9.1 The earth’s water supply.9.2 Water in the ground.9.3 Rivers.9.4 Oceans.9.5Waves,Tides and Currents.9.6 The depth of the sea.9.7 Deep-sea exploration.
Global Environment Awareness Lectured by: Leonard Vincent credo Presented by: Group 7
Table of Contents1. Water – The Definition2. Water Forms and Distribution3. Types of Water Uses4. Water Availability5. Fresh Water Shortage6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts7. Increase Water Supply8. Watershed Management9. Multipurpose Water Resource Management10. Conclusion and Recommendation 19
1. Water – The Definition Water is a marvelous substance which can be beautiful, powerful and destructive. 20
1.1. Water Physical Attributes Water is found in three states Liquid Solid Gas 21
2. Water Forms and Distribution About 71% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. 23
2. Water Forms and DistributionSource: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 24
2.1. Oceans Is the largest area and volume of water. Contain more than 97% of the earth’s water. Contain an average of 35g salt per liter. Can be used after being desalinated. 25
2.2. Ice and Snow Contain almost 90% of freshwater. Is as much as 2km thick. Situate mostly in Antarctica (85%), Greenland (10%), and other snow mountain (5%). 26
2.3. Groundwater Groundwater is water in the rock and soil layer beneath Earth’s surface. Absorb excess runoff rain and snow on ground. Return to lakes, streams, rivers and/or marshes. Is readily available for use and drinking. 27
2.4. Lakes Lakes are created from variety of geological events: Tectonic-basin lake Volcanic lake Glacial lake Groundwater-discharge lake Lakes generate water from: Collection of water in low areas Natural or man-made dam(s) Rivers and streams Groundwater 28
2.4. Lakes (cont.) Freshwater lakes Contribute 91,000km3 (about 0.007% of total Earth’s water) Provide water for agricultural irrigation, industrial processes, municipal uses and residential water supplies. Major freshwater lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), Baikal Lake (Russia), Tanganyika Lake (Eastern Africa), Lake Superior (U.S), and Malawi Lake (Eastern Africa) 29
2.4. Lakes (cont.) Saline lakes Possess 85,000km3 (about 0.006% of total Earth’s water) Saline lakes’ water cannot be used due to high salinity. The Great Salt Lake Major saline lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), The Great Salt Lake (U.S.), The Dead Sea (between Jordan & Israel), and Aral Sea (between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). The Dead Sea 30
2.5. Rivers and Streams Rivers and streams are bodies of flowing surface water driven by gravity. Rivers and Streams contain only 2,120km3 (about 0.6% of liquid fresh water surface and around 0.0002% of the Earth’s water.) 31
2.5. Rivers and Streams (cont.)World’s Major Rivers (based on average annual discharge) Source: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 32
2.6. Wetlands and Soil Moisture Wetland are areas of land where water covers the surface for at least part of the year. They are not as important as lakes and rivers for water storage. However, they play vital roles in: Erosion protection Flood reduction Groundwater replenishment Trapping nutrient and sediment Water purification Providing fish and wildlife habitat 33
5.7. Atmosphere Atmosphere contains about 0.001% of total Earth’s water. It is around 4% of air volume in the atmosphere. Movement of water through atmosphere provide mechanism for distributing freshwater to terrestrial reservoir (in form of rain, snow, hail…). 34
3. Types of Water Uses Basic Assumption (by UN Water) World Water Use Irrigation Industry Domestic 8% 22% 70% Source: World Water Assessment Source: Food and Agriculture Program (WWAP) Organization (FAO) 36
3. Types of Water Uses China 2008 Water Resource Report Ecological Residential 2% 12% Source: China 2008 Water Industry Resources Report 24% Agriculture 62% Cambodia 2010 Water Use Others Industry 10% 4% Domestic Source: Cambodian Ministry 17% Agriculture of Environment 56% Livestock 13% 37
a. Agriculture Irrigation Crop irrigation consume 2/3 of water withdrawal. Evaporation and seepage from unlined irrigation systems are the principal water losses. There are three types of irrigation systems: Flood Irrigation Sprinkler Irrigation Drip Irrigation 39
a. Agriculture (cont.) Aquaculture Raising fish. Raising shellfish. Raising shrimp and lobster. Raising other creatures living in water. 41
