Nuclear
Submarine
Disasters
REFORMS and RAMIFICATIONS

Nuclear
Submarine
Disasters
Christopher Higgins

CHELSEA HOUSE PUBLISHERS
Philadelphia
Frontispiece: A U.S. nuclear submarine travels
along the ocean surface. Since the first nuclear
submarine was launched in ...
Contents

Introduction
Jill McCaffrey

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

7

On the Bottom

11

Iron Coffins, Pigboats, and FBMs
Thresher 39...
REFORMS and RAMIFICATIONS
THE APOLLO 1 AND
CHALLENGER DISASTERS
BHOPAL
THE BLACK DEATH
THE BLIZZARD OF 1888
THE BOMBING OF...
Jill McCaffrey
National Chairman
Armed Forces Emergency Services
American Red Cross

Introduction
isasters have always bee...
8

INTRODUCTION

Hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados, wildfires, and floods continue to
exact a heavy toll in suffering and ...
INTRODUCTION

luxury liner Titanic smugly declared their state-of-the-art ship
“unsinkable,” seeing no need to provide lif...
On the
Bottom
The first nuclear submarine
disaster of the 21st century
happened to the Russian
submarine Kursk, seen here
in a May 2000 ...
12

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

a part of Russian defense strategy for generations.
The United States and its North Atlan...
ON THE BOTTOM

nuclear reactors, Kursk weighed almost 14,000 tons and
could travel at a top speed of 28 knots submerged an...
14

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

Kursk had completed one torpedo launch that day and
was preparing to fire another salvo. ...
ON THE BOTTOM

when ballast tanks are emptied, compressed air replaces
the water, making the vessel buoyant.)
Flames proba...
16

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

A Russian technician

inspects a torpedo on
board a nuclear submarine of the Oscar class,...
ON THE BOTTOM

A fire requires a quick response and an emergency
trip to the surface. If a fire did break out on Kursk, it...
18

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

would not have been able to radio emergency messages to
the surface.
The control room app...
ON THE BOTTOM

19

Because the crew of the
Kursk did not maintain
radio contact with the
surface after the two
explosions ...
20

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

Nuclear submarines rely on their reactors for power,
propulsion, clean air, and fresh wat...
ON THE BOTTOM

aboard Kursk had survived the explosion. Sonar equipment picked up tapping sounds, probably coming from
som...
22

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

Submarine sailors train
with escape suits, which
crewmen can use as protection during an ...
ON THE BOTTOM

anyway. The odds were very much against escaping from
the stricken sub.
The men of Kursk are one crew in a ...
An illustration from an
edition of Jules Verne’s
novel, 20,000 Leagues
Under the Sea, first
published in 1870. The
adventu...
26

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

1870, chronicles the adventures of Professor Aronnax,
his butler Conseil, and a whaler na...
IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS

home when the mission’s three-month supply of food
ran out.
Most historians attribute th...
28

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

receive recognition, though not the type he sought: he
has gone down in history as the fi...
IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS

time military leaders based their defense planning
and strategies on the battleship, so ...
30

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

Many new submarine designs took to the water after
the Civil War. Some designs were bette...
IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS

and are on display in Paterson, New Jersey.
World War I saw extensive use of the submari...
32

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

the Atlantic Ocean, and the Germans took the war
literally to the shores of the United St...
IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS

very valuable because it moved submariners closer to
the ideal submarine, one that would...
34

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

German researchers
pulled this U-boat, which
had seen service during
World War II, from t...
IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS

U.S. launched in 1954. In the process he became known
as the father of the nuclear navy ...
36

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

On January 21, 1954,
the first atomic-powered
submarine, USS Nautilus,
entered the Thames...
IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS

major military powers operate attack subs of various
types, as well. These vessels opera...
Thresher
The loss of the attack
submarine USS Thresher,
which sank off the coast
of Massachusetts with 129
men aboard, shocked the
...
40

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

It was the height of the cold war between the
United States and the USSR. The two superpo...
THRESHER

Although some might joke that submarines are the
only kind of ship designed to sink, these vessels can
have abso...
42

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

HY-80 steel can withstand pressures of up to 80,000
pounds per square inch—hence the 80 i...
THRESHER

43

Workers at the Electric
Boat Company in Groton,
Connecticut, weld the
donut-shaped pieces of
steel used to c...
44

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

increased. Though such noises are disconcerting, all
submarines make them as they travel ...
THRESHER

ballast tanks would not provide a quick enough lift
for a trip to the surface. Thresher needed to surface
fast. ...
46

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

Skylark received a message at 9:13 A.M. from Lieutenant Commander Harvey: “Experiencing m...
THRESHER

surfacing, its only limits being those of its human
crew. The American public was growing used to seeing picture...
48

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

In this 1952 photograph,
Captain Hyman Rickover,
then director of the
Nuclear Power Divis...
THRESHER

Trieste looks like a submarine with a ball sticking
out of its keel. Made of thick, high-strength steel, the
bal...
50

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

pipe in the reactor’s seawater cooling system. Under
the extreme pressures of the 1,000-f...
THRESHER

for strainers in the pipes. When Thresher’s crew tried
to pipe the compressed air to the ballast tanks to blow
o...
52

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

A submarine construction
worker at the Electric
Boat Company steadies
a sheet of steel as...
THRESHER

Another theory is primarily founded on the damage that Thresher sustained on previous voyages. Some
believe a ba...
54

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

seriously injured; but if the sub had been underwater, the
accident might have destroyed ...
THRESHER

ensure that navy ships were constructed to conform to
naval regulations.
The nuclear submarine program continued...
The salvage of the USS
Squalus on September 13,
1939. Four months earlier,
half the vessel had flooded
during a test dive,...
58

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

stricken submarine, so divers first had to get to the sub
to attach the cables. Furthermo...
THE SUBSAFE PROGRAM

ways—oxygen deprivation can cause a person to behave
as if he or she were drunk. Therefore, the three...
60

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

“SUBMARINE DOWN OFF NEW ENGLAND COAST”
n 1939 the U.S. Navy made headlines around the wor...
THE SUBSAFE PROGRAM

May 24, 1939. The entire world waited for word on the missing submarine. The
U.S. Navy acted quickly ...
62

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

The Deep Submergence
Rescue Vehicle Mystic
(DSRV1) is moved from
the naval air station at...
THE SUBSAFE PROGRAM

never be needed because most submarines travel in waters
too deep for DSRV-assisted rescues. The laws...
Scorpion
It took several months to
locate the USS Scorpion,
seen here at its July 1960
launching ceremony, after
it disappeared on ...
66

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

light rain, watching the water, hoping to catch the first
glimpse of the rounded hydrodyn...
SCORPION

nuclear attack. Scorpion had been cruising the Mediterranean Sea, observing Soviet activities and taking part in...
68

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

The navy began the search by sending ships to
Scorpion’s last known location, and it brou...
SCORPION

entire missions of individual Soviet submarines. The
skilled technicians could note a submarine’s speed,
course,...
70

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

from submarines, like propeller noise, and filter out
pops, explosions, and other similar...
SCORPION

180 degrees during an emergency maneuver to stop a
runaway torpedo, known to submariners as a “hot
run.” The gui...
72

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

Dr. John P Craven led the
.
navy investigation that
determined Scorpion’s
most likely res...
SCORPION

theory, Scorpion’s course heading during what they
believed was a hot run, and the landing spot of the
wreckage ...
74

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

not have the improved emergency blow capabilities and
other SUBSAFE improvements.
Some an...
SCORPION

room and sink the Scorpion. A piece of foil that cost
pennies possibly caused the loss of the sub and the
deaths...
Russian
Disasters
A Soviet nuclear submarine,
damaged on the hull near its
conning tower, sits motionless in the waters of the
Atlantic. The...
78

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS

experimented with nuclear subs of various types. They
built vessels with twin propellers ...
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Nuclear submarine disasters

