The  French Revolution
Causes of the French Revolution <ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>Social  </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul>
<ul><li>Liberalism: </li></ul><ul><li>A much larger intellectual class with political ideas that Enlightenment had spread ...
Social Cause <ul><li>The Estate System </li></ul>
The First Estate <ul><li>The Clergy </li></ul><ul><li>1% of population,yet  </li></ul><ul><li>have 10% of the land.  </li>...
The Second Estate <ul><li>The Nobility </li></ul><ul><li>2-5% of the population,  </li></ul><ul><li>but owned 20% of the l...
Third Estate <ul><li>Everyone Else </li></ul><ul><li>95% of the population.  A few rich members, the artisans, and all the...
Subdivisions of the Third Estate <ul><li>Bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Poor of Paris </li...
Bourgeoisie <ul><li>8% of the population, 2.3 million, but had 20% of the land.  </li></ul><ul><li>They often bought land ...
The Peasants <ul><li>Majority of the population.  </li></ul><ul><li>Paid the most taxes.  Labor  </li></ul><ul><li>service...
The Urban Poor <ul><li>Artisans, factory workers, other urban dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>High literacy.  Literacy  high in...
Socio-Economic Data, 1789
The Political Cause Problems with State Finances: <ul><li>Economic Weakness:  French commerce struggling </li></ul><ul><li...
Where is the tax money?
Events leading to calling of the Estates General  <ul><li>A) Calonne’s Plan:  tax landed property, no evasion by nobles </...
Events leading to calling of the Estates General <ul><li>C) Assembly of Notables 1787:  Basically says government has no r...
Events leading to calling of the Estates General <ul><li>D) Calling of the Estates General:  To meet in 1789.  End of Abso...
Events leading to calling of the Estates General <ul><li>E) Rapid discussion of ideas follows.  At this same time bread pr...
The French Urban Poor
<ul><li>Urban Commoner’s Budget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food  80% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent  25% </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Convening the Estates General  May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates 1 1 1
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote b...
“ The Third Estate Awakens”
Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789
National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Li...
The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt July 20, 1789
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August  26,  1789
Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution  & the National Assembly. 1791
<ul><li>Importance of the </li></ul><ul><li>French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>It brought the People to the forefront of ...
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The French Revolution

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A presentation highlighting the key elements of the French Revolution.

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The French Revolution

  1. 1. The French Revolution
  2. 2. Causes of the French Revolution <ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Liberalism: </li></ul><ul><li>A much larger intellectual class with political ideas that Enlightenment had spread around Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>The sovereignty of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Equality: equal rights for all under the law </li></ul>Intellectual Causes
  4. 4. Social Cause <ul><li>The Estate System </li></ul>
  5. 5. The First Estate <ul><li>The Clergy </li></ul><ul><li>1% of population,yet </li></ul><ul><li>have 10% of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth, land, priveleges, and levied a tax on the peasants </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Second Estate <ul><li>The Nobility </li></ul><ul><li>2-5% of the population, </li></ul><ul><li>but owned 20% of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>They had great wealth </li></ul><ul><li>and taxed the peasantry. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Third Estate <ul><li>Everyone Else </li></ul><ul><li>95% of the population. A few rich members, the artisans, and all the peasantry. </li></ul><ul><li>These were also class divisions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Subdivisions of the Third Estate <ul><li>Bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Poor of Paris </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bourgeoisie <ul><li>8% of the population, 2.3 million, but had 20% of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>They often bought land and exploited the peasants on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Although this group was important, it had no say in running the government. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Peasants <ul><li>Majority of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Paid the most taxes. Labor </li></ul><ul><li>service to the state, tithe to </li></ul><ul><li>the clergy. Services to the </li></ul><ul><li>landlords. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmed the land, yet it </li></ul><ul><li>was not legally theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to “own” property. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Urban Poor <ul><li>Artisans, factory workers, other urban dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>High literacy. Literacy high in general, which is another way that ideas spread as quickly as they did. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Socio-Economic Data, 1789
  13. 13. The Political Cause Problems with State Finances: <ul><li>Economic Weakness: French commerce struggling </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation problems: Rich not taxed. Basically not enough income for the government to do its job. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes were raised…..of course on the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on loans. Cost of mid century wars (American Revolution) </li></ul><ul><li>Bankruptcy of the state </li></ul>
  14. 14. Where is the tax money?
  15. 15. Events leading to calling of the Estates General <ul><li>A) Calonne’s Plan: tax landed property, no evasion by nobles </li></ul><ul><li>B)Opposition: Nobles did not want to be taxed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Events leading to calling of the Estates General <ul><li>C) Assembly of Notables 1787: Basically says government has no right to demand new taxes and an Estates General needed to be called again. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Events leading to calling of the Estates General <ul><li>D) Calling of the Estates General: To meet in 1789. End of Absolutism. 3rd Estate not happy because they would be given 1/3 of the vote. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Events leading to calling of the Estates General <ul><li>E) Rapid discussion of ideas follows. At this same time bread prices rise to unforeseen levels, causing further dissatisfaction. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The French Urban Poor
  20. 20. <ul><li>Urban Commoner’s Budget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food 80% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tithe 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes 35% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL 170% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King’s Budget: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versailles 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronation 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loans 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin. 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL 160% </li></ul></ul>Financial Problems in France, 1789
  21. 21. Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
  22. 22. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates 1 1 1
  23. 23. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! 300 300 648
  24. 24. “ The Third Estate Awakens”
  25. 25. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789
  26. 26. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité! <ul><li>Equality & Meritocracy </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt July 20, 1789
  28. 28. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789
  29. 29. Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791
  30. 30. <ul><li>Importance of the </li></ul><ul><li>French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>It brought the People to the forefront of politics </li></ul><ul><li>Set the model for later revolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the political map of Europe forever </li></ul>

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