b. Thermoelectric Water is used in production of electrical power. Thermoelectric is one of the largest uses of water in U.S. In 2005, it consumed about 201,000 million gallons of water each day. Thermoelectric occupied 49% of total water use in U.S. Both freshwater and saline water are used in thermoelectric. 42
c. Industrial Industries need water to cool down their machinery to a temperature that allows the manufacturing process to keep going. Water is also needed to clean machinery, products, and buildings. 43
c. Industrial (cont.) In 2005, U.S. industrial uses were 83% (15,000 gallons/day) surface water and 17% (3,110 gallons/day) groundwater. In Cambodia, rough estimation by Water Environment Partnership in Asia showed: Major industry consumed: 1,000-2,000 m3/day Large industry consumed: 100-500 m3/day Medium & small industry: 50 m3/day 44
d. Mining Water is used for the extraction of minerals that can be in forms of: Solid: coal, iron, gold, sand – etc. Liquid: crude oil. Gas: natural gases. 45
e. Domestic Domestic water use is the consumption for household purposes – both indoor and outdoor. In Cambodia, domestic water use was around 136 million m3 (17% of total consumption). Only people in Phnom Penh can access to piped water. 85% of piped water was consumed. 46
f. Commercial Water is used in businesses such as hotels, restaurants, marketplaces, and so on. In Phnom Penh, commercial use was 14% of total piped water consumption (about 11,480 m3 per day). 47
3.2. In-Stream UsesHydropower RecreationNavigation Ecosystem Support 48
4. Water AvailabilitySource: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 49
4.2. Water Stress & Water Scarcity Water Stress: Annual water supplies is less than 1,700m3 per person. Water Scarcity: Annual water supplies is less than 1,000m3 per person. Absolute scarcity: Annual water supplies is less than 500m3 per person. 51
5. Fresh Water Shortage Fresh Water Shortage is due to: Population growth Lack of access to clean water Groundwater is being depleted Climate change / global warming Rivers and lakes are shrinking 53
Strangled by the water policies of its neighbors, Turkeyand Syria, a two-year drought and years of misuse by Iraqand its farmers, the Euphrates River is significantlysmaller than it was just a few years ago, and some officialsworry that it could soon be half of what it is now. 54
Leaky canals and wasteful irrigation practicessquandered the water, and poor drainage leftfields so salty from evaporated water. 55
In the marshes, where the Euphrates nears theend of its 1,730-mile journey and mingles withthe less salty waters of the Tigris before emptyinginto the Persian Gulf, the situation is grave. 56
Fishermen in the Hafar Canal, a shallowtributary of the Euphrates River. 57
10 year drought in the Colorado River basin. 20071983 58
6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts Water Overuse Overuse in agriculture Overuse in residence Overuse in community Some interesting facts: Water needed to produce our daily food: 40 liters to produce 1 slice of white bread. 70 liters to produce 1 apple. 1,300 liters to produce 1kg of wheat. 3,400 liters to produce 1kg of rice. 3,900 liters to produce 1kg of chicken meat. 15,500 liters to produce 1kg of beef. 59
7. Increase Water Supply Water Conservation Reclamation of sewage water Development of groundwater Desalinization Developing salt-resistant crops Developing drought-resistant crops Rainmaking Harvesting iceberg Long distance water transport Improve integration of water use 60
8. Watershed Management Watershed – the definition A watershed is a connected series of streams, rivers, and lakes that collects water from a specific area of land. Watersheds are important habitats for animals and plants, and offer a source of drinking and recreational water for many communities. 61
Tips on How to Save Water Increasing water resources start from all of us! Don’t flush every time you use the toilet. Take shorter showers Don’t wash your car so often. Don’t let the faucet run while washing hands, dishes, food, or brushing your teeth. Don’t run the dishwasher when half full. Dispose of used motor oil, household hazardous waste, batteries, etc., responsibly. 62
