the formative assessment worksheet assessments in the grading period or unit to add this information. grades. Consider progress 101 102©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 17
  • 18. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Match the Assessment Evidence Summative Assessment Of Learning and Engagement with the Learning Goals and Assessment of Understanding = 104 Just because the student “knows 6 Facets of Understanding: it” … evoking better evidence •  Evidence of understanding is a –  explanation – student theories - ‘the why’ greater challenge than evidence that –  interpretation – meaning, stories, translations the student knows a correct or valid made by student answer –  application – of knowledge in (new) context – Understanding can only be inferred if we –  perspective – awareness of other points of see evidence that the student knows view, critical stance why (it works, it is important) knows how –  empathy – “walk in the shoes of...” (to apply it) –  self-knowledge – wisdom, “knowing thyself”, aware of one’s prejudices and habits of mind 105 106 © Understanding by Design, McTighe and Wiggins © Understanding by Design, McTighe and Wiggins Guiding Principles of Performance Ongoing Feedback on Performance Assessments Task •  Often occur over time •  Harvard Assessment Seminars: –  "Secondly... an overwhelming majority are •  Result in a tangible product or observable convinced that their best learning takes place performance when they have a chance to submit an early •  Encourage self-evaluation and revision version of their work, get detailed feedback and criticism, and then hand in a final revised •  Require judgment to score version... •  Reveal degrees of proficiency based on –  Many students observe that their most criteria established and made public prior to memorable learning experiences have come the performance from courses where such opportunities are •  Sometimes involve students working together routine policy." 107 108©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 18
  • 19. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Descriptors for Authentic Performance Task Example Performance Tasks Sixth Grade “Mathematics” Task Build a “dream house” that •  What is done in the real world requires floor plans, square •  Address realistic problems footage details, cost analyses, •  Have realistic options financing.* •  A realistic audience *Actual task created by Robert E. Freeman, Public Schools of Robeson County, Lumberton, North Carolina. •  A genuine purpose 109 110 Example: Mail-Order Example: What’s Wrong with Holden? Friend •  You are a member of Holden Caulfield’s case-review committee •  Imagine that you could order a at the hospital from which Holden is friend from a mail-order friends telling his story. Your task is to catalog. Before ordering, think about write: the qualities that you value in a true –  1) a diagnostic report for the hospital friend. Then, make sure that you OR speak clearly so that the –  2) a letter to Holden’s parents salesperson will know exactly what explaining what’s wrong with him. type of person to send you. •  Base your analysis on Holden’s own 111 words. 112 Example: Teach a Example: Spot Remover Lesson •  Chris wants to decide which of two spot •  You have been asked to help a removers is best. First, he tried Spot Remover A on a T-shirt that had fruit third grader understand the stains and chocolate stains. Next, he he economic concept of “supply and tried Spot Remover B on jeans that had grass stains and rust stains. Then he demand”. Design a plan for a 5 compared the results. minute lesson. You may wish to •  What did Chris do wrong that will make it hard for him to know which spot remover use examples (e.g., Beanie is best? Explain how he could decide Babies or Pokémon cards), which spot remover is best. visuals, or manipulatives to help them understand. 113 114©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 19
  • 20. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Example: Explorers Example: State Tour Wanted •  The Department of Tourism has asked •  You are an out-of-work global explorer. You want to your help in planning a four-day tour of present your application and resume to be employed by (your state) for a group of foreign the crown (European king or queen) to make one final visitors. Plan the tour to help the voyage of discovery to the new world. Your goal is to visitors understand the state’s history, geography and its key economic recapture your past glory and achieve new success. assets. Your resume and application should focus on your past •  You should prepare a written itinerary, achievements and discoveries. including an explanation of why each site was included on the tour. 115 116 Example: Day Care Example: Tribal Council Center •  You have been hired by a day care agency to •  Imagine that you are a member of the fence in an area to be used for a play area. council of elders of a Native American You have been provided with 60 feet of fencing (in 4’ sections) and a 4’ gate. How tribe living on the plains. Discuss - can you put up the fence so the children will have the maximum amount of space in which “What should we do when threatened to play? with relocation – fight, flee, or agree •  Submit your plan for the playground area. to move (to a reservation)? What Include a diagram, your calculations, and a summary of why this is the best design. impact would each course of action have on our lives?” 117 118 Example: Making the Scenario Example for Science Grade –  The goal is to determine the best solution for evaluating water quality and usability for recreational purposes in •  Your math teacher will allow you to select your city. the method (i.e., mean, median or mode) by –  Role: You are the director of the water authority –  Audience are members of the city council who must which your quarterly grade will be make final decisions on usability based on your calculated. recommendations. –  Situation: You must plan and assess the water quality •  Review your grades for quizzes, tests, and from at least 5 different fresh water locations in your homework to decide which measure of city, conduct experiments, and write a report for non- central tendency will be best for your scientists on your findings and recommendations. –  Products or Performances: Identified experiments, situation. Write a note to your teacher tests, and results from 5 water samples. Written or oral explaining why you selected that method. report with visuals and recommendations to explain the conditions and analysis of each water site. 119 120©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 20
