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Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations
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Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations

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  • 1. Running Head: THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   Thailand and South Korea on Medical Tourism as a Niche Market Segment: Comparisons Between Pioneering and Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations Rodelio Concepcion California State University Fullerton
  • 2. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   2   I. Introduction: Medical Tourism As a Niche Market Defined Medical tourism has been one of the emerging niches of tourism that is gaining popularity in a number of countries. While this term has just been coined recently, this phenomenon is not entirely new. According to Munro (2012), medical tourism “describes the act of people making health choices and accessing health treatments across borders. Depending on who is asking the question, it can be trade in goods and services, a health choice, or a health service”. In terms of countries’ economic development, Horowitz, Rosensweig and Jones (2007) defined medical tourism as “the patient movement from highly developed nations to other areas of the world for medical care, usually to find treatment at a lower cost”. They furthered added that medical tourism is different from the traditional model of international medical travel where patients in general travel from less developed countries to major medical centers and countries in highly developed countries for medical treatment that is unavailable in their own communities. Strictly speaking, according to Cohen (2008), the term “medical tourism” applies to “people who travel to another country for medical treatment, which they will often combine with a vacation, or to people who take the opportunity to receive such treatment in the course of a vacation” (p. 25). Cohen (2008) further added that the term is “often indiscriminately used in statistical reports to include all foreigners having received medical treatment in the host country. As a result, because of this practice, the alleged scope of medical tourism tends to be considerably exaggerated” (p. 25). II. Countries with Medical Tourism as a National Industry
  • 3. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   3   There are around fifty countries that have identified medical tourism as a form of national industry (Galinger, 2008). Southeast and East Asia have taken the lead in the area of medical tourism (ESCAP, 2009). India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand are recognized as Asian medical tourism destinations (Connell, 2006; Henderson, 2009; ESCAP, 2009). Furthermore, according to RNCOS (2008), Thailand, Singapore, India, Malaysia and the Philippines are considered the frontrunners of medical tourism, considered as major medical tourism destinations; however, other Asian nations, such as South Korea, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, and Israel, are considered as emerging and newly preferred destinations. In Asia, Thailand and South Korea have been emerging as prime destinations for medical tourism. These two countries have seen how medical tourism can help in promoting themselves as premiere destinations for tourists who seek quality and competitive medical attention and care at affordable costs III. Thailand and Its Promotion of Medical Tourism Thailand has exemplified the full potential of medical tourism as an industry and has been successful in promoting this niche market. Heung, Kucukusta and Song (2011) noted that medical tourism in Thailand successfully combines the tourism and healthcare industries with major competitive advantages including affordability, price, reputation, and strong tourism attributes such as Thai’s famed hospitality and friendliness. Thailand was able to develop it medical tourism by taking advantage of some turning points in history that would facilitate the development of its medical infrastructure, while coming up with positive government policies that would encourage the industry’s growth, and tactical promotions by the Tourism Authority. With Thailand’s success in transforming
  • 4. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   4   itself as a medical tourism hub, a lot of researches, studies and articles tackled it as a subject. According to Cohen (2008), Thailand’s healthcare and medical facilities and industry did not develop until around late 1980’s to early 1990’s when a few private institutions pioneered and introduced technologies and advancements in medicine, and employing highly competent medical staff trained in Western countries. These institutions initially catered to the medical needs of the elite and the expatriate community in Thailand (Cohen, 2008). Connell mentioned that a lot of private hospitals saw the need to look for other revenue sources following the decline of local patients as brought by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, and this saw the start of the development of medical tourism in Thailand (as cited in Cohen, 2008). According to an online article from DPA (2013), “Bumrungrad Hospital started promoting itself as a medical tourism destination in the wake of the 1997 Asian financial crisis, when many wealthy Thais lost their fortunes and could no longer afford the American-run establishment’s costly services”. Bumrungrad Hospital in Bangkok brought in a new management team from outside the country to manage its program for international patients and to lead the hospital out of its financial difficulties. Under this new management, Harryono, Huang, Miyazawa and Sethaput (2006) cited that “Bumrungrad became the first internationally accredited hospital in Southeast Asia in 2002 and pioneered the medical tourism business” (p. 14). Since then, there are more than thirty Thai hospitals with accreditation as of April 2013 (DPA, 2013). Moreover, a lot of public and private medical hospitals and facilities in Bangkok, Pattaya, Phuket,