  1. 1. Nuclear Submarine Disasters
  2. 2. REFORMS and RAMIFICATIONS Nuclear Submarine Disasters Christopher Higgins CHELSEA HOUSE PUBLISHERS Philadelphia
  3. 3. Frontispiece: A U.S. nuclear submarine travels along the ocean surface. Since the first nuclear submarine was launched in 1954, there have been a number of underwater catastrophes, often resulting in the loss of entire vessels and their crews. Dedication: To my wife, Sima; thanks for putting up with seven months of submarines. CHELSEA HOUSE PUBLISHERS Editor in Chief Sally Cheney Associate Editor in Chief Kim Shinners Production Manager Pamela Loos Art Director Sara Davis Production Editor Diann Grasse Staff for NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS Senior Editor LeeAnne Gelletly Associate Art Director/Designer Takeshi Takahashi Layout 21st Century Publishing and Communications, Inc. © 2002 by Chelsea House Publishers, a subsidiary of Haights Cross Communications. All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. First Printing 135798642 The Chelsea House World Wide Web address is http://www.chelseahouse.com Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Higgins, Chris. Nuclear submarine disasters / Chris Higgins. p. cm. — (Great disasters, reforms and ramifications) Summary: Presents a history of disasters involving nuclear submarines, including the Thresher, the Scorpion, and the Kursk, and explores how the investigation of these accidents can lead to safety reform. ISBN 0-7910-6329-1 (alk. paper) 1. Nuclear submarines—Accidents—Juvenile literature. [1. Nuclear submarines—Accidents.] I. Title. II. Series. V857.5 .H54 2001 910.4'52—dc21 2001047238
  4. 4. Contents Introduction Jill McCaffrey 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 On the Bottom 11 Iron Coffins, Pigboats, and FBMs Thresher 39 The SUBSAFE Program Scorpion 65 Russian Disasters Kursk 57 77 91 An Accident Can Be the Impetus for Reform Chronology 112 Further Reading 114 Index 115 103 25
  5. 5. REFORMS and RAMIFICATIONS THE APOLLO 1 AND CHALLENGER DISASTERS BHOPAL THE BLACK DEATH THE BLIZZARD OF 1888 THE BOMBING OF HIROSHIMA THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR DISASTER THE DUST BOWL THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD LOVE CANAL THE MUNICH OLYMPICS NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING PEARL HARBOR THE SALEM WITCH TRIALS THE EXPLOSION OF TWA FLIGHT 800 THE SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE OF 1906 THE EXXON VALDEZ THE SPANISH INQUISITION THE GALVESTON HURRICANE THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929 THE GREAT CHICAGO FIRE TERRORISM THE GREAT PLAGUE AND FIRE OF LONDON THREE MILE ISLAND THE HINDENBURG THE TITANIC THE HOLOCAUST THE TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST COMPANY FIRE OF 1911 THE INFLUENZA PANDEMIC OF 1918 THE WACO SIEGE THE IRISH POTATO FAMINE THE WORLD TRADE CENTER BOMBING
  6. 6. Jill McCaffrey National Chairman Armed Forces Emergency Services American Red Cross Introduction isasters have always been a source of fascination and awe. Tales of a great flood that nearly wipes out all life are among humanity’s oldest recorded stories, dating at least from the second millennium B.C., and they appear in cultures from the Middle East to the Arctic Circle to the southernmost tip of South America and the islands of Polynesia. Typically gods are at the center of these ancient disaster tales— which is perhaps not too surprising, given the fact that the tales originated during a time when human beings were at the mercy of natural forces they did not understand. To a great extent, we still are at the mercy of nature, as anyone who reads the newspapers or watches nightly news broadcasts can attest. D 7
  7. 7. 8 INTRODUCTION Hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados, wildfires, and floods continue to exact a heavy toll in suffering and death, despite our considerable knowledge of the workings of the physical world. If science has offered only limited protection from the consequences of natural disasters, it has in no way diminished our fascination with them. Perhaps that’s because the scale and power of natural disasters force us as individuals to confront our relatively insignificant place in the physical world and remind us of the fragility and transience of our lives. Perhaps it’s because we can imagine ourselves in the midst of dire circumstances and wonder how we would respond. Perhaps it’s because disasters seem to bring out the best and worst instincts of humanity: altruism and selfishness, courage and cowardice, generosity and greed. As one of the national chairmen of the American Red Cross, a humanitarian organization that provides relief for victims of disasters, I have had the privilege of seeing some of humanity’s best instincts. I have witnessed communities pulling together in the face of trauma; I have seen thousands of people answer the call to help total strangers in their time of need. Of course, helping victims after a tragedy is not the only way, or even the best way, to deal with disaster. In many cases planning and preparation can minimize damage and loss of life—or even avoid a disaster entirely. For, as history repeatedly shows, many disasters are caused not by nature but by human folly, shortsightedness, and unethical conduct. For example, when a land developer wanted to create a lake for his exclusive resort club in Pennsylvania’s Allegheny Mountains in 1880, he ignored expert warnings and cut corners in reconstructing an earthen dam. On May 31, 1889, the dam gave way, unleashing 20 million tons of water on the towns below. The Johnstown Flood, the deadliest in American history, claimed more than 2,200 lives. Greed and negligence would figure prominently in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire in 1911. Deplorable conditions in the garment sweatshop, along with a failure to give any thought to the safety of workers, led to the tragic deaths of 146 persons. Technology outstripped wisdom only a year later, when the designers of the
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION luxury liner Titanic smugly declared their state-of-the-art ship “unsinkable,” seeing no need to provide lifeboat capacity for everyone onboard. On the night of April 14, 1912, more than 1,500 passengers and crew paid for this hubris with their lives after the ship collided with an iceberg and sank. But human catastrophes aren’t always the unforeseen consequences of carelessness or folly. In the 1940s the leaders of Nazi Germany purposefully and systematically set out to exterminate all Jews, along with Gypsies, homosexuals, the mentally ill, and other so-called undesirables. More recently terrorists have targeted random members of society, blowing up airplanes and buildings in an effort to advance their political agendas. The books in the GREAT DISASTERS: REFORMS AND RAMIFICATIONS series examine these and other famous disasters, natural and human made. They explain the causes of the disasters, describe in detail how events unfolded, and paint vivid portraits of the people caught up in dangerous circumstances. But these books are more than just accounts of what happened to whom and why. For they place the disasters in historical perspective, showing how people’s attitudes and actions changed and detailing the steps society took in the wake of each calamity. And in the end, the most important lesson we can learn from any disaster—as well as the most fitting tribute to those who suffered and died—is how to avoid a repeat in the future. 9
  9. 9. On the Bottom
  10. 10. The first nuclear submarine disaster of the 21st century happened to the Russian submarine Kursk, seen here in a May 2000 photo taken three months before it sank to the bottom of the Barents Sea. The disaster, which took the lives of 118 sailors, received international media attention for several weeks. 1 We won’t hold out for 24 hours. —from a note found on the recovered body of a Kursk sailor n Saturday, August 12, 2000, the Russian Northern Fleet was holding a rare 50-ship training exercise in the icy waters of the Barents Sea. Located north of Russia, far from the capital city of Moscow, the Barents Sea adjoins the Scandinavian Peninsula containing Finland, Sweden, and Norway. A cold and unforgiving place, the sea is home to numerous Northern Fleet submarines and surface-ship bases. Patrolling and training in these Arctic Circle waters has been O 11
  11. 11. 12 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS a part of Russian defense strategy for generations. The United States and its North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies have been there for just as long, observing every Russian move and developing their own naval defense strategies and tactics. In the event of war, Russian naval forces based in the Barents Sea would move into the Atlantic Ocean. With the information that they gathered from spying on the Russian vessels during their training exercises, the United States and NATO would have a wartime edge. The August training exercises were the biggest in some time for Russia because of budget constraints. The previous 10 years had been very difficult economically for the new government. Many Russian institutions and citizens had found it hard to make ends meet in the years since the end of the cold war in 1990, with the subsequent fall of communism and transition to a capitalist economy. The Russian military had to cope with budget cuts, equipment shortages, low pay, a stubborn guerrilla war in Chechnya, and an erosion of the quality of its soldiers. Under communism, professional soldiers had comprised the Russian military, but entering the 21st century, it was largely made up of conscripts: soldiers who are drafted into service rather than voluntarily joining the military. Today’s typical Russian conscripts are high school–aged men who are given uniforms and receive what amounts to basic on-the-job training. That summer day, doubts about military competence were probably not distracting the crew of the massive submarine K-149, SSGN Kursk, the pride of the Russian submarine fleet. SSGN is a military classification that is an acronym for Submersible Ship carrying Guided missiles and powered by a Nuclear reactor. NATO classifies ships of all navies as well, and it classified the Kursk as an Oscar 2–class submarine. Powered by two
  12. 12. ON THE BOTTOM nuclear reactors, Kursk weighed almost 14,000 tons and could travel at a top speed of 28 knots submerged and 15 knots on the surface. Named for the location of one of the most decisive battles against the Germans during World War II, Kursk was one of the newest ships in Russia’s submarine fleet, launched in 1995. The people of the city of Kursk looked to the namesake vessel with pride and lovingly sent their sons to serve aboard the submarine. They also sent food. In times of both peace and war, submariners have one of the most dangerous jobs in the world, and navies acknowledge this by providing sub crews with the best food possible. Since Russia’s budget crunch had cut down on the amount of food available to the navy, civilian families of crewmen often stepped in to fill the gap. Kursk was more than one and a half football fields in length at the keel, or bottom, and about half the width of a football field at the beam. It was built with a double hull that was robust enough to withstand a torpedo attack from its natural enemy, an American Los Angeles–class nuclear-attack submarine. In the event of war, the double hull would give Kursk a chance to complete its primary mission: Sink an enemy aircraft carrier and as much of the carrier’s task force as possible. On the morning of August 12, Kursk was test-firing torpedoes and participating in training exercises in conjunction with other ships. American, British, and Norwegian submarines and surface ships were in the area monitoring the activities. Kursk was probably carrying its full complement of 24 cruise missiles plus 28 torpedoes and perhaps a few mines, as well. According to various news reports, it was not carrying any nuclear warheads. At 505 feet long, 59 feet wide, and 29 feet high, Kursk had more than enough room to pack on board all of its potent weapons and its crew of 113, plus 5 extra observers for a total of 118. 13
  13. 13. 14 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS Kursk had completed one torpedo launch that day and was preparing to fire another salvo. Captain Gennadi Lyachin brought the vessel to a periscope depth of approximately 60 feet. He probably looked for a target by peering through the scope, then ordered his crew to prepare to fire the weapon. The executive officer would have taken over from there. He and other members of the control room weapons crew would have fed information on the target’s location into computers, which would have come up with a “solution,” or compass bearing indicating the direction that the torpedo should travel and its proper depth and speed. (The term solution refers to the answer to the complicated geometry problem that crewmen face: how to hit a moving or stationary target on or beneath the surface from a submarine that may also be moving from a location on or beneath the surface.) After the weapons crew entered the solution information into the computers controlling the torpedo, they would confirm the settings, and the executive officer would then inform Captain Lyachin that the weapon was ready to fire. It is uncertain whether Captain Lyachin ever heard the words “Solution set, Captain,” indicating that the torpedo was ready. Suddenly, at 11:28:27 A.M., an explosion tore through the torpedo room in the bow, or front, of the submarine. Captain Lyachin did not send an SOS or launch the emergency beacon. In fact, nothing was ever heard from Kursk. After the explosion, the sub began a slow descent, angling down at the bow, toward the bottom of the Barents Sea. It is likely that the underwater explosion killed or injured many men in the forward spaces of the ship. Survivors would have immediately emptied the water from the vessel’s ballast tanks to try to bring the submarine to the surface. (Ballast, or weight, allows the submarine to dive;