Tips on How to Save Water Don’t dump anything down a storm sewer that you DOWNLOAD OUR wouldn’t want to drink. Avoid using toxic or hazardous chemicals for simple PRESENTATION AT cleaning or plumbing jobs. If you have a lawn, use water sparingly. Water your grass www.leonpower.com.ph and garden at night, not in the middle of the day. Use water-conserving appliances: low-flow showers, low- flush toilets, and aerated faucets. Use recycled (gray) water for lawns, house plants, car washing. Check your toilet for leaks. 63
Prepared by: Leonard Vincent CredoPresented by: Group 7
Ground Water• ground water: the water that lies beneath the ground surface, filling the pore space between grains in bodies of sediment and clastic sedimentary rock, and filling cracks and crevices in all types of rock• ground water is a major economic resource, particularly in the dry western areas of the US and Canada• source of ground water is rain and snow that falls to the ground a portion of which percolates down into the ground to become ground water
Porosity and Permeability• porosity: the percentage of rock or sediment that consists of voids or openings• permeability: the capacity of a rock to transmit a fluid such as water or petroleum through pores and fractures• porous: a rock that holds much water• permeable: a rock that allows water to flow easily through it• impermeable: a rock that does not allow water to flow through it easily
The Water Table• saturated zone: the subsurface zone in which all rock openings are filled with water• water table: the upper surface of the zone of saturation• vadose zone: a subsurface zone in which rock openings are generally unsaturated and filled partly with air and partly with water; above the saturated zone• capillary fringe: a transition zone with higher moisture content at the base of the vadose zone just above the water table
The Water Table (cont.)• perched water table: the top of a body of ground water separated from the main water table beneath it by a zone that is not saturated
The Movement of Ground Water• most ground water moves relatively slowly through rock underground• because it moves in response to differences in water pressure and elevation, water within the upper part of the saturated zone tends to move downward following the slope of the water table Movement of ground water beneath a sloping water table in uniformly permeable rock. Near the surface the ground water tends to flow parallel to the sloping water table
Movement of Ground Water (cont.)• factors affecting the flow of ground water: • the slope of the water table - the steeper the water table, the faster ground water moves • permeability - if rock pores are small and poorly connected, water moves slowly; when openings are large and well connected, the flow of water is more rapid
Aquifers• aquifer: a body of saturated rock or sediment through which water can move easily• good aquifers include sandstone, conglomerate, well-joined limestone, bodies of sand and gravel, and some fragmental or fractured volcanic rocks such as columnar basalt• aquitards: when the porosity of a rock is 1% or less and therefore retards the flow of ground water
Aquifers (cont.)• unconfined aquifer: a partially filed aquifer exposed to the land surface and marked by a rising and falling water table• confined aquifer (artesian aquifer): an aquifer completely filled with pressurized water and separated from the land surface by a relatively impermeable confining bed, such as shale
Wells• well: a deep hole, generally cylindrical, that is dug of drilled into the ground to penetrate an aquifer within the saturated zone• recharge: the addition of new water to the saturated zone• the water table in an unconfined aquifer rises in wet seasons and falls in dry seasons as water drains out of the saturated zone into rivers Wet season: water table and rivers are high; Dry season: water table and rivers are low; springs and wells flow readily some springs and wells dry up
Wells (cont.)• cone of depression: a depression of the water table formed around a well when water is pumped out; it is shaped like an inverted cone• drawdown: the lowering of the water table near a pumped well Pumping well lowers the water table into a cone of depression
Wells (cont.)• artesian well: a well in which water rises above the aquifer Artesian well spouts water above land surface in South Dakota, early 1900s. Heave use of this aquifer has reduced water pressure so much that spouts do not occur today