  • 5. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   5   Chiang Mai and other tourism places have since developed their own individual offerings to cater and attract foreign visitors who are seeking medical attention, and would sometimes tie it up with other tourism offerings. Cohen (2008) mentioned that Thai hospitals use traditional media such as television, newspapers and travel magazines to promote its services, as well as use alternative ways of promotion, such as tie ups with major airlines, combining medical check-ups with vacation packages, working with tourist agencies, and establishing direct linkage with targeted countries - even opening offices there, or partnering with medical establishments in those countries. The medical tourism development in Thailand was further facilitated by two catastrophic events that hit the globe: the September 11 terrorist attack in the United States, which drove people from the Middle East to seek medical treatments to alternative locations such as Thailand, and the tsunami catastrophe that hit the southern part of Thailand in 2004 where hospitals in that particular area of Thailand tried to accommodate what Cohen called the high number of casualties (as cited in Cohen, 2008) that prompted world-wide exposure and solid reputation overseas, and enticing foreigners to consider Thailand as a destination for medical treatments, according to Limsamarnphun (as cited in Cohen, 2008). According to ESCAP (2009), Thailand government started the promotion of the country as a medical tourism destination to other countries in 2004. These included revisions of policies that would promote Thailand as a medical tourism destination. Former Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva highlighted the importance of medical tourism to revive Thailand’s tourism industry during his personal visits and roadshows at various
  • 6. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   6   countries around the world. He underscored the measures taken by his government such as waiving visa fees, reducing aircraft take-off and landing charges, lowering entrance fees to national parks and providing travel insurance for foreign visitors (Niramitvijit, 2010). The same article of Niramitvijit (2010) also quoted Vejjajeva in a June 2009 speech in Beijing saying, “The government is also working on diversifying our tourism industry so that tourists can enjoy cultural excursions while, at the same time, being able to pursue other activities like spas, sports, medical check-ups and eco-tourism”. The Tourism Authority of Thailand has been in the forefront in promoting the country as a medical tourism hub, with its promotional events and activities abroad. It has also set-up a website, http://www.thailandmedtourism.com, solely dedicated to medical tourism, providing pertinent information such as the types of medical treatments available, the locations of hospitals/clinics, destination guides, and packages and promotions from both medical service providers and travel agents (as cited in Cohen, 2008). The reputation of medical tourism services in Thailand has also been reinforced by various government-sponsored promotional campaigns, notably by The Tourism Authority of Thailand. In its “Amazing Thailand” campaign, an emphasis on Thailand being the land of spas, hospitals and herbal products were highlighted (Russell, 2006). This highlight in the tourism campaign efforts aimed at turning the country into a regional medical hub in Asia (Arokhaya, 2005). In an article by The Board of Investment (2012), the Thailand Medical Hub Export 2012 reflected how the country has developed an outstanding fundamental
  • 7. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   7   structure in the medical field, as well as competent human resources are recognized to be of international standard. The event depicted the reaffirmation of Thailand and The Ministry of Public Health to show readiness and potential of the country to becoming an international medical hub that is also affordable to both Thais and foreigners. The Board of Investment article also mentioned that according to Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra, “the Government has clearly set a policy, in which will to be implemented from 2012 to 2016, to turn Thailand into a medical hub in four major areas: medical treatment, health promotion, traditional Thai medicine and alternative medicine, and health products, especially Thai herbs”. The policy is expected to bring in 800 billion Baht in earnings in the next five years, according to Public Health Minister Wittaya Buranasiri, as mentioned by The Board of Investment (2012) article. Taking advantage of crises and catastrophic events in the past, the government’s efforts and full support to the niche market, continued commitment of public and private sectors in developing medical facilities and human resource expertise, and the heavy promotion on the Thailand Tourism Authority of medical tourism in other countries have helped in effectively marketing Thailand as a premiere medical tourism hub. Furthermore, according to DPA (2013), good service, cheap prices and up-to-date facilities made Thailand successful in medical tourism in the same reason as how it became successful in mass tourism. Since the beginning of 2012, foreign tourists visiting Thailand for medical services reached around 2.5 million, resulting to about 121.6 billion Baht in revenue (The Board of Investment, 2012).