  14. 14. ON THE BOTTOM when ballast tanks are emptied, compressed air replaces the water, making the vessel buoyant.) Flames probably broke out immediately inside the sub and water began pouring into the torpedo room through cracked piping or through a breach in the seal of the torpedo room escape hatch. The Russian crew would have quickly donned emergency gear: protective clothing and masks to help the men breathe while fighting the heat, smoke, and toxic gases of a fire. Because fire presents a huge and especially difficult problem aboard a submarine, all submariners undergo extensive training to fight such catastrophes. A submariner cannot, of course, just open a hatch and jump overboard if all is lost—opening a hatch beneath the 15 Gennadi Lyachin, commander of the Kursk, salutes other Russian officials upon returning from a trip to the Mediterranean Sea in October 1999. The following year, Lyachin, along with the rest of his crew, died in the Kursk disaster.
  15. 15. 16 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS A Russian technician inspects a torpedo on board a nuclear submarine of the Oscar class, the same class to which the Kursk belonged. An explosion in the torpedo room of the Kursk sent the submarine 350 feet to the sea floor below. surface would doom the occupants of a sub to drowning. And a fire can quickly use up the limited supply of oxygen, causing death by asphyxiation or smoke inhalation for the submariners. Furthermore, if fire occurs in a crucial component of a sub, it could prevent the vessel from rising. Although the crew could survive a soft landing on a sandy sea floor, rescue in such a situation could occur only in shallow coastal waters-and most of the time submarines travel in stretches of the ocean where ocean depth is measured in miles, not feet. Water pressure would eventually crush a sinking submarine flat if it descended beyond what is known as its crush depth. Most nuclear subs have a crush depth of between 700 and 3000 feet.
  16. 16. ON THE BOTTOM A fire requires a quick response and an emergency trip to the surface. If a fire did break out on Kursk, it probably grew larger when a second explosion occurred two minutes later. In Norway, seismologists—technicians who normally record the vibrations of earthquakes— registered an explosion that day in the Barents Sea measuring 3.5 on the Richter scale—the size of a small earthquake. (U.S., British, and Norwegian ships in the area also noted the two explosions. According to numerous news reports, sonar operators listening in had to tear off their headsets to avoid damaging their ears because the blasts were so loud.) Scientists later theorized that this explosion had the force of about two tons of TNT and would have killed anyone still alive in the torpedo room and killed or disabled most of the men in the forward part of the ship. As divers would later discover, the explosion also blew a hole through the hull of the ship, exposing the torpedo room to the sea, and effectively ending the life of Kursk. Water poured through the gaping wound of the torpedo room, drowning crewmen, drenching electronic equipment, and crunching bulkheads. Events transpired so quickly that the men had no chance to close the watertight hatches that would have sealed the breached compartment. As the ship sank deeper, water pressure increased as well, further hindering efforts to stop the influx of water. The weight of the water flowing into the ship would have counteracted any blowing of the ballast tanks. As more water entered the ship, its downward angle increased, sinking it faster and faster as more spaces flooded. Additional equipment probably failed and more men died—drowned, burned to death, or crippled by the rising air pressure as water poured in and compressed the remaining air. After the radio space flooded, survivors 17
  17. 17. 18 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS would not have been able to radio emergency messages to the surface. The control room appears to have quickly flooded, preventing anyone from using the escape pod located in the sail of the sub. Located directly above the control room, the sail, commonly called the conning tower, is the raised finlike tower above the deck of a submarine that provides the sub’s familiar distinctive shape. Periscopes and many necessary antennae are fitted to the sail of a modern submarine, which is streamlined to cut through the water with no resistance. Russian submarine designers include an escape pod in the sails of their subs—and Kursk’s pod would have saved the entire regular crew of 113. However, disaster investigators believe that water flooded the ship all the way to the nuclear reactor space in the stern, or rear of the ship, blocking the way to the pod. In the stern, however, protective shielding meant to block radiation effectively stopped the water, allowing the sailors in the stern to survive the explosion. Apart from the explosions and their consequences, the men in the forward spaces and control room died for yet another reason. All submariners train to save their ship, which for the military is more important than an individual life. The doomed sailors in these areas would have remained at their posts until the absolute last minute, doing everything in their power to keep Kursk under control and bring her back to the surface, stemming the influx of water and keeping the two nuclear reactors safely functioning. The survivors in the stern of Kursk rode the submarine as it sank to the bottom. The twin propellers continued to turn, moving the ship forward as the ship plowed into the mud. The men who could have stopped them were dead at the control panels. Captain Lyachin’s voice would never give the order to stop. As the sub collided
  18. 18. ON THE BOTTOM 19 Because the crew of the Kursk did not maintain radio contact with the surface after the two explosions occurred, the crew members’ actions following the disaster— as well as its cause—have not been completely determined. This illustration shows one possible sequence of events that may have happened after the blasts. with the sea bottom, the impact would have thrown the remaining crewmen (and loose equipment) around like toys, injuring and perhaps killing many. The twin nuclear reactors may have functioned a while longer, providing heat, light, electricity, fresh air, and water. However, not long after Kursk settled onto the sea bottom, the reactors would have stopped automatically. The water needed to cool them had to be drawn from ports at the keel of the ship, so once these intakes had clogged with mud, control rods would have dropped into each radioactive core, stopping the nuclear reaction before a meltdown, or uncontrollable overheating, could occur.
  19. 19. 20 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS Nuclear submarines rely on their reactors for power, propulsion, clean air, and fresh water. The submariners of Kursk were now without most of these essentials. If the ship’s batteries had not been destroyed in the blast and collision with the sea floor, electricity would have lasted a little while; but after the batteries died, the only light would have come from emergency battle lanterns. Some authorities believe that Kursk was not even carrying any batteries due to equipment shortages. Meanwhile, the chill of the frigid arctic waters gradually crept over the ship. The unlucky men of the stricken vessel would have waited for a rescue at 350 feet below the Barents Sea, trying to conserve air by sitting still or lying in their bunks. The sailors would have put on any clothing they could find and huddled in groups to stay warm. Any men who had managed to escape from the bow to the stern were probably soaked to the skin. Air quality would have been poor. As water leaked into the dry space, it would have compressed the remaining air and increased atmospheric pressure, causing pain in the eardrums and requiring the sailors to swallow to equalize the pressure. As time passed, the air would have become stale with carbon dioxide (CO2), exhaled from the men, and carbon monoxide (CO), emitted by the fire. To absorb the CO2 from the air, the sailors would have lit special candles and spread special powders on the floor. These methods would have worked for a while, but nothing could have replenished the oxygen or gotten rid of the carbon monoxide. Eventually the air would have become so oxygen-depleted that the candles would not stay lit. At first a lack of oxygen would afflict the survivors with crushing headaches worse than any migraine. Eventually the men would loose consciousness. Finally, death would occur. It was clear to the ships on the surface that some men
  20. 20. ON THE BOTTOM aboard Kursk had survived the explosion. Sonar equipment picked up tapping sounds, probably coming from someone banging a hammer on the hull. The hammering would have helped raise the morale of the survivors, giving them hope that the ships above them would hone in on the sound and rescue them; the act itself probably helped warm up the sailor doing the hammering as the temperature dropped. But as the air soured, at some point even the lightest blow of the hammer would have required superhuman strength to manage. Eventually, the sonar equipment could no longer detect any tapping. Although they probably knew that their fate was sealed, the men of Kursk had no choice but to hope for rescue. They made no attempt to swim to the surface for a number of reasons. The submarine lay 350 feet down, and although it is possible in theory to make a swimming escape from a submarine (called a free escape) at this depth, in practice the odds against success rise as the depth increases. The escape breathing equipment of the U.S. and British navies permits submariners to escape from depths of up to 500 feet. And while the Russian navy probably had the same kind of equipment, it is unlikely the Kursk sailors had undergone the necessary hours of practice required for a successful free escape. Such an attempt would be dangerous: if the swimmers hold their breath while ascending, their lungs would explode as the water pressure decreased on the way to the surface. Death would be instantaneous. Another concern was “the bends,” which results from a too-rapid rise to the surface. As the swimmer ascends, nitrogen, a component of air, is forced out of the bloodstream and into the body’s joints and tissues. The bends will cause an excruciating level of pain, paralysis, and often death. Increased water pressure can also cause 21
  21. 21. 22 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS Submarine sailors train with escape suits, which crewmen can use as protection during an underwater emergency exit from the vessel. Some experts claimed that a lack of training using these suits prevented members of the Kursk crew from escaping from the sunken sub. oxygen narcosis, a condition in which the oxygen breathed by the swimmer produces a dangerous drunken feeling of euphoria. This feeling can cause even the most experienced diver to make a deadly mistake he or she would never make at a more shallow depth. The bends and oxygen narcosis are both conditions that occur in deep waters, and both require the diver to make a careful controlled ascent to the surface. Divers use a watch, a line with depth markers, and decompression chambers to combat the effects of water pressure. Some dives require hours of decompression. Therefore, even if the Kursk sailors could have escaped on their own and reached the surface, it is likely there would have been no decompression chamber to greet them. And with the water temperature close to freezing, even in the event of a successful ascent, they might well have frozen to death,
  22. 22. ON THE BOTTOM anyway. The odds were very much against escaping from the stricken sub. The men of Kursk are one crew in a long line of submarine sailors who have been killed in maritime disasters. In the past 50 years no submarines have been lost in combat, but the United States, Britain, Israel, and Russia (formerly of the USSR) have all lost at least one submarine with all hands. Men have been dying in submarines ever since a sailor closed the hatch on the first prototype and disappeared beneath the waves. 23
  23. 23. An illustration from an edition of Jules Verne’s novel, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, first published in 1870. The adventure of Captain Nemo and his fantastic sub, Nautilus, inspired thousands of readers to imagine the possibilities of underwater travel. Iron Coffins, Pigboats, and FBMs 2 You like the sea, Captain? Yes, I love it! The sea is everything. . . . In it is supreme tranquility. The sea does not belong to despots. Upon its surface men can still exercise unjust laws, fight, tear one another to pieces, and be carried away with terrestrial horrors. But at thirty feet below its level, their reign ceases, their influence is quenched, and their power disappears. Ah! sir, live—live in the bosom of the waters! There only is independence! There I recognise no masters! There I am free! —Jules Verne, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1870) aptain Nemo’s submarine, Nautilus, is one of the most famous vessels to ever ply the seas of imagination or reality, and the captain and his ship have been inspiring prospective submariners for generations. Jules Verne’s 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, first published in C 25