Springs and Streams • spring: a place where water flows naturally from rock onto the land surface • some springs discharge where the water tableSprings can form along faultswhen permeable rock has been the land surface, but they also occur intersectsmoved against less permeable rock. where water flows out from caverns or alongArrows show relative motionalong fault fractures, faults, or rock contacts that come to the surfaceSprings form at the contact betweena permeable rock such as sandstoneand an underlying less permeablerocksuch as shaleWater enters caves along joints in limestone and exits as springs at the mouths of cavesWater moves along fractures incrystalline rock and forms springs where the fractures intersect theland surface
Springs and Streams (cont.) • gaining stream: a stream that receives water from the zone of saturation • losing stream: a stream that looses water to the zone of saturationStream gaining water from saturated zone Water table can be close to the land surface beneath a dry stream bed Stream losing water through stream bed to saturated zone
Pollution of Ground Water• pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers: chemicals that are applied to agricultural crops that can find their way into ground water when rain or irrigation water leaches the poisons downward into the soil• rain can also leach pollutants from city dumps into ground-water supplies• Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, chromium, copper, and cadmium, together with household chemicals and poisons, can all be concentrated in ground-water supplies beneath dumps
Pollution of Ground Water (cont.)• liquid and solid wastes from septic tanks, sewage plants, and animal feedlots and slaughterhouses may contain bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can contaminate ground water• acid mine drainage from coal and metal mines can contaminate both surface and ground water• radioactive waste can cause the pollution of ground water due to the shallow burial of low-level solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the nuclear power industry
Water-table slope is reversed by pumping, changingdirection of the ground-water flow, and polluting the well Pollution of Ground Watersteepens near drawing pollutants intoveloci Water table (cont.) increasing the a well of ground-water flow and a dump, • pumping wells can cause or aggravate ground- water pollution
Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge• a local supply of groundwater will last indefinitely if it is withdrawn for use at a rate equal to or less than the rate of recharge to the aquifer• if ground water is withdrawn faster than it is being recharged, however, the supply is being reduced and will one day be gone
Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge• heavy use of ground water can result in: • a regional water table dropping • deepening of a well which means more electricity is needed to pump the water to the surface • the ground surface settling because the water no longer supports the rock and sediment Subsidence of the land surface caused by the extraction of ground water, near Mendota, San Joaquin Valley, CA. Signs on the pole indicate the positions of the land surface in 1925, 1955, and 1977. The land sank 30 feet in 52 years.
Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge (cont.)• to avoid the problems of falling water tables, subsidence, and compaction, many towns use artificial recharge to increase recharge; natural floodwaters or treated industrial or domestic wastewaters are stored in infiltration ponds in the surface to increase the rate of water percolation into the ground
Effects of Ground-Water Action• caves (or caverns): naturally formed underground chamber• most caves develop when slightly acidic ground water dissolves limestone along joints and bedding planes, opening up cavern systems as calcite is carried away in solution• most caves probably are formed by ground water circulating below the water table H2O + CO2 + CaCO3 Ca++ + 2HCO3- water carbon calcite in calcium bicarbonate dioxide limestone ion ion development of caves (solution) development of flowstone and dripstone (precipitation)
Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.) • stalactites: icicle-like pendants of dripstone hanging from cave ceilings, generally slender and are commonly aligned along cracks in the ceiling, which act as conduits for ground water • stalagmites: cone-shaped masses of drip-stone formed on cave floors, generally directly below stalactitesWater moves along fractures and bedding planes in Falling water table allows cave system, now greatlylimestone, dissolving the limestone to form caves enlarged, to fill with air. Calcite precipitation formsbelow the water table stalactites, stalagmites, and columns above the water tab
Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.)Karst topography is marked by underground caves and numerous surface sinkholes. A major river maycross the region, but small surface streams generally disappear down sinkholes • karst topography: an area with many sinkholes and with cave systems beneath the land surface
Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.)• petrified wood: develops when porous buried wood is either filled in or replaced by inorganic silica carried in by ground water• concentration: a hard, round mass that develops when a considerable amount of cementing material precipitates locally in a rock, often around an organic nucleus• geodes: partly hollow, globe-shaped bodies found in some limestones and locally in other rocks Petrified log Concretions that have weathered out of shale Geodes
Hot Water Underground• hot springs: springs in which the water is warmer than human body temperature• water can gain heat in two ways while underground: • ground water may circulate near a magma chamber or a body of cooling igneous rock • ground water may circulate unusually deep in the earth
Hot Water Underground • geyser: a type of hot spring that periodically erupts hot water and stream; the water is generally near boiling (100oC) 1 3 2 4
Geothermal Energy• Electricity can be generated by harnessing naturally occurring stream and hot water in areas that are exceptionally hot underground (geothermal areas);• nonelectric uses of geothermal energy include space heating, as well as paper manufacturing, ore processing, and food preparation
Effects of Ground-Water Action (cont.) • sinkholes: closed depressions found on land surfaces underlain by limestone; they form either by the collapse of a cave roof or by solution as descending water enlarges a crack in limestone Trees grow in a sinkhole formed in limestone near Mammoth Cave, Kentucky A collapse sinkhole that formed suddenly in Winter Park, Florida, in 1981
River Nile The Nile is the longest river in the world! The river is about 4,160 miles long and can be found in Africa Although the Nile is usually associated with Egypt Only 22% of the river runs through Egypt!
River Amazon The Amazon is the second longest river in the world! The river is 3,912 miles long! It can be found in South America! No bridge crosses the river along the entire length!
Mississippi The Mississippi is the third longest river in the world stretching 3,710 miles long! You can find it in the United States! Many of Mark Twain‟s famous stories including „Adventures of Huckleberry Finn‟ tool place near the Mississippi!
River Chang Jiang The river Chang Jiang is the fourth longest river in the world! The river is 3,602 miles long! You can find it in China! The river Chang Jiang is also known asYangtze.
River Ob The River Ob is the fifth longest river in the world! The river is 3,459 miles long! You can find it in Russia! The Ob contains over 50 species of fish!
Over 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by waterOf that, 95% is salt water – only 5% is fresh water – and part of that is ice Oceans
All the oceans are really just one body of waterThis is divided into the four named oceans: Pacific Atlantic Indian Arctic Ocean names
The oceans are always in motionTides happen twice dailyTides are caused by the pull of gravity by the moon, and to a lesser degree by the sunWhy do you think the sun would pull less than the moon? Tides
There are two type of Ocean Currents:Surface Currents-Surface CirculationThese waters make up about 10% of all the water in the ocean.These waters are the upper 400 meters of the ocean. Currents
Deep Water Currents-Thermohaline Circulation These waters make up the other 90% of the ocean These waters move around the ocean basins by density driven forces and gravity The density difference is caused by different temperatures and salinity These deep waters sink into the deep ocean basins at high latitudes where the temperatures are cold enough to cause the density to increase. Currents
Ocean Currents are influenced by two types of forces1. Primary Forces--start the water movingThe primary forces are: Solar Heating Winds Gravity Coriolis effect Forces