  • 21. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Social Studies Scenario Example Scenarios for Authentic Tasks T for an Authentic Performance Task •  Build assessments anchored in –  Your goal is to determine why the urban riots of authentic tasks using GRASPS: G the late 60s happened. You are one of many –  What is the Goal in the scenario? august members of an LBJ appointed panel, the R –  What is the Role? Kerner Commission, who must report to the A –  Who is the Audience? president and the country on why the violence S –  What is your Situation (context)? happened and what can be done about it. P –  What is the Performance challenge? –  You will produce a collective report that must be thoughtful, thorough, and clearly presented. Your S –  By what Standards will work be judged personal contribution will be judged through in the scenario? journal entries, observations of work and See for specific examples 121 discussion, and sections of writing you produce.122 Differentiating an Assessment GRASPS for Westward Movement Task •  G-Demonstrate understanding of life on the prairie and •  Create a museum display, including artifacts, the westward movement for early American pioneers pictures, and diary entries, depicting a week in •  R- you are a museum director responsible for displays the life of a family of settlers living on the prairie. and artifacts of life on the prairie •  A-museum goers •  The display should also include a “map of the •  S-As part of the display, you must gather artifacts, pictures, and diary entries, depicting a week in the life of settlement” and a description of how the a family of settlers living on the prairie. geography of the region impacted the •  P- various products representing the hardships, settlement. A written or oral explanation will challenges, courage, and ingenuity of pioneers including provide students the opportunity to demonstrate pioneer children. how their museum display expresses their •  S-completeness and accuracy of display, use of varied understanding of the Westward Movement. 123 resources. Individual work and group work evaluated 124 !"#$ Assessment Task before DI After Differentiation –  G – Students will demonstrate an This task will address understandings in understanding of what a pioneer is through the unit posed through the following their depiction of conditions in settlements on questions: How does a week in the life the prairie as a result of the Westward show the courage, ingenuity, and Movement. collaboration of the pioneers? How does –  R – Your group has been hired by the the reality of life differ from what was museum director to collect and display expected? How does the display depict artifacts, documents, and personal memoirs the “Pioneer Spirit?” from the Westward Movement. •  Your group will work together to create your 125 !"%$ display. 126 !"&$©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 21
  • 22. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design After Differentiation After Differentiation •  Individually, each student will choose to show their learning through taking on a role to explain the –  A – Museum visitors ranging in age from first importance of the display. grade through adult wanting to understand what – Docent – Explain orally what each item in the life on the prairie was truly like. display tells us about life on the prairie. –  S – Your group has access to, or will create, a – Museum Curator – Defend why the display includes number of submitted artifacts for the museum. the items it does. Your job is to select a variety of display items – Historian – explaining the historical significance of which will show the joys and triumphs of life on each item the prairie. – Writer – preparing to write a new novel about the –  P – The display (from the group) will include: prairie and how each item might be used in the •  Documents (including diaries, letters and/or novel journals), pictures and visual displays, and/or – Journalist – giving a review of the display and its artifacts of collected items used in everyday impact for the local newspaper life. – Troubadour – Write a theme song depicting life on 127 !"$ the prairie based on the display 128 !"($ After Differentiation After Differentiation – Each student will contribute at least one item for •  Individual evaluation will be based on: the display •  Accuracy and significance of the item contributed to the •  A written or oral product explaining the items in display the exhibit. This should articulate how the realities •  Oral or written product including proper use of of pioneer life differed from expectations and vocabulary from differentiated roles following the exemplify the “Pioneer Spirit.” It should include an creation of the display explanation of what a “pioneer” is, demonstrate – Demonstration of understanding of both the knowledge of the details of settlements and pioneer hardships and opportunities on the prairie life, explain the relationship how geography – Explanation of how the realities of the prairie differed from the expectations impacts settlement, and provide evidence that students understand and can use the correct •  Individual peer description of each members’ contribution vocabulary. 129 •  Individual self-evaluation 130 !")$ !#*$ Summative Performance Task To Assess Understandings of Your Directions for authentic task work Unit •  Using the GRASPS model or a narrative •  Using the GRASPS model or a narrative model, model, develop an assessment that develop an assessment that demonstrates real world relevance to your topic and that will show demonstrates real world relevance to transfer of learning. your topic and that will show transfer of •  Identify the understandings you will address and learning. determine the goal(s) for performance or product •  Identify the criteria you will use to •  Identify the criteria you will use to evaluate this evaluate this task. task. •  Use the examples and tools in your packet of •  Use the Stage 2 GRASPS section of handouts. your template to complete this work. •  Use your Stage 2 template for you unit and label 131 132 as GRASPS.©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 22