  24. 24. 26 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS 1870, chronicles the adventures of Professor Aronnax, his butler Conseil, and a whaler named Ned Land. They are rescued from the ocean by the mysterious Captain Nemo and travel beneath the waves in his whalelike submarine, Nautilus. Nemo introduces his crew to dining on sea delicacies, smoking cigars made from tobacco-like sea plants, and walking on the floor of the ocean using scuba equipment. But the captain has a darker side: he likes to ram warships with his submarine, sinking them with all hands. Verne’s tale is remarkable for a number of reasons. He tells of a ship that can submerge beneath the waves, manufacture its own oxygen, and travel using electric power. Captain Nemo is self-sufficient, able to get everything he and his crew need to live from the ocean itself. Verne’s ideas were years before their time. Yet inventors had been experimenting with ideas of submarines since Leonardo da Vinci designed one while working for the Duke of Milan between 1485 and 1490. The first working submarine—powered, in fact, by electricity as the Nautilus was—would not appear until a few years after the publication of Verne’s book. Scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) would not be invented until 1943. Verne, a Frenchman, would probably have been proud that the inventor of scuba was another Frenchman: Jacques Cousteau. Submarines would not be able to manufacture their own fresh oxygen until the world’s first nuclear submarine—named Nautilus after Verne’s creation—was launched in 1954. Nuclear power, an offshoot of the government project that invented the atomic bomb, allowed scientists to create a true submarine, a machine that could circle the globe underwater without ever needing to surface. A machine with only human limitations, the vessel would come
  25. 25. IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS home when the mission’s three-month supply of food ran out. Most historians attribute the first recorded submarine design to Leonardo da Vinci. However, da Vinci left out some crucial information: he never revealed how the sub was to be powered. Subsequent inventors attempted to build submarines, often with spectacular results. Historians credit Dr. Cornelius Van Drebble, a Dutch physician, with building and demonstrating the world’s first functional submarine in 1620. Made of greased leather and wood, the underwater ship was powered by oars. Van Drebble presented his submarine in London, England, by submerging it in the Thames River, as King James I and crowds of British citizens looked on. When Van Drebble returned to the surface, he became a hero. Some historians doubt that the doctor created a true submarine, but at least the legend tells of his survival. Many other submarine inventors went down with their ships. In 1774 John Day bought a wooden ship named Maria and created a watertight compartment on board. He planned to submerge the ship in the harbor at Plymouth, England, remain alive inside the watertight compartment for a time, and then drop his ballast stones and return to the surface. Day was so confident of his success that he took wagers on his chances, expecting to dive and then surface to cheers and a financial windfall. But the plan did not work out as he had envisioned. Day had no way of knowing that water pressure increases 15 pounds per square inch for every 30 feet of depth. At 130 feet the ship would have been subjected to 60 pounds of pressure per square inch. His ship reached the bottom, but Day drowned on the way down as the water pressure crushed the wooden vessel. John Day did indeed 27
  26. 26. 28 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS receive recognition, though not the type he sought: he has gone down in history as the first man to die aboard a submarine. The American Revolutionary War saw the creation of a submarine by David Bushnell. Named Turtle, the small vessel carried one man, who was also its sole operator. The American navy designed the submarine to destroy enemy shipping by sneaking up to British vessels and screwing a timed explosive charge into the wooden keel. If the plan worked, once Turtle got far enough away, the device would go off and the British vessel would explode. Turtle never sank any ships, however, since the large explosive devices proved impossible to screw into the tough wooden planks of a ship’s keel. During the Civil War, submarine warfare took on a significant role. Historians credit CSS Hunley, a handpowered Confederate navy submarine, with the first sinking of an enemy vessel by a sub. Hunley sank the Northern warship USS Housatonic on February 17, 1864, using a crude can torpedo. A can of gunpowder on a very long pole affixed to the front of the Confederate sub was rammed into the ship to set off the charge. However, the explosion that crippled Housatonic also appears to have opened the seams in Hunley’s cigar-shaped hull, allowing water to leak in. Hunley went down with all nine hands. In fact, the submarine had sunk many times before, causing the deaths of a total of 42 men, including its inventor. Interestingly, marine archeologists recently raised CSS Hunley, hoping to piece together what happened on its last and most intriguing mission. Once a submarine sank a warship, the world of war was changed forever. Every nation with a navy began to worry about this undersea danger that could destroy prized battleships without warning. At the
  27. 27. IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS time military leaders based their defense planning and strategies on the battleship, so the nation with the most battleships was considered the most powerful. Now navies had a new weapon; submarines allowed them to protect their own battleships and sink those of the enemy. After determining that human-powered submarines and those made of wood were impractical, inventors began to work on new designs. Experimental vessels were powered by steam, electricity, diesel, gasoline, and chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide. Instead of wood, designers used riveted iron plate to streamline hulls. 29 With the help of modern technology, researchers raised and examined the Confederate submarine Hunley in April 2001. The vessel had been sunk during a battle in 1864, after successfully destroying the Northern warship USS Housatonic.
  28. 28. 30 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS Many new submarine designs took to the water after the Civil War. Some designs were better than others, and inventors learned from their mistakes; but submarines are unforgiving, and the smallest miscalculations resulted in death. Submarines from 1865 to 1900 had colorful names: Intelligent Whale, Nautilus, The Fenian Ram, Plunger, Argonaut, Narval, Peacemaker, and Porpoise. They often suffered colorful fates, as well. Some exploded when toxic gases built up inside their hulls; others sank to the bottom and refused to come back to the surface; and some poisoned crews with chlorine gas from stubborn batteries or carbon monoxide from engine exhaust. Subs would sink with all hands, receive a refurbishing after being raised, and then sink all over again on the next voyage. It is no wonder the submarine service has traditionally been a volunteer service. The Fenian Ram, Plunger, and Porpoise were all submarines built by an Irish-immigrant inventor named John Holland, a schoolteacher who lived in Paterson, New Jersey. His designs were some of the first reliable submarines, and he is considered the father of the U.S. submarine service. Some jokingly refer to subs as “iron coffins”—a nickname a bystander invented after watching the Holland II founder on its test voyage. In 1900, the USS Holland (SS-1) became the U.S. Navy’s first submarine purchase. Small by today’s standards, the ship measured 53 feet long and carried a crew of seven. Holland featured equipment still used on submarines, including torpedoes and torpedo tubes, a periscope, and battery-powered electric motors for travel beneath the ocean’s surface. John Holland’s company, Electric Boat Company, still makes submarines for the navy at its shipyard in Groton, Connecticut, and some of his original submarines have been preserved
  29. 29. IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS and are on display in Paterson, New Jersey. World War I saw extensive use of the submarine in combat. The Germans developed hundreds of subs referred to as U-boats—an abbreviation of Unterseeboot, which literally means underwater boat. U-boats first sank Allied merchant ships, destroying material needed in the British war effort. The U-boat then became a terror weapon when one sank the passenger liner Lusitania on May 7, 1915, killing 1,195 passengers. The action outraged the world and encouraged the United States—which up to that point had resisted participating in the war—to join the British and French in fighting the Germans. Although the British thought submarine warfare was an ungentlemanly way to fight, all nations noted the effectiveness of the sub as a weapon. After the Germans lost World War I, they were prohibited from building submarines according to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919. The Allies divided up the remaining German U-boats as spoils of war and then used the captured U-boat technology to improve their own subs. Unlike the Allied designs, U-boats were powered by diesel engines on the surface and battery-powered electric motors (which were charged by the diesels) underwater. The technology was especially valuable to the British, who at the time were using an extremely dangerous method— steam engines—to power some subs. Ignoring the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the Germans began building U-boats again during the 1930s as Hitler and the Nazi party militarized the Third Reich and once more positioned Germany for war. When World War II broke out, the Germans were again at an advantage over the Allies with their improved U-boats. These submarines could easily cross 31
  30. 30. 32 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS the Atlantic Ocean, and the Germans took the war literally to the shores of the United States. U-boats controlled the Atlantic from the start of the war in 1939 until 1943. They sank more than 4,770 ships using wolf-pack techniques: groups of U-boats would attack single ships and convoys, much like a pack of wolves attacks prey. The U-boats would attack on the surface in daylight with impunity. Eventually, improved antisubmarine warfare and the overwhelming numbers of American ships and planes devoted to the U-boat problem turned the tide, and from mid-1943 until the war ended in 1945, the Germans lost U-boats in staggering numbers—a total of 740. For every 10 subs that left port, 7 or 8 never returned. German submariners refer to this period as “the sour pickle time.” The United States used its own fleet of submarines to great effect in the Pacific Ocean. These subs took the war to the shores of Japan, where, using wolf-pack techniques modeled after U-boat tactics, they sank thousands of tons of merchant and military shipping. During World War II the U.S. Navy lost 38 submarines to enemy action, with many of these losses occurring before they employed the wolf-pack techniques. After Germany and Japan lost the war, the Allies again divided up the enemy submarines as part of the spoils. The subs were taken apart and analyzed, and their technology helped improve the next generation of vessels. Germany had been experimenting with snorkels for its submarines; the snorkel—which took up about the same amount of space as a trash can— allowed a diesel submarine to remain hidden below the surface, yet able to run its engines, charge the batteries, and freshen the air. This technology was
  31. 31. IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS very valuable because it moved submariners closer to the ideal submarine, one that would never require surfacing. The less time a sub remains on the surface, the better. During wartime the reasons for remaining hidden are obvious-if a sub is spotted, it can be depth charged or torpedoed into oblivion. During peacetime, traveling along the surface of the ocean can be just as dangerous. Submarines are very hard to see in the open ocean, and many have been accidentally rammed by merchant ships. A submarine with a snorkel is also very valuable for use in espionage. A spy sub can observe an enemy's 33 German sailors in the engine room of their World War I-era sub. Equipped with the latest submarine technology, German subs, or U-boats, presented a powerful threat to the United States and its allies.
  32. 32. 34 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS German researchers pulled this U-boat, which had seen service during World War II, from the Baltic Sea in May 2001. After the war, the Allies had divided up surviving German submarines and copied the advanced design elements and technology. shoreline or shipping activities or monitor radio transmissions without being detected. By the 1950s the United States and the USSR were no longer allies, and each side wanted to keep tabs on the other. The cold war helped spying become one of the primary missions of the attack-type submarine. A U.S. Navy officer named Hyman Rickover saw another way besides the snorkel to design submarines. Making use of the technology of the mighty atomic bomb that ended World War II, he helped invent the first nuclear-powered submarine, Nautilus, which the
  33. 33. IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS U.S. launched in 1954. In the process he became known as the father of the nuclear navy and was promoted to admiral. Admiral Rickover ruled over his nuclear submarines with a legendary iron fist until he was well into his eighties. Since its invention, the submarine had always been a dirty place filled with unpleasant smells—diesel fumes, condensation, and the odor of rarely bathed crews. As a result, submarines were often referred to as “pigboats.” But though the commander of a pigboat knew he would probably not rise any higher in rank, no proud submariner would switch from the “silent service,” as submariners call their military duty, to the surface navy. However, no one could call Rickover’s atomic submarine a pigboat. Nautilus was clean, spacious, comfortable, and air-conditioned, and it did not smell of diesel fumes. The ship did not need to surface and could circle the globe without ever having to stop for fuel. The crew could even take occasional showers. t is important to understand how a submarine works. A basic submarine is a tube of steel known as the pressure hull. Once the entrance hatches are closed to keep the water outside and the oxygen inside (for the crew), the tube descends in the water by using what are known as ballast tanks. Located outside the pressure hull, the ballast tanks are filled with water when the crew wishes to dive. The extra weight of the tanks makes the sub heavier than the surrounding water (known as negative buoyancy), and causes the ship to go down. Wings on the outside of the sub, called diving planes, direct the sub’s downward movement. Once the sub reaches the desired depth, the crew uses the planes and special smaller ballast tanks, called trim tanks, to keep the sub level and balanced. To make the sub surface, the crew purges the tanks of water and fills them with compressed air. The ship will rise because it has become lighter than the surrounding water (positive buoyancy). These basic principles govern the design of all submarines, regardless of what source is employed to power the ship. I 35