2. Secondary Forces--influence where the currents flow Surface Circulation ◦ Solar heating cause water to expand. Near the equator the water is about 8 centimeters high than in middle latitudes. This cause a very slight slope and water wants to flow down the slope. ◦ Winds blowing on the surface of the ocean push the water. Friction occurs between the wind and the waters surface. Forces
A wind blowing for 10 hours across the ocean will cause the surface waters to flow at about 2% of the wind speed. Water will pile up in the direction the wind is blowing. Gravity will pull the water down the "hill" or pile of water. But the Coriolis Force causes the water to move to the right (in the northern hemisphere) around the mound of water. Wind
These large mounds of water and the flow around them are called Gyres. The produce large circular currents in all the ocean basins. Gyres
Remember the Coriolis Force move objects to the right in the northern hemisphere, and to the left in the southern hemisphere
MOTION IN THE OCEAN Waves, Tides, and Currents
WavesA disturbance which moves through or over the surface of a fluidMostly caused by winds (Also earthquakes, volcanoes, grav. pull)Form of great energy
Wave CharacteristicsParts of a Wave Crest = high point Trough = low point Height = vertical distance from crest to trough Wavelength = Horizontal distance between crest to crest or trough to
Wave period : time for 2 crests to pass fixed point (T) secWave speed (C) : C = wavelength / T (m/s)Wave steepness : H / wavelength When H / wavelength = 1/7 or angle at crest 120 or less = Breaker
Size of Wind Generated WavesDepends on 3 things: Wind Speed Wind Duration (length of time wind blows) “Fetch” Extent of open water across which the wind can blow
Water Motion in WavesWater travels in vertical circular orbitsWave moves, particles don‟t!
Importance of WavesShaping Coastlines Erode cliffs Grind rock into sandEcology Returns O2 to water Stir up food for filter feeders
Types of WavesCHOP – Short period (back bays)SWELL – Long period (boat rolls; seasickness)SWASH – water up beach BACKWASH – back down
TSUNAMI “TIDAL WAVE”Caused by undersea quake or volcano• Wavelength = ~150 mi. Wave height = 6” – 1’ Can NOT perceive in boat Speed > 500 mphSlows down to ~25 mph at shore; water builds up to ~65+ ft
Distance bet. Moon & EarthPerigee Tides Moon closest to earth, very high tides (causes flooding)Apogee Tides Moon farthest away from earth, very low tides
Types of Tides ContinuedDiurnal Tides 1 high & 1 low / day Parts of Gulf of Mexico and AsiaSemi-Diurnal Tides 2 high & 2 low / day Atlantic coasts of North America and EuropeMixed 2 high & 2 low / day (height varies)
Importance of Tides• Expose & submerge orgs • Circulate water in bays & estuaries • Circulates food, wastes, etc• Trigger spawning (grunion, horseshoe crab)
Currents• What are currents? - “Rivers” of circulating water• Causes - Wind - Rotating Earth - Density Changes
1. The earth has two kinds of crust2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Oceans have thin, dense, basaltic crust3. How we probe the sea floor4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics5. Submarine landslides are important on continental margins6. Deep ocean sediment comes from the continents and marine organisms Take-Away Points
The Two-Story Planet1. The earth has two kinds of crust
Earth Has Two Kinds of Crust 2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Oceans have thin, dense, basaltic crust
Continental and Oceanic CrustContinental Crust (Granitic)Residue of Long-Continued Partial MeltingThick and LightAncient: > 2.5 b.y.Oceanic Crust (Basaltic)Derived Directly From MantleThin and Dense 2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Oceans haveYoung: < 200 m.y. thin, dense, basaltic crust
Investigating the Sea Floor Coring Deep-Sea Drilling Sonar Seismic Refraction Gravity Surveys Magnetic 3.Surveys sea floor How we probe the
Deep Sea DrillingProject MoholeOriginal Intent: Drill to Earth’s MantleDrill in Oceans where Crust is ThinnestHidden Agenda: Complete History of OceansChallenge: Replacing Drill Bits in 5 km of WaterPlate Tectonics Showed that Mantle is Exposed in 3. How we probe the sea floor a Number of Places
Deep Sea DrillingOriginal Objective AbandonedRenamed Deep Sea Drilling ProgramNow Called Ocean Drilling Program 3. How we probe the sea floor