  • 8. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   8   Despite Thailand government’s full support on medical tourism, as well as the heavy promotion of the country’s tourism authority, there are still some challenges and consequences with the promotion of medical tourism. One of this is the alienation of lower and middle-class Thai citizens who find the costs to be expensive relative to their purchasing power, as Thai medical services offerings tend to increase in cost with the development in infrastructure, facilities, technology and human resource expertise. Medical tourism in Thailand attracts foreign audiences, but tend to alienate domestic medical tourism. Another challenge that might hamper the tremendous growth of this particular niche market is the lack of the government’s strong legislation in some areas affecting medical malpractice. The Thai legal system has weak enforcement that makes any medical malpractice difficult to be tried, with those who commit the malpractice usually prevailing in cases. Cloeman (2012) cited that, “Once a patient decides to file a medical malpractice claim they will be faced with a myriad of obstacles. The first obstacle is obtaining the patients on medical records. In Thailand patients are not allowed to access their own medical records to file a medical malpractice suit. This makes it extremely difficult for any patient to prove their case. Because of the lack of medical malpractice jurisprudence in Thai courts, cases typically settle due to being caught up in court procedure”. IV. South Korea and its promotion of medical tourism
  • 9. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   9   South Korea is emerging as a new medical-tourist destination. It is rapidly expanding its medical tourism offerings to capitalize on its potential offerings. It lags a little bit behind the medical tourism powerhouses in the Asian region, despite South Korea’s global medical standards and the high technical proficiency of Korean doctors in medical services. South Korea needs to fulfill and develop this potential to become a major player in the medical-tourism industry (Ji & Tae, 2012). However, South Korea prides in its technological advancement in medical services, highly accomplished medical practitioners and doctors, surprisingly low cost (compared to Japan and the United States), and its weather and climate as its edge among competition (Korea Tourism Organization, 2013). Additionally, CNNGo (2011) included fast scheduling that lures foreign visitors to consider South Korea for medical procedures, specifically cosmetic surgery and infertility treatments. Gan and Song (2012) pointed the following as factors that help the growth of medical tourism in South Korea: strong government support with many initiatives to promote medical tourism; legal amendments and changes to resolve problems affecting medical tourism promotion, established trade links with Japan and China, and promotion of Jeju Island as a premiere medical tourism destination. South Korean government has just recently acknowledged medical tourism potential in the country. Before launching its medical tourism efforts and activities, the government led an investigation called Biotech 2000 wherein it found out that investing on the biotechnology industry would contribute to South Korea’s economic prosperity. This study hoped to make South Korea as one of one of the world’s top seven
  • 10. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   10   biotechnology producing countries by 2010 (Wong, Uyen Quach,Thorsteinsdóttir, Singer & Daar, 2004). According to US-Korea Institute of The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University (2011), South Korea is developing its medical tourism industry by copying the initiatives done by other Asian countries, and expanding upon the concepts learned from these Asian neighbors. One of the first initiatives was the government’s amendment of its legislation. To date, the US-Korea Institute (2011), identified the following legislations amended to support medical tourism: 1. Amendment to the Medical Services Act (passed January 8, 2009) that used to prohibit hospitals from actively recruiting domestic and foreign patients. The amended law now allows hospitals and medical institutions to actively look for and promote services to foreign patients living overseas to receive medical care in Korea. 2. Amendment to the Tourism Promotion Act (passed March 2, 2009) which is designed to create legal grounds designed specifically to support a burgeoning medical tourism industry; establish first-rate accommodation facilities; institute a system to enforce travel contracts and ensure patient/tourist safety; and promote travel agents’ hire of licensed tour interpreters. 3. Amendment to the Special Act on the Establishment of Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province and the Development of Free International Cities (passed March 3, 2009) that aims to: establish a support system to cultivate the medical,
  • 11. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   11   tourism, and education industries of the Jeju self-governing province (most of the authority of the culture, sports, tourism, broadcasting, and communications minister allocated in the Tourism Promotion Act will be transferred to the provincial governor); form a unique tourism promotion fund for Jeju; and permit the government of Jeju to install an area within its administration as an English education city, including the organization of international elementary, middle, and high schools. 4. Revision of immigration laws to provide visa waivers to some countries or relaxed requirements to facilitate travel for patients and their families. In Jeju for example, the immigration law was revised to allow medical tourists and their families may stay up to four years to receive medical treatment. 5. Laws have also been amended to allow local hospitals to form joint ventures with foreign hospitals and clinics. Partnerships maintained by Korean healthcare providers in the United States include the Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center (located in California), the Jaseng Center for Alternative Medicine (which has facilities in California, New York, New Jersey, and Illinois), and the G Laser and Aesthetic Institution (located in California). Korean hospitals also cultivate relationships with health care providers beyond the United States. Konkuk University Hospital, for example, maintains a partnership with Jiangsu Province People’s Hospital and Tianjin First Hospital in China. (pp. 130 – 132) The US-Korea Institute (2011) also cited that establishments of health related bodies and institutes provided additional measures by the Korean government to promote the medical tourism industry. The Korea International Medical Association (KIMA) was