  34. 34. 36 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS On January 21, 1954, the first atomic-powered submarine, USS Nautilus, entered the Thames River at Groton, Connecticut, at its official launching. The event marked the beginning of a long race with the USSR to build the most powerful and energyefficient nuclear vessel. The USSR soon copied the design, and the nuclear submarine race followed the nuclear arms race. The United States and the USSR experimented with designs of all kinds for their subs. Each came up with the Fleet Ballistic Missile submarine, or FBM. Slow, longer than a football field, completely silent, and capable of carrying and firing great numbers of nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles to targets anywhere on the globe, the FBM became an integral part of defense strategy. Today, the United States, Britain, France, and Russia all operate FBMs, which are shadowed by attack submarines designed to destroy them. The
  35. 35. IRON COFFINS, PIGBOATS, AND FBMS major military powers operate attack subs of various types, as well. These vessels operate year-round in the oceans of the world. Still, as technologically advanced as submarines now are, as long as nations continue to build and operate these vessels there will be accidents. All submariners train against such an eventuality and rely on that training to help them to survive if and when an accident occurs. Nuclear submarine disasters add another level of difficulty to the problem: the nuclear fuels and weapons on board consist of some of the deadliest poisons known to man. 37
  36. 36. Thresher
  37. 37. The loss of the attack submarine USS Thresher, which sank off the coast of Massachusetts with 129 men aboard, shocked the American public and raised questions about the safety of nuclear warships. 3 The method of handling material in the United States [shipbuilding industry] was very, very sloppy. —Frank T. Horan (engineer for Nautilus), quoted in Forged in War n April 10, 1963, the nuclear-powered attack submarine USS Thresher (SSN-593) was conducting tests about 240 miles off the coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Thresher, the first of a new class of deep-diving U.S. nuclear submarines, was capable of cruising at 1,000 feet below the surface and had a maximum depth (crush depth) of approximately 1,300 feet. Thresher was 279 feet long and 32 feet wide and usually carried a crew of 9 officers and 76 enlisted men. O 39
  38. 38. 40 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS It was the height of the cold war between the United States and the USSR. The two superpowers had gone to the brink of nuclear war during the Cuban missile crisis just a few short months before, in October 1962. The confrontation had ended when the Soviets had eventually removed their missiles from Cuba, but they were still building nuclear submarines to compete with the United States and NATO. Soviet nuclear subs were rumored to be capable of traveling much deeper than American nuclear subs could. In response to this threat, the U.S. navy created Thresher. Its success would allow the navy to copy it and create a group of identical ships—Thresher-class submarines—that would be ready to fight the Soviets in deep waters. If the cold war turned hot, Thresher’s mission would be to hunt down and destroy Soviet fleet ballistic missile submarines (FBMs) before the Soviets could fire their nuclear missiles at the United States. Thresher had just been repaired at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine. When a ship has been repaired, or, in technical terms, has received a refitting or overhaul, it needs to go to sea for tests called sea trials—much like a mechanic’s road test for a car after repairs. These trials ensure that every system on the ship has been fixed and is functioning correctly. During a refit, technicians also update ships with new equipment, and these new systems receive tests, as well. Sea trials allow both new and old crew to become acquainted, or reacquainted, with the ship, learn to operate its new equipment, and make certain the vessel is ready to return to service. The biggest concern for a nuclear submarine (or any submarine for that matter) during these tests is the integrity of the hull.
  39. 39. THRESHER Although some might joke that submarines are the only kind of ship designed to sink, these vessels can have absolutely no water leaks. On any ship a leak is hard to control, but since water pressure increases as a submarine travels deeper beneath the surface, at great depths a spray of pressurized water from a leak could be powerful enough to slice a man in half. On the morning of April 10, Thresher was checking its hull for leaks as it tested its deep-diving capabilities. Its crew consisted of 129 men: 16 officers, 96 enlisted men, plus 17 civilian technicians (employees of the Portsmouth shipyard and representatives from the Naval Ordinance Laboratory). The sub was heading east along with USS Skylark (ASR-20), a submarine rescue ship, and the two vessels communicated via an underwater voice-powered telephone system. They traveled through the Georges Banks, a shallow commercial fishing area known for dangerous currents, then reached the area where the continental shelf dropped off, and the depth of the ocean changed from between 200 and 300 feet to more than 8,000 feet. This depth would allow Thresher enough room to perform some deep-diving tests. At 7:50 A . M . Thresher’s lieutenant commander, Wes Harvey, gave the order to start the deep dive. Quartermaster Jackie Gunter informed Skylark that Thresher would be diving to 1,000 feet, and Skylark acknowledged the order. Thresher’s crew first took the submarine very slowly to 400 feet, while the crew and civilian technicians checked every surface of the hull and every hatch, seal, pipe, seam, and weld for leaks. They found none. The hull of a nuclear submarine is basically a steel pipe with caps welded on the ends. Special steel is used in sub construction. For example, the commonly used 41
  40. 40. 42 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS HY-80 steel can withstand pressures of up to 80,000 pounds per square inch—hence the 80 in its name. This single layer, just a few inches thick, is the only barrier against the crushing pressures of the ocean. In a perfect submarine, the hull would consist of just one piece of impermeable steel, but in reality a nuclear submarine’s hull is peppered with welds because it is constructed by fusing together a series of donut-shaped pieces of steel. Each “donut” is joined to the next, eventually creating the submarine’s hydrodynamic, cigar-like shape. Inspectors x-ray each welded piece to certify its strength, and any piece that fails this rigorous test is torn apart and re-welded. Besides welds, a submarine’s hull contains access hatches, periscopes, missile tubes, torpedo tubes, a propeller shaft, and numerous other openings necessary for the vessel to function—all of which must, of course, be watertight. Thresher had been designed as an attack submarine. This kind of sub must be able to move quickly in order to surprise and destroy enemies. Because the thickness of the hull helps determine the weight and top speed of the submarine, attack submarines must be light. These vessels are like hot rods: they can “burn rubber” in case an enemy torpedo is heading its way. Thresher’s hull was just thick enough to withstand the pressures of deeper depths, but light enough so as not to sacrifice speed. But while U.S. nuclear submarines are fast because of their single hulls, this same design makes them more vulnerable to leakage. Soviet and Russian nuclear submarines use a double-hull design, increasing the odds the vessel could survive an accident or battle. As testing procedures continued, Thresher maintained a depth of 400 feet for 50 minutes. At 9 A.M.
  41. 41. THRESHER 43 Workers at the Electric Boat Company in Groton, Connecticut, weld the donut-shaped pieces of steel used to construct the hull of a new submarine. Lieutenant Commander Harvey ordered Thresher to descend to 1,000 feet. For every 33 feet of depth that a sub travels down, the water pressure on its hull increases by one atmosphere. At 1,000 feet, Thresher would be subjected to more than 30 atmospheres of pressure. Quartermaster Gunter informed Skylark that Thresher would be proceeding deeper. The two men steering the ship pushed down on the airplane-like steering wheels that controlled the submarine, and the angle of Thresher’s dive increased. The submarine began to make creaks and groans as the outside water pressure
  42. 42. 44 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS increased. Though such noises are disconcerting, all submarines make them as they travel deep beneath the waves. It is a fact of physics that submarines cannot compress water; instead, water compresses a submarine. But engineers had designed Thresher to withstand the pressure, and the crew and civilian technicians continued to check everything to make certain the ship remained watertight. At 9:12 things began to go wrong. At the test depth of 1,000 feet water began pouring into the ship. A pipe fitting had burst in the engine room, and seawater used for cooling the nuclear reactor was spraying everywhere. The men in the engine room contacted the control room and informed Lieutenant Commander Harvey of the problem. Harvey ordered the watertight doors between Thresher’s interior compartments closed. This contained the water to the engine room, where the men tried to staunch the flow of very cold, pressurized water. The water sprayed onto vital electronic components, causing them to short out. Detecting the loss of power caused by the water damage, the safety sensors in the reactor automatically shut down the reactor— a procedural measure known as a reactor scram. Control rods made of graphite dropped into the reactor’s uranium-235 core and stopped the reaction. With the reactor out of operation, no more steam was being produced and sent to the engine turbine. With the turbine stopped, the propeller did not turn. Thresher was dead in the water. The submarine was in a precarious position. It could not safely go much deeper than 1,000 feet, but as the ship filled with water, the extra weight was taking Thresher deeper. The reactor was off-line, and the sub badly needed that power because blowing the
  43. 43. THRESHER ballast tanks would not provide a quick enough lift for a trip to the surface. Thresher needed to surface fast. Propeller power was required to drive the ship to the surface, but it would take seven minutes to restart the reactor and get the ship moving again. Lieutenant Commander Harvey ordered an emergency blow of all ballast tanks, which usually means a last-resort dash to the surface. A submarine making an emergency blow will break the surface in a roar of air and water, sail into the air, and then fall back to the surface with a huge splash. But with Thresher the opposite happened. Because of the pressure at that depth, the lack of propulsion, the electrical problems, and the extra weight of the water, Thresher continued heading toward the bottom. 45 When its ballast tanks are blown, a submarine will quickly ascend to the ocean surface. This emergency blow procedure failed to save the stricken Thresher, however, and it continued its deadly descent to the bottom of the sea.
  44. 44. 46 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS Skylark received a message at 9:13 A.M. from Lieutenant Commander Harvey: “Experiencing minor difficulty. Have positive up-angle. Attempting to blow.” At 9:17 A.M. Skylark received another message: “Exceeding test depth.” The men of Skylark then heard sickening sounds of crunching as Thresher’s hull imploded. At some point beyond Thresher’s crush depth, the ship was literally crushed and torn apart, killing all crew members and passengers within seconds. In his book Explorations, underwater explorer Robert D. Ballard imagines what happened: A crushing slab of seawater slammed into the ruptured pressure hull, tearing watertight bulkhead doors from their hinges like scraps of wet cardboard. The air inside the hull was instantly compressed to 750 pounds per square inch. Thresher’s hull became a huge combustion cylinder, the sea a piston. One hundred twenty-nine men were killed within seconds by the invisible blast of the superheated air. Diesel fuel and lubricants exploded. The thick curved flanks of the pressure hull were shredded. Thresher erupted like a giant depth charge. The heavy pieces of the ship sank and came to rest at a depth of more than 8,000 feet below the ocean’s surface. Oil, rubber gloves, pieces of cork, and other light materials from Thresher rose to the surface—but no bodies. Skylark stayed on location over the accident scene and relayed the news of Thresher’s disaster to shore. The navy and the public were stunned that a nuclear submarine could be destroyed and disappear with all hands. Nautilus, the first nuclear submarine, had been an incredible achievement—a submarine that could travel underwater for years without need of