Continental MarginsShelfSlopeRiseActive: Subduction Zones. Sometimes Called Leading EdgePassive: No Subduction. Sometimes Called Rifted or Trailing Edge Features on the sea floor and edges of 4. continents are products of plate tectonics
A Continental Margin 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonicsEvolution of a Passive Margin
Anatomy of a Passive Margin 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
Features of the Deep SeaMid-Sea RidgesAbyssal PlainsFracture ZonesSeaic TrenchesSeamountsSubmarine CanyonsSubmarine Fans 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
Crest ofthe Mid-Atlantic Ridge 4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
Sea-FloorSpreading, Mi d-Atlantic Ridge 1. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics
5. Submarine landslides are important on continental marginsTurbidity Flows – Grand Banks, 1929
6. Deep Sea sediment comes from the continents and marine organismsWhere Sediment Comes From
6. Deep Sea sediment comes from the continents and marine organismsDeep Sea Sediments
1. The earth has two kinds of crust2. Continents have thick, light, granitic crust, Seas have thin, dense, basaltic crust3. How we probe the sea floor4. Features on the sea floor and edges of continents are products of plate tectonics5. Submarine landslides are important on continental margins6. Deep Sea sediment comes from the continents and marine organisms Take-Away Points
Slide 2 Station A: Deep Sea Exploration A ship Using SONARDeep sea exploration advanced dramatically in the 1900’s with a series of inventions. For example, Sonar allowed explorers to detect the presence of objects underwater.
Deep Sea Slide 3Another important invention for deep sea exploration was deep diving submarines. Alvin is the name of one of these submarines and can carry a crew of three people to depths of 4,000 meters. The sub is equipped with lights, cameras, and highly maneuverable arms.
Slide 4Alvin collects samples of hydrothermal soil, plant, and animal life on vent site on the ocean floor and sends the ocean them to scientific laboratories floor across the world for scientists to study. For example, Alvin travelled 1.5 miles below the surface to hydrothermal vent sites which spit out super hot mineral water from the ocean floor. These vents support a lot of different life forms from A ghost giant tube worms to ghost white crab white crabs.
Slide 5To be a deep sea explorer you must overcome some major challenges. For one the voyage to the ocean floor is a cold, 4-hour round trip in a cramped submarine. Another problem is that submarines like Alvin can cost up to 3 million dollars.
Slide 6Once Alvin gets to the ocean floor, the hydrothermal vent sites have super hot, mineral rich water which can be dangerous to be in. Scientists are trying to figure out how to observe these waters without being so close to them in the submarine. 662 degrees Fahrenheit
Station B Slide 8 : Exploring AntarcticaSerious exploration of Antarctica began with the invention of the airplane. American pilot Robert Byrd was the first to fly over the South Pole in 1929 and he made repeated flights over the continent from 1930-1950. Robert Byrd and his crew.
Slide 9 The Newest scientific laboratory in Antarctica. Built in 2009, it runs entirely on renewable solar and wind energy.Byrd conducted many scientific experiments in his Antarctic travels. By doing this Byrd helped to make scientific research the main purpose for exploring Antarctica. Scientists came to Antarctica to study wildlife, the land, and most recently global warming.
Slide 10There have been many challenges Early Explorer of Antarctica past and present for Antarctic explorers. Early explorers had to dress in heavy layers of itchy wool fabrics to protect themselves from the extreme temperatures (the average temp in the summer is -18 degrees). The wool fabric would soak up sweat, which meant getting dressed in the morning would often involve putting on layers of clothing that were frozen solid from yesterday’s sweat.
Slide 11Early explorers also went out on their trips with their food in tin cans or dried up, this meant it was low in vitamin C. Scurvy (a disease that causes you to lose your teeth and develop skin rashes) was a serious problem for these explorers. Scurvy was also a problem for explorers during the Age of Exploration. Crew members on board ships could get killed for stealing fruit rich in vitamin C.