  • 12. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   12   established in 2007 to promote Korean health care through advertising and publications, as well as hosting and participating in international health conferences. KIMA works to minimize malpractice lawsuits and works toward ensuring facilities and human resources meet international standards. The KIMA website itself is specifically designed for prospective medical tourists seeking treatment and holiday in Korea. In addition, the Korean Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) was established in 1999 to guide health care policy, steer health care research and development, enhance the management and technology of hospitals, and support the competitiveness of the health industry. This act authorizes KHIDI to spearhead support programs intended to improve the delivery of the national health services and expand the global competitiveness of Korea’s national health industry. In 2009, the amendment of the Medical Service Act in 2009 aimed to position South Korea as a Global Healthcare hub, with the launch of a nation-branding project called “Medical Korea” (Medical Korea, 2013). According to The US-Korea Institute (2011, p. 133), “This campaign actively publicizes the Korean medical tourism industry at global medical conferences as well as through international television, radio, and newspapers. The Medical Korea campaign disseminates information about Korea’s medical services, special treatments, hospitals, and foreign-language communication services (targeting English-, Chinese-, Russian-, Japanese-, and Arabic-speaking patients). The Korean Wave coincides with the government nation-branding campaign. This explosion of Korean pop culture, including
  • 13. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   13   television dramas performed by flawlessly fashioned actors and actresses, also collaterally contributes to the promotion of the plastic surgery component of Korea’s medical tourism industry.“ Because of the Korean Wave, Medical Korea has since then appointed Korean actors, singers and celebrities to be ambassadors of Korean medical tourism going the rounds of different countries to talk about South Korea as a premiere medical tourism destination. Kim, Lee and Jung (2012) mentioned that in June 2011, the Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Ministry of Health and Welfare announced a variety of measures to motivate and stimulate the Korean medical industry. These measures, according to Kim, Lee and Jung (2012) included “insurance compensation for wrongful surgery or side effects following surgery, the integration of related laws, cooperation between related public agencies, the establishment of Korean medical schools, improvements in the visa system, regular evaluations of hospitals, quality assurance systems, education of professionals in medical tourism, and the establishment of a cooperative medical tourism website” (p. 426). Regional governments as small as districts like Busan, Daegu, Jeju, Daejeon and Gangnam District in Seoul are making an all-out effort to promote medical services in Korea in different parts of the globe (Jae-un, 2013). Invitations to foreign tourists, tour operators and journalists are extended by regional government agencies for site and facility visits and medical expositions. These regions also set-up committees aimed at
  • 14. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   14   improving medical training and facilities at the local level. One example of tourism promotion at regional level was cited by Ji and Tae (2012, p. 81) saying that, “In recent years, the state government of Jeju has designated the island as a special district for the medical-tourism industry in order to attract overseas medical tourists especially from China and Japan, which are an hour’s flight away. The government has determined to provide various investment incentives for hospitals and relative businesses, such as medical travel agencies, including financial and human resource assistance, and tax benefits”. South Korea has since then developed its advanced technological medical facilities and training and has been capitalizing on it as its differentiation in competing with Asian medical tourism powerhouses like Thailand. It continues to promote and invest, not just to attract the West but also medical tourists in nearby Asian countries and the Middle East. This has seen an increase in the number of medical tourists arriving at South Korea over the years. The amendments in legislations, the constant and consistent promotion of different government bodies – whether of national or regional levels, and the taking advantage of Korean pop culture has been proven effective in putting South Korea in the map of emerging medical tourism destinations. According to data by Korea Tourism Organization (KNTO), the number of foreign health tourists to South Korea is estimated at 150,000 in 2012, up 25 percent compared to 122,297 in 2011 (International Medical Travel Journal, 2013). However, IMTJ (2013) added out that the 2012 figures are estimates rather than national figures and are actually of international patients rather than just medical tourists.