  45. 45. THRESHER surfacing, its only limits being those of its human crew. The American public was growing used to seeing pictures of U.S. nuclear submarines breaking through the ice of the North Pole. And American nuclear submarines patrolling the oceans were the first line of defense in the case of a nuclear attack from the USSR. In the public’s mind, U.S. scientists had beaten Japan with the atomic bomb, and now the atom had conquered the ocean. Soon U.S. scientists would put a man on the moon. Indeed, the invincibility of the U.S. military in general and its nuclear submarines in particular was so fixed in the American consciousness that Admiral Rickover and the navy were just as shocked and surprised as the public when Thresher did not return to port. Rickover and his handpicked men had made sure that every possible safety precaution had been taken in the creation of the U.S. nuclear submarines. Rickover believed that his submarines, and he literally believed they were his personal property, had to be overengineered for safety. In his view, the public would never allow the military a second chance if a meltdown or any other nuclear accident occurred on a submarine. He knew that any foul-up with the nuclear fuel that resulted in civilian contamination and casualties would spell the end for nuclear submarines. Rickover and the navy went to work to find a cause for the disaster and ensure that a similar catastrophe would never occur again. It was not easy to get the desired answers. First, the navy needed to find the wreckage. There was a remote chance that Thresher had not been destroyed by accident. President John F. Kennedy needed to be sure that Soviets had not destroyed the sub or that Thresher’s crew had not 47
  46. 46. 48 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS In this 1952 photograph, Captain Hyman Rickover, then director of the Nuclear Power Division of the Navy’s Bureau of Ships, shows a model of the first atomic-powered submarine. Rickover believed that all necessary precautions had been taken to make nuclear submarines safe. defected to the Soviet Union, taking the state-of-theart submarine with them. The possibility also existed that radioactive material from the reactor vessel was leaking and poisoning the ocean. To put these fears to rest, the American people needed positive proof brought to the surface. With Thresher’s wreckage lying at a depth of 8,000 feet, the navy had to use sonar to scan the seabed for images. Meanwhile, ships dragged long lines through the deep water, hoping to snag pieces of the sub. Sonar eventually found the approximate location of the wreck, and the search team brought a bathyscaphe (a small submersible designed for deep-sea exploration) called Trieste to the location.
  47. 47. THRESHER Trieste looks like a submarine with a ball sticking out of its keel. Made of thick, high-strength steel, the ball has a window at which a crew of three sits. The rest of the craft is filled with high-octane aviation gasoline and magnetized iron pellets. Trieste descends and ascends by venting the gas and releasing these iron pellets. The bathyscaphe holds the record for the deepest dive ever—35,000 feet. However, compared with other subs Trieste has limited maneuvering capabilities: it functions solely as an elevator to the bottom, going down and coming back up. In 1963 Trieste was one of the few submersibles capable of diving deep enough to look at the Thresher’s wreckage. Using Trieste, scientists took many photographs of the wreckage of the sub. A piece of pipe and a few other items were recovered and brought to the surface. The pipe had serial numbers that conclusively linked it to Thresher. The condition of the wreckage was consistent with an accident. There were no telltale marks of a torpedo explosion or other type of attack. The navy also measured the level of radioactivity around the wreck and found no leakage of nuclear material. (In fact, to this day the navy continues to monitor Thresher, and to date there has been no release of nuclear materials.) This information helped put to rest the question of Soviet attack or possibility of defection of Thresher’s crew. Now the navy had two questions: What happened? And, would it happen again? After analyzing the recovered bits of Thresher; interpreting the wreckage photographs; conducting exhaustive tests; and interviewing scientists, engineers, sailors, and shipyard workers, the navy’s investigators released their findings on the disaster. They believed the accident had been caused by the failure of a silver-brazed joint in a 49
  48. 48. 50 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS pipe in the reactor’s seawater cooling system. Under the extreme pressures of the 1,000-foot depth, the pipe had exploded—and the water flowing from the pipe could not have entered the sub at a worse spot. The seawater had destroyed electrical circuits critical to reactor operations, causing the nuclear reactor to scram (run its emergency shutdown) and stop. Finally, after descending beyond its crush depth, the ship imploded. The navy’s report was, of course, merely based on theory since Thresher was too deep to recover and there were no survivors to provide evidence. Unless the government eventually recovers the wreckage, it cannot confirm the navy’s theory, but with the discovery of many silver-brazed pipes from other nuclear submarines, the theory is beginning to gain more credence. A brazed joint is soldered together and is never as strong as a welded joint, in which metals are actually fused. The piece of pipe recovered from Thresher should have been welded to comply with U.S. Navy submarine specifications, and during Thresher’s construction, shipyard workers were supposed to weld everything. But in the claustrophobic interior of a submarine, some pipes were in locations nearly inaccessible to welders. Apparently, some workers had cut corners by brazing instead of welding, and inspectors had cut corners by not testing the pipes in those hardto-reach locations. The navy also found that Thresher’s ballast tanks had a serious design flaw. Though it is difficult, it is possible to blow ballast tanks despite the pressure of a deep dive. However, Thresher’s construction team had blundered by placing strainers in the piping systems that carried the air from the compressed air tanks to the ballast tanks. This design change was completed without consulting the navy, whose plan did not call
  49. 49. THRESHER for strainers in the pipes. When Thresher’s crew tried to pipe the compressed air to the ballast tanks to blow out the water and allow the ship to rise, ice had already formed on the strainers because of the change in pressure, a phenomenon called the Venturi effect. This same effect will cause an automobile carburetor to fill with ice on a cold day and stop the car’s engine from running. Similarly, the ice clogged the pipes, preventing Thresher’s tanks from pumping out water. The navy subsequently found that other submarines had also been fitted with strainers and ordered them removed. In the construction of later submarines, larger pipes were installed to alleviate this problem. This effort to increase the effectiveness of the emergency blow was part of the navy’s SUBSAFE program, under the guidance of Dr. John P. Craven of the navy’s Special Projects Office. Craven proposed a theory that the captain of Thresher might have spent precious moments checking the sonar to make sure the submarine would not hit a surface vessel when executing the emergency blow. Those extra seconds could have been enough to doom the vessel. Craven’s theory motivated the navy to reevaluate the emergency blow procedures and come up with ways to speed up the process. There are other theories about the loss of Thresher, as well. Some critics maintain that the navy’s shock tests caused the disaster. In a shock test, explosives are dropped near a submarine to test its resistance to enemy depth charges. In 1963 this test was routine for all submarines. In the course of testing Thresher, some say, the explosions had been placed too close and damaged the pipe so it later burst during the deep dive. Some analysts say that the HY-80 steel skin—at the time a brand-new steel, and Thresher was one of 51
  50. 50. 52 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS A submarine construction worker at the Electric Boat Company steadies a sheet of steel as it is shaped by giant rollers. Theories regarding the failure of the Thresher included the possibility that the sub’s steel skin cracked because of a flaw introduced during its construction. the first subs built with the material—cracked because of the shock testing. HY-80 is very brittle and fractures easily. If an impurity gets into a weld in HY-80, the steel will crack like an eggshell. During the construction of a submarine, each weld must be left alone for seven days to make sure it has not cracked. Perhaps the shock testing had proved too much for the brittle HY-80. Others note that Admiral Rickover was an engineer by training, not a ship designer, and very good at designing conservative, robust nuclear reactors. Critics believe that in designing the nuclear submarine Rickover had focused on the reactor, and allowed critical flaws in other parts of the ship to escape his attention.
  51. 51. THRESHER Another theory is primarily founded on the damage that Thresher sustained on previous voyages. Some believe a ballast tank damaged the year before might have been the cause of the accident. Still others believe the navy was using too many experimental materials in the submarine—such as flexible steam pipe couplings—that were not yet ready to go to sea. Regardless of the cause, after the disaster the navy made certain that its stringent regulations were followed from the moment submarine construction began until the day the vessel was removed from service. In the construction of materials used for military purposes, rigorous specifications must be followed. Because military equipment must function in all types of weather conditions, as well as under enemy fire, construction standards must be high. If, for example, the sleeve of a winter army coat falls apart at the North Pole or a substandard pipe bursts on a navy submarine at 1,000 feet below the ocean, it becomes a matter of life and death. Still, accidents and mistakes happen with submarines because shipyard workers and navy crewmen are human and therefore fallible. One example of human shortcomings occurred with Nautilus. The first nuclear submarine was almost destroyed because substandard piping was installed by mistake. Although its design standards called for seamless pipes made from a specific type of heavy-duty steel, shipyard workers took pipes from a dismantled grandstand—used, ironically, during a party for Nautilus. The substandard pipes had been stored next to the heavy-duty pipes meant for nuclear subs, and they ended up being inadvertently installed in Nautilus and other subs being built at the time. Later, during a dockside test of Nautilus’s reactor, the grandstand pipe exploded. Miraculously, no shipyard workers were 53
  52. 52. 54 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS seriously injured; but if the sub had been underwater, the accident might have destroyed the sub and its crew. Because each piece of a nuclear submarine is marked with a serial number, and the pipe that exploded had no such number, investigators were able to figure out what happened after interviewing workers. The navy later instituted safeguards to ensure that substandard or counterfeit materials could not migrate into the system either at the subcontractor level or in the shipyard construction or refit process. The builder of Nautilus, the Electric Boat Company, made it a policy to use only seamless pipe in its shipyard to prevent another accident of this type from occurring again. In addition to the construction safeguards, the navy addressed another element of safety. As part of the SUBSAFE program, Dr. John P. Craven was given charge of the creation of a Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV), a mini-submarine whose purpose was to rescue submariners trapped below the ocean’s surface. At this time the navy had no modern program in place for saving its submariners. The navy did possess the McCann Rescue Chamber, a diving bell, but it counted on the sailors to save themselves by donning a Steinke-hood breathing device (which provides an air supply and serves as a flotation device) and swimming to the surface from a stricken submarine. This type of ascent is known as a free ascent. It is unlikely that anyone will know for certain what happened to Thresher, but the 129 men on board did not die in vain. Because of their deaths, the navy created policies and equipment for the purpose of rescuing trapped submariners. It was also able to improve its subs and make them easier and safer to operate. And its newly instituted policies helped
  53. 53. THRESHER ensure that navy ships were constructed to conform to naval regulations. The nuclear submarine program continued after the navy instituted its new policies. The Thresherclass subs became Permit-class subs, renamed after Thresher’s sister ship USS Permit. Before long, the U.S. Navy was prepared to do battle with the Soviets in the deep oceans. 55
  54. 54. The salvage of the USS Squalus on September 13, 1939. Four months earlier, half the vessel had flooded during a test dive, drowning 26 crew members. The remaining 33 crew members, although trapped 240 feet below the water’s surface, were eventually saved. The effort proved that underwater sea rescues were possible. The SUBSAFE Program 4 s of 1963 the U.S. Navy had no modern equipment for the rescue of trapped submariners—and there had been dozens of submarine disasters. The only rescue method in place depended on the sailors themselves. They were issued personal breathing devices and instructed in how to use them. If their submarine ran into trouble, they were expected to swim out of the sub and up to the surface for rescue—a very dangerous proposition under the best of circumstances. There had been only one rescue of crewmen trapped underwater. That occurred in 1939 when the McCann Rescue Chamber saved 33 men from USS Squalus—the only time the chamber was used in a disaster. The McCann chamber had limitations: it was a diving bell, not a submarine; plus it required that cables be attached to the deck of the A 57