  • 23. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Goal is “Educative Assessment” Performance Assessment Review •  Better Feedback, More Consistent and Valid •  Based on the following criteria we will Scoring examine your authentic tasks together to –  Rubrics de-mystify standards and grades seek feedback and guidance related to •  Students need to know what quality looks like and the following: where they stand and why, if they are too improve performance -Authenticity –  Rubrics make for more consistent scoring across time -Credible Evidence and across teachers -Instructional Worthiness –  Rubrics tend to make scoring more valid, less arbitrary -User Friendliness With someone at your table group, exchange 133 tasks and examine for the criteria above. 134 Sound and credible results: Sound results = inferences based! Assessment Summary on multiple ! sources of Assessment is the key to appropriate! improvement in teaching and data, collected learning; it is not just evaluation. over time.! 136 © Understanding by Design, McTighe and Wiggins Reliability: Snapshot vs. For Reliability & Sufficiency: Photo Album Use a Variety of Assessments •  We need patterns that overcome •  Varied types, over time: inherent measurement error – authentic tasks and projects –  Sound assessment (particularly of State – academic exam questions, prompts, Standards) requires multiple evidence over time - a photo album vs. a single snapshot and problems – quizzes and test items – informal checks for understanding – student self-assessments 137 138 © Understanding by Design, McTighe and Wiggins © Understanding by Design, McTighe and Wiggins©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 23
  • 24. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design 3 Stages of Design: Stage 3 1. Identify desired results Introduction to Stage 3 2. Determine acceptable evidence ACQUISITION, MAKING MEANING AND TRANSFER: 3. Plan learning experiences LEARNING PRINCIPLES & instruction 139 140 Stage 3: Aligning Lessons and Activities to Stages 1 and 2 It’s About Selecting Appropriate In developing a day by day design of lessons and Instructional Strategies activities we must keep the following in mind: •  Think about your most successful instructional strategies that you use 1. We must address all the elements in Stage 1 frequently. List up to 10 on an index card. 2. We have to prepare students to be successful on the performances and other evidences including self assessment (it’s ok to teach to the test in UbD as we •  This is a starting point in thinking about looking for transfer) matching the most effective instructional 3. Activities and lessons must be meaningful and strategies to meet desired results. engaging and address the needs of diverse populations 4. This is the primary stage for differentiation 141 142 Acquisition Acquire information •  A fact is a fact; a skill is a skill. We acquire each Acquisition does not yield in turn, either through direct instruction or self- understanding; learning. The teaching methods used in it is necessary but not sufficient. acquisition are familiar and include various techniques of direction instruction including If I have skills and facts, it does not mean lecture presentation, advanced/graphic that I understand. organizers, convergent questioning, and demonstration/modeling. The cognitive work I cannot, however, understand without those involves the apprehension of new material and skills and facts. the goal is automaticity: I can recall it and plug it in on cue “unthinkingly.” 143 144 © Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 2010©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 24
  • 25. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Most Common Acquisition Strategies More Acquisition Strategies #  Present unit and/or lesson goals, schedule, and expectations for performance. •  Lectures #  Show models and exemplars for expected products and performances. •  Demonstrations #  Help students acquire basic information and skills through explicit instruction and question and answer and modeling. •  Readings #  Give some short form of diagnostic assessment or pre- assessment about concepts, knowledge, or skills related to the unit or lesson topic. •  Videos 145 146 •  Guest Speakers Enhancing Direct Instruction or Lectures Through: Creating Meaning Making •  Discussion partners •  Meaning making begins and unfolds •  Processing time (10-2 wait time) not so much with lessons but with •  Written outlines •  Graphic organizers questions and challenges to our •  Listening logs current understanding. © Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 2010 •  Interactive notebooks •  Signal cards •  Assessing Prior Knowledge 147 148 Meaning Making Making Meaning •  What do these facts (acquisition) imply? Or: •  That’s why we can learn content but not ‘understand’ its When should I use this skill (or not)? is to meaning or use it wisely. I might learn many facts about appropriately question what those facts or skills our 3 branches of government. But just because I have mean. I want to know (or am asked to acquired that content doesn’t mean I understand it or determine) their sense, their import, their value; I know how to apply it. What are the strengths and need to know what and how I should think about weaknesses of a 3-branch system of government? If I them. I therefore need in my learning to become have only acquired the facts, I have no good answer to better at asking questions, inquiring into the the question (unless I answer completely by a script, but then any questions put to me leave me speechless). If, meaning of things, developing a theory, and however, I have been asked to explore other challenging my own thinking and that of others. democracies and address this question at various times © Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 2010 in various ways, I have ‘made meaning’ of the facts. 149 150©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 25