  • 15. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   15   There are still some factors that hamper the tremendous growth on the medical tourism sector in South Korea. There are still legislations that prevent its growth. According to the Hyundai Research Institute, the weak performance of the medical tourism sector in South Korea is mainly attributable to excessive regulations on local hospitals wherein they are not allowed to have foreign patients exceeding 5% of their capacity, and medical specialists with foreign licenses have limited leeway in working for local institutions (International Medical Travel Journal, 2013). According to Lee (2010a), medical laws in South Korea still do not address the protection of foreign medical tourists from discriminatory pricing, medical malpractices, privacy rights, and other growing concerns. Furthermore, there have been reports of discriminatory pricing against foreign patients that ranged from twice to ten times in price paid by local residents (Lee, 2010b; Lee, 2010c). Kim, Lee and Jung (2012) further added that there is a lack of supporting legal systems for the issuance of medical visa, medical claims and disputes, insurance, or indemnification. Lastly, while South Korean facilities are known for its advancement, it lacks promotion of scientific proof or standardized certification of such. According to Kim, Lee and Jung (2012), “it is important to publicize scientific evidence describing the outcomes of empirical medical research…Poor promotion of Korean medical institutions leads to a poor evaluation of their quality. For example, the international hospitals in Thailand are rated A+ by international insurance companies, whereas Korean hospitals are rated C+. “
  • 16. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   16   V. Conclusion By looking at the medical tourism industries of a pioneering destination (Thailand) and an emerging destination (South Korea), some similar patterns can be drawn that would attribute to a successful promotion of medical tourism as a viable tourism niche market. One of this is by starting to look at legislations and policies, formulating ones that will support the flourishing of the industry, and amending the ones that would hamper its growth. The second is by looking at unique and identifying attributes that would make the destination standout among its competition. Thailand offers the dual benefits of medical treatment and recuperation in beaches and resorts at a cheaper cost. As for South Korea, it capitalizes on state-of-the-art facilities, expertise, talent and knowledge of its specialists at an affordable cost, something that an industrialized country can offer. Lastly, there are historical points that both destinations took advantage of in order to further promote its medical tourism offerings. Thailand made opportunities with global crises and catastrophes in order to highlight its capabilities. South Korea took advantage of the Korean Wave in order to promote its advancement in this field. However, these efforts will constantly be challenged because of fierce competition in the promotion of medical tourism of other established and emerging medical tourism hubs, growing demand for up and coming technologies (for example, stem cell therapy) and the need to look at other policies and legislations on continuing concerns of safety, pricing discrepancy and ethical issues. Continuous development of the sector should be properly managed as the international medical tourism market is continuously growing. Once the market becomes saturated by other medical tourism destination promotions, it will be beneficial for Thailand and South
  • 17. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   17   Korea to do promotions based on its strong medical specializations such as internal medicine, cosmetic surgery, as well as promote traditional medicine and therapy such as oriental medicine and herbal medicine.
