The Industrial Revolution

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A powerpoint presentation on the Industrial Revolution which highlights some of the critical innovations.

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The Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution The Last of Europe’s Great Revolutions
  2. 2. Causes of the Industrial Revolution
  3. 3. 1) Economic Development Propelled by Population Growth
  4. 4. Economic Development Propelled by Population Growth <ul><li>Growth never seen before </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable Food Supply </li></ul>
  5. 5. Economic Development Propelled by Population Growth <ul><li>Earlier marriages and more children </li></ul><ul><li>High percentage of children in population: Leads to child labor </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Population Growth: </li></ul><ul><li>1700 England= 6 million Europe= 100 million </li></ul><ul><li>1800 10 million 190 million </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2) Agricultural Revolution
  7. 7. Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>Innovations in manufacturing relied on innovations in farming that provided more food </li></ul><ul><li>Potato and Maize from the Americas </li></ul>
  8. 8. Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>Crops that don’t deplete soil>>> feed cattle>>>>milk and meat >>fertilizer>>>grow more crops </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed Land </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3) Trade and Inventiveness
  10. 10. Trade and Inventiveness <ul><li>Trade for sugar, tea, cotton, textiles, iron hardware, pottery, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Discovery, Commercial Enterprise, and Technical Skills became closely connected </li></ul>
  11. 11. Trade and Inventiveness <ul><li>Encyclopedia, Expeditions Around the World, Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney and John Hall ….Machines to make other machines </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4 ) Britain’s Advantages
  13. 13. Britain’s Advantages <ul><li>Good harvest, growing population, overseas trade(lots of exports) </li></ul><ul><li>Mining and metal industries willing to experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Large marine and ship producer </li></ul>
  14. 14. Britain’s Advantages <ul><li>Class lines not as sharply drawn </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged Invention </li></ul>
  15. 15. Britain’s Advantages <ul><li>Head start because not dealing with Revolution. A stable Government </li></ul><ul><li>Coal and Iron Deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Freedoms </li></ul>
  16. 16. Five Innovations that spurred Industrialization
  17. 17. 1) Mass Production
  18. 18. Mass Production <ul><li>Pottery very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Josiah Wedgwood: Division of Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Also installs an engine which leads to lower cost and improved quality which leads to major growth </li></ul>
  19. 19. 2) Mechanization
  20. 20. Mechanization <ul><li>Mechanization is the use of machines to do work previously done by hand </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Industry the largest industry of the day </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Laws </li></ul>
  21. 21. Mechanization <ul><li>Opportunity to make profits </li></ul><ul><li>1760’s A series of inventions </li></ul><ul><li>Increased productivity for the manufacturer and lower prices for the consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Makes cotton America’s most valuable crop </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Power Loom
  23. 23. 3 ) Iron Industry
  24. 24. Iron Industry <ul><li>Limited wood supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Darby: coke </li></ul><ul><li>By end of 1700s almost all of Britain’s iron is made with coke </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal Palace 1851 </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production appealing: Interchangeable parts </li></ul>
  25. 25. Coal Mining in Britain: 1800-1914 1, 200, 000 miners 250 million tons 1914 500, 000 miners 300 million tons 1880 200, 000 miners 30 tons 1850 50, 000 miners 1 ton of coal 1800
  26. 26. 4 )Steam Engine
  27. 27. Steam Engine <ul><li>Fossil Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>First machine to transform fossil fuels into mechanical energy </li></ul><ul><li>James Watt </li></ul><ul><li>Coal = Limitless energy! </li></ul><ul><li>Boats </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul>
  28. 28. Steam Ship
  29. 29. An Early Steam Locomotive
  30. 30. The Impact of the Railroad
  31. 31. 5 ) Communication over Wires <ul><li>Electric Telegraph: Wheatstone, Cooke, and Morse </li></ul><ul><li>First used by Railroads </li></ul>
  32. 32. Impact of the Early Industrial Revolution
  33. 33. 1) New Industrial Cities <ul><li>Cities Growing </li></ul><ul><li>Great wealth for some </li></ul><ul><li>Tenements grew as the poor streamed in </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Problems </li></ul>
  34. 34. The New Industrial City
  35. 35. 2) Rural Environments <ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Canals </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul>
  36. 36. 3) Working Conditions <ul><li>Successful were the minority </li></ul><ul><li>Most jobs boring, long, unsafe, no control </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts women and family life </li></ul><ul><li>Child Labor </li></ul>
  37. 37. Textile Factory Workers in England >1 million workers 224, 000 looms 1850 200, 000 workers 85, 000 looms 1833 150, 000 workers 2400 looms 1813
  38. 38. Textile Factory Workers in England
  39. 39. The Factory System <ul><li>Rigid schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>12-14 hour day. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind-numbing monotony. </li></ul>
  40. 40. 4) Supports Western Political Expansion into other continents. Imperialism!
  41. 41. New Economic and Political Ideas
  42. 42. New Economic and Political Ideas <ul><li>Laissez Faire Capitalism and its Critics </li></ul><ul><li>Positivists and Utopian Socialists </li></ul><ul><li>Protests and Reforms </li></ul>
  43. 43. The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists <ul><li>People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]. </li></ul>

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