  • 26. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Typical Meaning Making Meaning Making, continued Strategies •  Learning for meaning is thus quite different from •  Identifying Similarities and Differences instruction related to acquisition. Meaning making begins and unfolds not so much with •  Summarizing and Note Taking lessons but with questions and challenges to our •  Nonlinguistic Representations current understanding. Instruction that supports such active construction of meaning must •  Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers therefore include various inquiry-oriented •  Generating Hypotheses approaches (e.g., Problem-Based Learning, Socratic Seminar, Reciprocal Teaching), divergent questioning & probing, concept From A Handbook of Classroom Instruction that Works. Robert attainment, use of analogies, understanding Marzano, et al. ASCD notebook, rethinking and reflection prompts, etc. 151 152 © Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 2010 Constructing meaning Making Meaning We can learn content but not ‘understand’ its What do these facts imply? meaning or use it wisely. What are the strengths and weaknesses of a 3- When would I use this skill (or not)? branch system of government? If I have only acquired the facts, I have no good answer to the question (unless I answer What is their sense, import, value? completely by a script, but then any questions put to me leave me speechless). ©Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins. 2010 153 154 Instruction that supports active construction of meaning: Transfer Problem-Based Learning •  Yet, meaning-making may not be enough an Socratic Seminar achievement either. Just because I have an Reciprocal Teaching academic understanding of our government, it doesn’t follow that I could ‘transfer’ that Questioning & probing understanding to help design the new Iraqi Concept attainment activities government or be a model citizen in our country. Use of analogies Vice versa: I could be an excellent legislator or Understanding notebooks justice (i.e. how to transfer my principles to Rethinking and reflection prompts specific cases) but weak on the intellectual history, and have gaps in my recall of the facts of many laws. 155 156©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 26
  • 27. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Transfer •  Transfer is a different goal from meaning making though clearly related to it. Having acquired lots of knowledge and skill, and having been helped to make sense of what it means or how it might be useful, I now must draw from my repertoire to wisely and effectively apply my learning to new specific situations – and the learning plan must equip me to do so. •  We propose that “teaching for transfer” requires the teacher to function like a coach in athletics and the arts. Thus, the learner needs many opportunities to try to perform in contexts – to apply their learning to increasingly complex and authentic situations, as the teacher provides specific prompting, feedback, and guidance; then removes the scaffolding gradually. Of course there is a role for direct instruction and modeling, but always in the context of trying to improve (increasingly autonomous) transfer performance on worthy tasks: the ultimate goal of transfer is to make the 157 158 coach barely needed. © Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 2010 Typical Transfer Activities •  Create a product or performance as an assessment or activity that is authentic (real world if possible). RAFT or GRASPS. •  Develop a hypothesis-Design an experimental inquiry to test it. •  Select and use problem-solving and decision making strategies previously learned in new and unique situations. •  Give a persuasive speech based on research on a specific topic and persuasion. 159 160 Do not transfer their learning Don’t demand higher-order thinking frequently enough Do not know what to do when stuck or confronted with complex challenges Overlook long-term goals and end up as ‘coverage’ Think successful learning equals accurate recall Are needlessly bored 161 162©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 27
  • 28. Assessment and Learning PrinciplesWithin Understanding by Design Transfer, Make Meaning, Some Examples of TMA Acquire •  Students are provided with 4 demonstrations of Learning is this constant back and physical events (pendulum, shooter of pellets, forth of the three elements, in all car slowing down, sling) and asked to explain them in terms of Newtonian principles and the sequences: Acquire, Make question “Why does that move the way it does?” M Meaning, Transfer. •  Students are asked to generalize from laboratory data M •  Students read the textbook on the 3 laws of Newton and take a quiz on their reading A •  Students must build a working roller coaster based on their learning about forces, vectors, and Newtonian laws T 163 164 Examples of TMA •  Students read a story with new words important to the story M Students receive, learn, and memorize words from a Contact Information vocabulary list A •  Students group the words and consider: Janie Smith who needs to know this word? M •  Students play Scrabble and do Crossword Puzzles T 165 Below is a link to ASCD’s online Professional Development Feedback Survey. We encourage all participants to complete the online evaluation within the next ten (10) days. All responses will be anonymously reported to ASCD. Evaluating your Experience SurveyID=98K2mpl Thank you for taking the time to honestly evaluate the program. The results we receive help us to improve the quality of services you receive 167©Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Janie Smith, ASCD 28