  55. 55. 58 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS stricken submarine, so divers first had to get to the sub to attach the cables. Furthermore, the chamber could be attached only to a horizontal deck, and if the sub’s deck was not reasonably level, the chamber would not work. Finally, if a lost sub was deeper than human divers could work, the guide cables could not be attached, and the submariners would die. The U.S. Navy needed another way to save submarine crews. Although many ideas had been presented as ways to save submariners, the navy preferred to develop submarines for combat use rather than for rescue purposes. Many still believed that Admiral Rickover’s nuclear submarines were invincible—after all, they could supposedly run forever on their nuclear fuel. The only foreseeable loss of a submarine would be in combat against the Soviet Union, and in such a case there would probably be no survivors left to rescue. But accidents can influence change, and the Thresher disaster changed the navy’s attitude. After the Thresher disaster, the navy commissioned Dr. John P. Craven’s Special Projects Office to create a submarine that could rescue the crews of sunken submarines. The resultant Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle, created at great expense (the first model cost somewhere around $41 million), was cigar-shaped, 49 feet long and 8 feet wide, constructed of HY-140 steel, and propelled by a battery-powered electric motor. Under the HY-140 steel skin were three spheres: one for the operators, one for the airlock, and one for up to 24 survivors. The three-sphere design served a safety function. When a submarine is trapped on the bottom of the ocean, the air inside eventually becomes saturated with carbon dioxide from the air exhaled by survivors. Fouled air causes lethargy and affects the brain in odd
  56. 56. THE SUBSAFE PROGRAM ways—oxygen deprivation can cause a person to behave as if he or she were drunk. Therefore, the three-sphere design keeps a potentially dangerous rescued crewman from interfering with the operators of the DSRV. In the event that the navy receives word of a nuclear submarine stranded beneath the surface, it will dispatch the DSRV. The mini-submarine travels attached to the deck of a mother sub to the disaster location. Once it arrives at the site, the DSRV crew opens the mother sub’s exit hatch and climbs into the mini-sub. The DSRV lifts off and descends to the stricken sub. Upon reaching the stranded vessel, the crew of the rescue vehicle inspect the sub and then attach the DSRV to the best available escape hatch. Unlike diving bells, which need a horizontal deck on which to attach and make an airtight seal, the DSRV has a docking mechanism and can adjust itself to a tilted deck of up to 45 degrees and make a proper seal, allowing survivors to climb into the DSRV and ride back to safety to the mother sub. A DSRV is capable of saving men trapped in American and NATO-type submarines and can descend to more than 3,000 feet below the surface (though its true maximum depth is kept secret). Any sub that meets with disaster on the continental shelf of the coast of the United States can be assisted by a DSRV. The United States has two of them, Mystic and Avalon—one for each coast—and they are ready to be airlifted by cargo jet to any submarine disaster at any time, in any location in the world. But so far the navy has never used a DSRV in an actual emergency. An interesting aside to the story of the DSRV is its use as an undersea spy vehicle. The DSRV program ran many millions of dollars over budget, prompting a Senate investigation—in fact, Wisconsin senator William Proxmire “honored” the DSRV with his Golden Fleece (continued on page 62) 59
  57. 57. 60 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS “SUBMARINE DOWN OFF NEW ENGLAND COAST” n 1939 the U.S. Navy made headlines around the world when 33 men aboard the USS Squalus (SS-192) were rescued. Squalus was a new fleet-type submarine, 310 feet long and 28 feet wide. On May 23, the submarine left Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for sea trials. Lieutenant Oliver Naquin was in charge. Aboard were 59 men: 5 officers, 51 enlisted men, and 3 civilian observers from the shipyard. Naquin was putting the ship through diving tests that day to ensure that Squalus was ready for service. At 8:40 A.M. Squalus dived and was unable to come back to the surface. The sub came to rest on the bottom, 240 feet below the surface. A main induction valve for the diesel engines had failed to close, and half the ship flooded. Twenty-six men drowned in the accident, while 33 men in the front half of the ship waited on the bottom for help. “Submarine Down Off New England Coast” read the newspaper headline on I Survivors of the USS Squalus, which sank on May 23, 1939, stand on the open deck of a U.S. Coast Guard ship as it carries them to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. A newly developed diving bell, called the McCann Rescue Chamber, brought the men to safety a day after the sinking.
  58. 58. THE SUBSAFE PROGRAM May 24, 1939. The entire world waited for word on the missing submarine. The U.S. Navy acted quickly and dispatched diving expert Lieutenant Commander Swede Momsen to the scene. A submariner himself, Momsen had been working for years on methods for rescuing trapped submariners. Before 1939 no navy with submarines in service had come up with a way of saving men trapped at the bottom of the sea. The U.S. Navy did not like to be reminded of that fact, and Momsen’s career had suffered because of it. But Momsen had continued his work and helped design an experimental device called the McCann Rescue Chamber. Momsen and his divers arrived at the scene aboard USS Falcon. Ship divers quickly descended to Squalus and attached guidelines on either side of the sub’s forward escape hatch. The McCann Rescue Chamber, which resembled an upside-down coffee can, traveled down these lines to the deck and was attached over the hatch. All told, the diving chamber made five trips to the sub and brought back all 33 survivors. The device worked perfectly except for the last trip to the surface, when the cable connected to it began to unravel, and the chamber could not move. It was a dicey moment. If the cable snapped, the chamber would tumble to the bottom of the sea, and all the men inside would drown. Momsen made a split-second decision to haul the chamber up by hand. The crew of Falcon worked as a team, carefully pulling the chamber to the surface. Oliver Naquin, the submarine’s skipper, was the last man out. The U.S. Navy had successfully rescued the first submariners trapped on the bottom of the ocean, and Swede Momsen became a hero. The rescue had not been an easy one by any measure. The depth of 240 feet was beyond the limits of safe diving, and the divers involved in setting the guidelines for the rescue chamber risked suffering from the bends. Any sudden change in pressure from a slip and fall from the deck of Squalus as they attached the lines would have instantly killed a diver with the “squeeze”—the diver’s body would have been instantly compressed into his helmet. The rescue led by Momsen seemed even more impressive after Britain’s Thetis disaster in July 1939. That sub’s front torpedo room flooded, and Thetis was stuck with its bow on the bottom and its stern just below the surface. Four men made it out, but 99 died. Without a device like the McCann Rescue Chamber, no one on the surface could help them. 61
  59. 59. 62 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS The Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle Mystic (DSRV1) is moved from the naval air station at North Island, California, for air-lift transport to Turkey, where it would be used in NATO submarine rescue exercises in the Mediterranean Sea. (continued from page 59) award because, he said, the program wasted so many tax dollars. It was revealed in two books, Blind Man’s Bluff and The Silent War, that the DSRV program ran over budget because the Special Projects Office used it to spy on the USSR. This particular use of the DSRV was top secret, and the Senate’s grumbling over the wasted tax dollars was an effective smokescreen for the Special Projects Office. Craven and others realized the DSRV would probably
  60. 60. THE SUBSAFE PROGRAM never be needed because most submarines travel in waters too deep for DSRV-assisted rescues. The laws of physics state that no one would survive aboard a submarine headed to the bottom of the deep ocean. Still, the DSRV would be a perfect vessel for spy missions. It could tap underwater telephone lines and gather sunken enemy equipment—all far from the sight of enemies. It is quite possible, even though the cold war has ended, that the navy is still using the DSRV for classified spy missions. 63
  61. 61. Scorpion
  62. 62. It took several months to locate the USS Scorpion, seen here at its July 1960 launching ceremony, after it disappeared on May 27, 1968. Even after the sub was found, researchers could not definitely say what had caused the loss of the nuclear submarine. 5 If something can be installed backward, it will be. —John P. Craven n the afternoon of May 27, 1968, the families and friends of the crew of USS Scorpion (SSN-589) were gathered on a dock at the Norfolk, Virginia, naval base. The submarine had been gone since February 15, 1968, and those who were gathered could hardly wait to see their husbands, fathers, brothers, and boyfriends. The men of the Scorpion had been at sea for three months and had a lot of catching up to do with friends and loved ones. Scorpion was due to arrive at 12:40 P.M., and the people gathered at the dock waited in a O 65
  63. 63. 66 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS light rain, watching the water, hoping to catch the first glimpse of the rounded hydrodynamic hull of the fastattack submarine. The scheduled arrival time came and went with no sign of Scorpion, but most members of the waiting group didn’t worry. They figured that the submarine was just running late. After all, Scorpion’s activities were top secret and a matter of national security. Perhaps the submarine had completed a mission that took longer than expected. This was a way of life for nuclear submarine families: the missions were secret and so they never knew where the submariners were for months at a time. However, as the minutes turned to hours, the people gathered began to suspect something had happened to Scorpion. The navy began to wonder, as well. The last message from the submarine had been received on May 21. Lieutenant Commander Francis A. Slattery had given his position as 50 miles south of the Azores Islands, near Portugal, and indicated that the sub was on its way home. The crew had been silent ever since; Scorpion had sent no message that morning to inform Norfolk of its position and projected arrival time. At 3:15 P.M. on May 27, 1968, the navy informed the world that USS Scorpion was missing. The families and friends of Scorpion’s crew left the dock in stunned silence, praying the navy’s message was a mistake. But it was no mistake. Scorpion was gone, along with 99 crewmen. The U.S. Navy had lost its second nuclear submarine within a five-year period. In May 1968 the United States was embroiled in the Vietnam War, and antiwar sentiment gripped the nation. At the same time the U.S. Navy’s nuclear submarine force was hard at work shadowing the Soviet nuclear submarine force, protecting against possible
  64. 64. SCORPION nuclear attack. Scorpion had been cruising the Mediterranean Sea, observing Soviet activities and taking part in antisubmarine training exercises with foreign navies. Scorpion was a Skipjack-class nuclear fast-attack submarine. Launched in 1958 and commissioned in 1960, it was 252 feet long and 32 feet wide, capable of traveling at more than 20 knots per hour in the water. On this mission the sub had been armed with the Mark 37 torpedo. Scorpion also carried a reliable crew. Lieutenant Commander Francis A. Slattery and his 99 fellow shipmates had received commendations for their leadership and professionalism on earlier missions. The captain and his crew had made this trip to the Mediterranean before, and Scorpion had received an overhaul just a year earlier, so it seemed unlikely that a mechanical failure had occurred. The navy had made many changes after the loss of Thresher, but had the military overlooked another problem in the American nuclear submarine program? Had Scorpion hit an uncharted underwater object and disappeared? Had Scorpion collided with a Soviet submarine? Other American submarines had hit underwater objects and suffered significant damage. And collisions between Soviet and U.S. Navy submarines had occurred before, as the two sides observed each other’s operations. In fact, in December 1967, just six months earlier, USS George C. Marshall, a fleet ballistic-missile submarine, had collided with a Soviet attack submarine in the Mediterranean. President Lyndon B. Johnson had only one question: Had Scorpion been sunk by the Soviets? If so, it was an act of war. The U.S. Navy needed to find Scorpion fast in order to answer all these questions, but the problem of locating it seemed immense: the submarine could be anywhere beneath the 3,000 miles of ocean between Spain and Norfolk, Virginia. 67
