The Enlightenment


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A powerpoint highlighting key elements of the European Enlightenment of the 1700's.

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The Enlightenment

  1. 3. Causes of the Scientific Revolution <ul><li>1) Trade </li></ul><ul><li>2) Universities </li></ul><ul><li>3) Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>4) Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>5) Reformation </li></ul>
  2. 4. Great Scientists of the Era <ul><li>Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Kepler </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>Newton </li></ul>
  3. 5. New Attitudes Developing <ul><li>Skepticism about old authority </li></ul><ul><li>The power of reason </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Law </li></ul><ul><li>A can-do approach </li></ul>
  4. 6. Rebirth of Philosophy
  5. 7. <ul><li>Rationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>Spinoza </li></ul><ul><li>Leibniz </li></ul>
  6. 8. Empiricism <ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Hobbes </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop George Berkley </li></ul><ul><li>David Hume </li></ul>
  7. 9. Immanuel Kant : Moral Theory and the Idea of Duty
  8. 10. Enlightenment <ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Law </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes ideas of Change and Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Toleration </li></ul>
  9. 12. Centers of the Enlightenment
  10. 13. Philosophes <ul><li>The people who were the thinkers in France were known as PHILOSOPHES. They were not on the whole original thinkers, but were great publicists of the new ideas. </li></ul>
  11. 14. A Parisian Salon
  12. 15. A Parisian Salon
  13. 16. BIG DEBATE: Religion v. Reason <ul><li>The Enlightenment did NOT banish religion and superstition. </li></ul><ul><li>They existed side by side –-- one often provided justification for the other. </li></ul><ul><li>The clergy played an important role in the training of scientists & philosophers. (many were active in the field themselves!) </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire fought for those accused of heresy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Encyclopedie used covert topic headings to address religion critically. </li></ul>
  14. 18. Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
  15. 20. Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>Natural State of Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Man is brutish by nature </li></ul><ul><li>Leviathan - Need for state control which will take care of the welfare of all </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute power of the state </li></ul>
  16. 21. John Locke (1632-1704) <ul><li>Letter on Toleration , 1689 </li></ul><ul><li>Two Treatises of Government , 1690 </li></ul><ul><li>Some Thoughts Concerning Education , 1693 </li></ul><ul><li>The Reasonableness of Christianity , 1695 </li></ul>
  17. 22. John Locke’s Philosophy (I) <ul><li>Man is rational and born equal. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue can be learned and practiced. </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings possess free will. - they should be prepared for freedom. - obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear. </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure and pain motivate people. Government should use this idea to educate people. </li></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>Man’s natural state was of harmony and equality </li></ul><ul><li>People make a contract with the government to protect their rights. </li></ul><ul><li>People have the right to oppose the government if their rights are not being protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Rights: Life, Liberty, and Property </li></ul>
  19. 24. The Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) <ul><li>Persian Letters , 1721 </li></ul><ul><li>On the Spirit of Laws , 1758 </li></ul>
  20. 26. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) <ul><li>Discourse on the Arts & Sciences , 1751 </li></ul><ul><li>Emile , 1762 </li></ul><ul><li>The Social Contract , 1762 </li></ul>
  21. 29. Frederick the Great of Prussia (r. 1740-1786) <ul><li>1712 -– 1786. </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeded his father, Frederick William I (the “Soldier King”). </li></ul><ul><li>He saw himself as the “First Servant of the State.” </li></ul>
  22. 30. Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796) <ul><li>German Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst. </li></ul><ul><li>1729 -– 1796. </li></ul>
  23. 32. The Legacy of the Enlightenment? <ul><li>The democratic revolutions begun in America in 1776 and continued in Amsterdam, Brussels, and especially in Paris in the late 1780s, put every Western government on the defensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Reform, democracy, and republicanism had been placed irrevocably on the Western agenda. </li></ul>
  24. 33. The Legacy of the Enlightenment? <ul><li>New forms of civil society arose –-- clubs, salons, fraternals, private academies, lending libraries, and professional/scientific organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>19c conservatives blamed it for the modern “egalitarian disease” (once reformers began to criticize established institutions, they didn’t know where and when to stop!) </li></ul>
  25. 34. The Legacy of the Enlightenment? <ul><li>It established a materialistic tradition based on an ethical system derived solely from a naturalistic account of the human condition (the “Religion of Nature” ). </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretically endowed with full civil and legal rights, the individual had come into existence as a political and social force to be reckoned with. </li></ul>