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The French Revolution

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A presentation highlighting the key elements of the French Revolution.

A presentation highlighting the key elements of the French Revolution.

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The French Revolution The French Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • The French Revolution
  • Causes of the French Revolution
    • Intellectual
    • Social
    • Political
    • Liberalism:
    • A much larger intellectual class with political ideas that Enlightenment had spread around Europe.
    • Liberty
    • The sovereignty of the people
    • Equality: equal rights for all under the law
    Intellectual Causes
  • Social Cause
    • The Estate System
  • The First Estate
    • The Clergy
    • 1% of population,yet
    • have 10% of the land.
    • Wealth, land, priveleges, and levied a tax on the peasants
  • The Second Estate
    • The Nobility
    • 2-5% of the population,
    • but owned 20% of the land.
    • They had great wealth
    • and taxed the peasantry.
  • Third Estate
    • Everyone Else
    • 95% of the population. A few rich members, the artisans, and all the peasantry.
    • These were also class divisions.
  • Subdivisions of the Third Estate
    • Bourgeoisie
    • Peasants
    • Urban Poor of Paris
  • Bourgeoisie
    • 8% of the population, 2.3 million, but had 20% of the land.
    • They often bought land and exploited the peasants on it.
    • Although this group was important, it had no say in running the government.
  • The Peasants
    • Majority of the population.
    • Paid the most taxes. Labor
    • service to the state, tithe to
    • the clergy. Services to the
    • landlords.
    • Farmed the land, yet it
    • was not legally theirs.
    • They wanted to “own” property.
  • The Urban Poor
    • Artisans, factory workers, other urban dwellers
    • High literacy. Literacy high in general, which is another way that ideas spread as quickly as they did.
  • Socio-Economic Data, 1789
  • The Political Cause Problems with State Finances:
    • Economic Weakness: French commerce struggling
    • Taxation problems: Rich not taxed. Basically not enough income for the government to do its job.
    • Taxes were raised…..of course on the poor.
    • Dependence on loans. Cost of mid century wars (American Revolution)
    • Bankruptcy of the state
  • Where is the tax money?
  • Events leading to calling of the Estates General
    • A) Calonne’s Plan: tax landed property, no evasion by nobles
    • B)Opposition: Nobles did not want to be taxed
  • Events leading to calling of the Estates General
    • C) Assembly of Notables 1787: Basically says government has no right to demand new taxes and an Estates General needed to be called again.
  • Events leading to calling of the Estates General
    • D) Calling of the Estates General: To meet in 1789. End of Absolutism. 3rd Estate not happy because they would be given 1/3 of the vote.
  • Events leading to calling of the Estates General
    • E) Rapid discussion of ideas follows. At this same time bread prices rise to unforeseen levels, causing further dissatisfaction.
  • The French Urban Poor
    • Urban Commoner’s Budget:
      • Food 80%
      • Rent 25%
      • Tithe 10%
      • Taxes 35%
      • Clothing 20%
      • TOTAL 170%
    • King’s Budget:
      • Interest 50%
      • Army 25%
      • Versailles 25%
      • Coronation 10%
      • Loans 25%
      • Admin. 25%
      • TOTAL 160%
    Financial Problems in France, 1789
  • Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
  • Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates 1 1 1
  • Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! 300 300 648
  • “ The Third Estate Awakens”
  • Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789
  • National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
    • Equality & Meritocracy
  • The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt July 20, 1789
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789
  • Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791
    • Importance of the
    • French Revolution
    • It brought the People to the forefront of politics
    • Set the model for later revolutions
    • Changed the political map of Europe forever