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The Enlightenment
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The Enlightenment

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A powerpoint highlighting key elements of the European Enlightenment of the 1700's.

A powerpoint highlighting key elements of the European Enlightenment of the 1700's.

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3. Causes of the Scientific Revolution
    • 1) Trade
    • 2) Universities
    • 3) Renaissance
    • 4) Humanism
    • 5) Reformation
  • 4. Great Scientists of the Era
    • Copernicus
    • Kepler
    • Galileo
    • Newton
  • 5. New Attitudes Developing
    • Skepticism about old authority
    • The power of reason
    • Natural Law
    • A can-do approach
  • 6. Rebirth of Philosophy
  • 7.
    • Rationalism
    • Descartes
    • Spinoza
    • Leibniz
  • 8. Empiricism
    • Francis Bacon
    • Thomas Hobbes
    • John Locke
    • Bishop George Berkley
    • David Hume
  • 9. Immanuel Kant : Moral Theory and the Idea of Duty
  • 10. Enlightenment
    • Reason
    • Natural Law
    • Happiness
    • Promotes ideas of Change and Progress
    • Liberty
    • Toleration
  • 11.  
  • 12. Centers of the Enlightenment
  • 13. Philosophes
    • The people who were the thinkers in France were known as PHILOSOPHES. They were not on the whole original thinkers, but were great publicists of the new ideas.
  • 14. A Parisian Salon
  • 15. A Parisian Salon
  • 16. BIG DEBATE: Religion v. Reason
    • The Enlightenment did NOT banish religion and superstition.
    • They existed side by side –-- one often provided justification for the other.
    • The clergy played an important role in the training of scientists & philosophers. (many were active in the field themselves!)
    • Voltaire fought for those accused of heresy.
    • The Encyclopedie used covert topic headings to address religion critically.
  • 17.  
  • 18. Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
  • 19.  
  • 20. Thomas Hobbes
    • Natural State of Affairs
    • Man is brutish by nature
    • Leviathan - Need for state control which will take care of the welfare of all
    • Absolute power of the state
  • 21. John Locke (1632-1704)
    • Letter on Toleration , 1689
    • Two Treatises of Government , 1690
    • Some Thoughts Concerning Education , 1693
    • The Reasonableness of Christianity , 1695
  • 22. John Locke’s Philosophy (I)
    • Man is rational and born equal.
    • Virtue can be learned and practiced.
    • Human beings possess free will. - they should be prepared for freedom. - obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear.
    • Pleasure and pain motivate people. Government should use this idea to educate people.
  • 23.
    • Man’s natural state was of harmony and equality
    • People make a contract with the government to protect their rights.
    • People have the right to oppose the government if their rights are not being protected.
    • Natural Rights: Life, Liberty, and Property
  • 24. The Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)
    • Persian Letters , 1721
    • On the Spirit of Laws , 1758
  • 25.  
  • 26. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
    • Discourse on the Arts & Sciences , 1751
    • Emile , 1762
    • The Social Contract , 1762
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29. Frederick the Great of Prussia (r. 1740-1786)
    • 1712 -– 1786.
    • Succeeded his father, Frederick William I (the “Soldier King”).
    • He saw himself as the “First Servant of the State.”
  • 30. Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796)
    • German Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst.
    • 1729 -– 1796.
  • 31.  
  • 32. The Legacy of the Enlightenment?
    • The democratic revolutions begun in America in 1776 and continued in Amsterdam, Brussels, and especially in Paris in the late 1780s, put every Western government on the defensive.
    • Reform, democracy, and republicanism had been placed irrevocably on the Western agenda.
  • 33. The Legacy of the Enlightenment?
    • New forms of civil society arose –-- clubs, salons, fraternals, private academies, lending libraries, and professional/scientific organizations.
    • 19c conservatives blamed it for the modern “egalitarian disease” (once reformers began to criticize established institutions, they didn’t know where and when to stop!)
  • 34. The Legacy of the Enlightenment?
    • It established a materialistic tradition based on an ethical system derived solely from a naturalistic account of the human condition (the “Religion of Nature” ).
    • Theoretically endowed with full civil and legal rights, the individual had come into existence as a political and social force to be reckoned with.