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Demo teaching tip

  1. 1. Jay Principles of Urban Planning
  2. 2. THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPH FOR A CITY “ A cross contained within an oval or circle” Image of the city CITADEL - the “little city” - the core of the city - the seat of the palace, the temple, and the granary <ul><li>Protective wall </li></ul><ul><li>The city as a container </li></ul><ul><li>Limits a common way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Limits a common system of law and order </li></ul>CROSS = magnet CIRCLE = container
  3. 3. Evolution of the Archetype Seat of government Religious center Market and trade center Civic or public center CROSS = magnet CIRCLE = container Natural boundary Political boundary Road edge Suburbs Greenbelts INTEGRATION OF THE FUNCTIONS OF A CITY CONSTITUTES THE ART OF PLANNING THE SYMBOLIC EXPRESSION OF THE STRUCTURE OF A CITY SOCIAL ECONOMIC POLITICAL CULTURAL
  4. 4. &quot;Human settlements are no longer satisfactory for their inhabitants…&quot; Constantinos Doxiadis envisioned ekistics , a name that derives from the ancient Greek term oikizo meaning &quot; creating a settlement ,&quot; as an interdisciplinary effort to &quot; arrive at a proper conception and implementation of the facts, concepts, and ideas related to human settlement &quot;
  5. 6. Two Types/Categories <ul><li>Consciously planned </li></ul><ul><li>Predetermined by authority </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of execution within a limited time </li></ul>Abstract, geometric type Organic type <ul><li>Naturally developing </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged co-operation of institutions and groups </li></ul><ul><li>Structured over time </li></ul>PLANNING THEORISTS PLANNING TRADITIONS
  6. 7. Law of the Indies Church Municipal Hall Merchant’s Shops Elementary School Home of the Principalia Government Buildings
  7. 8. planning concepts
  8. 9. <ul><li>Zone Model </li></ul><ul><li>Ernest Burgess, 1920s a Sociologist at the University of Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion and succession drove formation of concentric rings </li></ul><ul><li>An ecological model, with ethnic groups as the species </li></ul><ul><li>His model included “Little Sicily,” Chinatown, Deutschland, “underworld </li></ul><ul><li>roomers,” “single-family dwellings,” and “bungalow section” </li></ul><ul><li>Pertained to early 20th c. Chicago in time of European immigration </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Sector Model </li></ul><ul><li>Homer Hoyt, 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>wedges form along transportation corridors </li></ul><ul><li>railroads & canals lined by industrial districts </li></ul><ul><li>main roads & some waterfronts lined by houses of the wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Households of different income and ethnic groups filter towards outer edge in the pre-established direction </li></ul><ul><li>Freeways do not follow this pattern </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Multi-Nucleated Model </li></ul><ul><li>Chauncy Harris and Edward Pullman, dominant in the 1990s and 2000s </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of commutes are edge-to-edge rather than edge to center </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of new office space is at the edge </li></ul><ul><li>Sectoral pattern breaks down because of leapfrog development </li></ul><ul><li>CBD is only the center of a very particular range of services </li></ul>
  11. 12. CENTRAL PLACE THEORY – 1933 – Central Place is the source of goods and services to the surroundings beyond its own area. Walther Cristaller
  12. 13. New Urbanism
  13. 15. new urbanism promotes the creation of diverse, walkable, compact, vibrant, mixed-use communities composed of the same components as conventional development, but assembled in a more integrated fashion, in the form of complete communities walkability mixed use quality architecture eco-friendly development
  14. 16. Higher quality of life; better places to live, work, & play
  15. 20. Principles of New Urbanism walkability connectivity mixed use and diversity mixed housing quality architecture and urban design traditional neighborhood structure increased density smart transportation sustainability quality of life