  • 18. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   18   References: Arokhaya. (2005) Thailand…a Hub of Asia’s Health Services. Thaiways 22(5): 42-48. Retrieved from http://www.thaiwaysmagazine.com/thai_article/2205_asia_health_services/asia_he alth_services.html ESCAP. (2009). Medical travel in Asia and the Pacific: Challenges and opportunities. Bangkok: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Cohen, E. (2008). Medical tourism in Thailand. AU-GSB e-Journal, 1(1), 24e37. Cloeman (2012, July 16). Medical Malpractice in the Tourism World. Global Externs Blog. Retrieved from http://blogs.law.widener.edu/globalhealthlaw/2012/07/16/medical-malpractice-inthe-medical-tourism-world/#sthash.1GalxsdX.dpuf CNNTravel (2011, September). Korea embraces medical tourism [web article]. Retrieved from http://travel.cnn.com/seoul/visit/korean-wave-spreading-medical-tourism562704 DPA. (2013, June 10). Thailand leads Asia’s medical tourism boom. Gulf Times. Retrieved from http://www.gulf-times.com/aseanphilippines/188/details/355784/thailand-leads-asia%E2%80%99s-medicaltourism-boom Gahlinger, PM. (2008). The Medical Tourism Travel Guide: Your Complete Reference to Top-Quality, Low-Cost Dental, Cosmetic, Medical Care & Surgery Overseas. Sunrise River Press. Gan , L. & Song, H. (2012). A SWOT Analysis of Medical Tourism: India and South Korea. Social Science Research Network. Harryono, M., Huang, YF, Miyazawa, K. and Sethaput, V. (2006). Thailand Medical Tourism Cluster. Harvard Business School Microeconomics of Competitiveness. Heung, V., Kucukusta, D., & Song, H. (2011). Medical tourism development in Hong Kong: an assessment of the barriers. Tourism Management, 32(5), 995-1005. Horowitz, M., Rosensweig, J., and Jones, C. (2007). Medical Tourism: Globalization of the Healthcare Marketplace. MedGenMed. International Medical Travel Journal (2013, April 12). South Korea: South Korea medical tourism hampered by regulation [Web article]. Retrieved from http://www.imtj.com/news/?entryid82=416500   Ji, Y. and Tae, G. A cross-cultural study of perceptions of medical tourism among Chinese, Japanese and Korean tourists in Korea. Tourism Management 33 (2012) 80-88.
  • 19. THAILAND AND SOUTH KOREA ON MEDICAL TOURISM AS A NICHE MARKET SEGMENT   19   Korea Tourism Organization (2013). Advantages of Korean Medical Services [web content]. Retrieved from http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/mt/guide/mt_infomation.jsp. Retrieved July 16, 2013. Lee, Tae-Hoon (2010a). Korea overlooks soaring medical fees on foreigners. Korea Times, Feb 22. Retrieved from http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2010/02/180_61214.html. Retrieved July 15, 2013. Lee, Tae-hoon (2010b). Major hospitals overcharge foreigners. Korea Times, Feb 15. Retrieved from http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2010/02/116_60838.html. Retrieved July 15, 2013. Lee, Tae-hoon (2010c). Foreigners victims of inflated medical fees. Korea Times, Feb 18. Retrieved from http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2010/02/116_61022.html. Retrieved July 15, 2013. Limb Jae-un. (2013, March 7). Korea’s medical services reach out to every corner of the world. Korea.net. Retrieved from http://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/Business/view?articleId=106178 Medical Korea (2013, July 17). Why Medical Korea? [Web content]. Retrieved from http://www.medicalkorea.or.kr/en/main/main.jsp. Niramitvijit, C. (2010, August 5). New projects highlight Thailand’s reputation as a prime medical travel destination. International Medical Travel Journal. Retrieved from. http://www.imtj.com/resources/pressreleases/?esctl6109635_entryid115=159142&entryid134=280471&p=17. RNCOS. (2008). Asian medical tourism analysis (2008-2012). India: RNCOS. Russell, C. 2006: “A Kinder Cut,” Bangkok Post, 27 April: O1. The Board of Investment. (2012, December 21). Thailand Ready to be Medical Hub and Aim World-Class Health Care Destination Backed by BOI's Support and Government Policy. NewsOK. Retrieved from http://www.thailandmedtourism.com/NewsArticleDetail/108/8190/ThailandReady-to-be-Medical-Hub-and-Aim-World-Class-Health-Care-DestinationBacked-by-BOIs-Support-and-Government-Policy The Tourism Authority of Thailand. (2013). Medical destinations in Thailand. ThailandMedTourism.com. Retrieved from http://www.thailandmedtourism.com/DestinationCat/99/Destinations Wong, J., Quach, U., Thorsteinsdóttir, H., Singer, P. & Daar A. (2004). South Korean biotechnology—a rising industrial and scientific powerhouse. Nature
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