  65. 65. 68 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS The navy began the search by sending ships to Scorpion’s last known location, and it brought in Dr. John P. Craven of the Special Projects Office to lead the investigation. In 1966 Craven had found a lost U.S. Air Force hydrogen bomb in the Mediterranean by using Bayes’ theorem of subjective probability. Thomas Bayes was an 18th-century mathematician who constructed a formula used to make a series of educated guesses concerning the whereabouts of a missing item. In usual practice, his obscure theorem is a way to place a bet where the missing item in question is the jackpot. Craven was an enthusiastic poker player, so the gambling cachet of the theory appealed to him as a means to locate Scorpion: Bets are assigned levels of probable reliability whereby a grid is constructed; this grid then becomes the map for a search area. Although Bayes’ theorem might at first glance generate a search grid that appears counterintuitive to an experienced search professional, Craven’s offbeat mathematical approach had in fact helped the air force retrieve a nuclear weapon from the Mediterranean on April 7, 1966, after weeks of fruitless searching. Craven realized there were probably sound recordings of Scorpion’s last moments. The U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force both had hydrophones (underwater microphones) positioned at strategic locations in the oceans; the navy’s network of hydrophones (abbreviated as SOSUS for sound surveillance system) was used to eavesdrop on the underwater activities of Soviet submarines. SOSUS technicians listening to the hydrophones collected recordings of the passing Soviet submarines. Because each sub has a distinctive sound pattern, or signature, the U.S. Navy could track and record the
  66. 66. SCORPION entire missions of individual Soviet submarines. The skilled technicians could note a submarine’s speed, course, and noise emissions from internal machinery, and even speculate on a vessel’s condition and repair status. SOSUS, combined with satellite photographs of Soviet naval bases, spies on the ground in Soviet naval bases, U.S. Navy patrol planes, and navy submarines shadowing Soviet submarines, gave the U.S. military intelligence a comprehensive understanding of Soviet submarine activities. Checking SOSUS seemed like a good idea, but it turned out that the network had picked up nothing because the equipment was calibrated to pick up noises 69 An oceanographic cable ship. To search for sunken ships, the vessel trails a cable that carries camera equipment or sonar sensors behind it. Navy investigators eventually photographed Scorpion’s wreckage using equipment towed by USNS Mizar.
  67. 67. 70 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS from submarines, like propeller noise, and filter out pops, explosions, and other similar sounds that occur for a number of reasons in oceans. Craven then asked a colleague named Gordon Hamilton, who ran an oceanographic laboratory in Bermuda, if he had any hydrophones positioned in the Atlantic. It turned out he had one in the water at a lab in the Canary Islands— very close, in fact, to Scorpion’s last known position. The records from the lab were collected. They revealed that loud noises had been generated in the area between May 21 and May 27. Craven’s team found other records from air force hydrophones located in Newfoundland. When put together, the records allowed Craven to determine that two enormous explosions, just 91 seconds apart, had occurred along Scorpion’s expected course. This information indicated that Scorpion was most definitely lost with all hands. The water in this area was miles deep, and two underwater explosions that were large enough to register on equipment as far away as Newfoundland would certainly have destroyed the submarine before the men had a chance to escape. Other intelligence information indicated that there had been no Soviet activity in the area during the time of Scorpion’s passage. Officials informed President Johnson that the Soviets had nothing to do with the submarine’s loss. One part of the Scorpion mystery, at least, was answered. USNS Mizar was sent to the coordinates that Craven determined as the site of the explosions. While Mizar and other ships were hunting for Scorpion, Craven kept working and calculating. He noticed that Scorpion appeared to be heading back toward Europe, not toward the United States, and he also discovered the reason: a runaway torpedo. A submarine will turn
  68. 68. SCORPION 180 degrees during an emergency maneuver to stop a runaway torpedo, known to submariners as a “hot run.” The guidance system of a torpedo contains safety mechanisms that will deactivate if the vessel turns around, preventing it from destroying the very sub that launched it. (This is an unlikely occurrence, but it has happened: USS Tang, one of the most successful submarines of World War II, was sunk by its own torpedo during a battle on October 24, 1944; 73 men died, and 15 of its survivors were imprisoned by the Japanese navy.) Submarine commanders drill until this maneuver becomes second nature. Scorpion had plenty of destructive force on board; aside from the 14 Mark 37 torpedoes, it was also armed with 7 Mark 14 torpedoes and 2 nuclear-tipped Astor torpedoes. In December 1967 a hot run had taken place on Scorpion, and Lieutenant Commander Slattery had acted quickly and saved the sub. Craven found out that other hot runs had happened on submarines. The navy had sent out a bulletin warning that it was possible to install electric leads on test equipment in reverse order, and that later this faulty equipment could activate a torpedo during servicing. (Sailors service their equipment often, and this work goes on whether the ship is on a cruise or tied up at a dock.) Craven theorized that one of the torpedoes had been tested with incorrectly installed equipment, which started a hot run, and though Slattery managed to turn the ship, he had not been fast enough. The torpedo’s explosion would have killed the men in the torpedo room, possibly detonating other torpedoes in the process The breached hull would have sent Scorpion toward the bottom until it passed its crush depth and imploded. However, the navy did not take Craven’s theory of 71
  69. 69. 72 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS Dr. John P Craven led the . navy investigation that determined Scorpion’s most likely resting place. He later theorized that the sub had been destroyed by one of its own torpedoes. a runaway torpedo seriously. The Ordinance Systems Command stated that a hot run was impossible, but it did not provide any evidence to back up this claim. Undeterred, Craven continued to work, while Chester “Buck” Buchanan, a civilian oceanographer and Naval Research Laboratory scientist, continued to search for Scorpion using cameras towed by Mizar. Craven used Bayes’ theorem to construct a map of the wreck site. His crew made bets on the torpedo
  70. 70. SCORPION theory, Scorpion’s course heading during what they believed was a hot run, and the landing spot of the wreckage on the bottom. Meanwhile, the navy found some wreckage—a pipe and other items—and became convinced the investigators were on the right track. The months of June, July, and August passed without finding Scorpion. Finally Buchanan began searching the coordinates provided by Craven. On October 29, 1968, the nuclear submarine was found more than 11,000 feet underwater in the Atlantic Ocean, 200 miles southwest from the Azores, on the edge of the Sargasso Sea—just 220 yards from where Craven and his team predicted it would be (although its exact location remains classified). Craven had done it again. Mizar’s cameras took many photos of the wreckage, and the navy sent the bathyscaphe Trieste II down to examine the wreck. Observers found Scorpion largely intact but crushed from the extreme water pressure. There appeared to have been no survivors, and no bodies were ever found. Nor was there evidence of a hole from a torpedo explosion. However, the hatches in the bow of the ship were missing, which could have been caused by an explosion inside the torpedo room. In January 1969 the navy released a press release that read, in part, that there was “no incontrovertible proof of the exact cause” of the submarine’s destruction. In 1993, after the end of the cold war, the navy released its full report from 1969. Its number one supposition was that a hot-running torpedo sank Scorpion. It is unfortunate that the cause of Scorpion’s sinking may never be known, but there are numerous theories about what happened to the submarine. Scorpion had not yet been outfitted with the new SUBSAFE changes, so it is possible that a mechanical failure sent the submarine to the bottom. Perhaps the sub was destroyed because it did 73
  71. 71. 74 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS not have the improved emergency blow capabilities and other SUBSAFE improvements. Some analysts theorize that a massive explosion in Scorpion’s battery compartment caused the sub’s destruction. Because storage batteries generate hydrogen gas when they are charging, a nearby spark could cause an explosion. Battery explosions have been the cause of many sub disasters, so this theory is plausible. The wreckage of many subs shows damage to their battery compartments for precisely this reason. Perhaps the most intriguing theory concerns something John Craven found out many years later. A defect existed in some of the batteries that powered the Mark 37 torpedo; some of them had a tendency to explode during random durability tests. The batteries that exploded were manufactured by a company that had never made batteries before—and their recall had been ordered at about the same time that Scorpion was destroyed. The batteries had been manufactured with cheap, fragile foil diaphragms. Unfortunately the cheap foil could be partially punctured by the sloshing of a battery’s electrolyte, which may have been caused by the vibrations occurring during the submarine’s normal operations. Powering up the battery prematurely would heat the battery’s three-foot-long body, and since the battery was located next to the 330-pound, highly explosive warhead of the torpedo, the great heat generated by the cooking battery could have been enough to ignite the explosive. Experts theorize that a defective, overheated battery caused the torpedo to either completely explode or partially “cook off ”—a slow burning or partial detonation of the warhead. Either instance would have been enough to blow a hatch or crack the hull, causing water to instantly flood the torpedo
  72. 72. SCORPION room and sink the Scorpion. A piece of foil that cost pennies possibly caused the loss of the sub and the deaths of its crew. Making matters even worse, the navy had known about the bad batteries, but because it needed submarines to shadow Soviet operations so badly, it approved their use anyway. The U.S. Navy checks the wreckage site of Scorpion periodically for radiation leakage, and so far none has been detected. The wrecks of warships are owned forever by their countries of origin, unlike civilian vessels like Titanic, which are governed by the laws of salvage. The U.S. Navy’s official word on Scorpion is that the wreckage site is classified, and the cause of the accident is unknown. Pictures taken by the divers aboard the Trieste II in 1968 and by explorer Robert Ballard in 1986 have been released to the public. For years Scorpion’s mysterious accident has haunted the navy and the families of the disaster victims. 75 This 1968 photograph shows the top of Scorpion, which remains more than 11,000 underwater in the Atlantic Ocean. The center right circle, which contains a mooring line, is a cavity normally used for storing a messenger buoy. Also visible are circular main ballast tank vents and two rectangular hatches of the sub.
  73. 73. Russian Disasters
  74. 74. A Soviet nuclear submarine, damaged on the hull near its conning tower, sits motionless in the waters of the Atlantic. The USSR produced a great number of these vessels, often with little regard to safety. As a result, most nuclear submarine accidents have involved ships belonging to the Soviets. 6 It had happened before to other men in other Soviet boats; one crew rode out a terrible gale, trapped in the after compartment of a burned-out hulk of a sub that refused to sink. They’d sealed themselves up and lived for three weeks until the submarine was towed into port. No light, no food other than what they’d stuffed into their pockets, no water except what they could drain from lines passing through the space. It was unimaginable. —A description of the 1972 K-19 accident from Hostile Waters uring the cold war, the Soviet Union constructed and operated more submarines than the United States, the United Kingdom, and France combined. The USSR launched its first nuclear submarine K-3 in 1957, just two years after Nautilus, the world’s first nuclear submarine, slid down the ways. After that vessel’s creation, the Soviets D 77
  75. 75. 78 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE DISASTERS experimented with nuclear subs of various types. They built vessels with twin propellers and twin nuclear reactors; they constructed submarines with titanium hulls that were capable of diving far deeper than American submarines; they created subs that were faster than American submarines and employed ingenious propulsion designs that made them extremely quiet; and they constructed many types of nuclear reactors, some of which used liquid metal as coolant. The U.S. Navy’s nuclear submarine program was conservative in approach both because of Admiral Rickover’s emphasis on safety and because the program was beholden to the American taxpayer. In contrast, the Soviet’s communist regime never solicited the opinions of the citizens, and the government invested heavily in its submarine program, siphoning money from social programs to fund it. In the book Running Critical, Patrick Tyler notes that the Soviets outspent the United States 10 to 1 in the early 1970s. Because of its lack of budgetary concerns, the Soviet navy could afford to experiment with designs, materials, and reactors. Its nuclear submarine program was secret, as well. If a submarine did not perform to expectations, the Soviet navy never reported it to the public. The USSR also attempted to keep its submarine disasters secret, but too many accidents occurred for this policy to work. The environmental group Greenpeace estimates that 121 Soviet nuclear submarine accidents took place over the years. The Russian newspaper Izvestia estimates 507 men have died since the Russian nuclear submarine program began. It is impossible to fix an exact number of accidents because of the Soviet-era policy of secrecy, but during the 1990s the Russians released information when it declassified files from this time. Many accidents occurred because the Soviet navy put a very low

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