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Essay on organisational creativity

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  • 1. COVER SHEET The Creative Organisation Assignment: Essay on Organisational Creativity Module code: BEMM 162 Name of Tutor: Dr Varuni Wimalasiri Date of submission: 24th February 2014 Number of words: 1921 Submitted By: Ayush Agrawal Student Number: 630058475 Candidate Number: 02330
  • 2. BEMM 162 THE CREATIVE ORGANISATION ORGANISATIONAL CREATIVITY Report by: Ayush Agrawal (Student No. 630058475) (Candidate no. 02330) 1 The study done by ‘Gahan et al’ (in 2007) elucidates on apposition of creativity from arts to organisation. According to him, officialdom of arts diminishes its creativity and effectiveness. In present scenario this can be correct to an extent but not entirely. This is because business milieu in today’s world is more profit oriented hence droning artistic abilities, but organisations still emphasizes on creativity, to survive and instituting competitive advantages over the competitors in the robust environment. As the businesses are going matured, they are pushing more towards profits and markets. Due to excessive pushing, the hassle for artists is cultivated; they are losing their real aptitude because of the monotonous routine and hence ‘conceptual slippage’ is witnessed. (Gahan, Minahan, & Glow, Mar 2007). The restrictions in the work environment lower the efficiency of the artists. A business operates under certain rules and institutions, being profit oriented it demands for creativity in accordance with the market constraints while artists are freelancers who designs things for satisfaction. Certainly profits are the returns from investments on creativity. To trounce on these impediments the creative teams, individuals should espouse artistic structures assisting creativity. Creativity is an ingenious new face to articulate an old idea. It is an art that exemplifies the knack to fabricate new ideas that are valuable and appropriate; it is exclusive which cannot be explained. As ‘Amabile’ said “Creativity is the production of novel and appropriate ideas by individuals or small groups of individuals working closely together”. (M.Amabile, January 5, 1996). Despite of sole dependence on customer satisfaction, effects of creativity in the growth and problem solving view for the organisation cannot be disregarded, although its impact is inconsistent. In present context, creativity is devalued, according to ‘Young’ the respect for creativity is below intelligence and academic ability in the present society due to cultural and social intermediaries. (Donna Y. Ford, September 1992). Organisations progressively more seek to become creative in order to capitalise the advantages of creativity and remark the improvement of circumstances that heartens long term creativity. It must start from individual level but individual creativity itself is a meagre. There are three chief components that influence individual creativity. Figure I Component Model of Creativity Source: Creativity and Innovation In organisation- by Prof. Teresa M. Amabile
  • 3. BEMM 162 THE CREATIVE ORGANISATION ORGANISATIONAL CREATIVITY Report by: Ayush Agrawal (Student No. 630058475) (Candidate no. 02330) 2 First, ‘Expertise’, embraces of technical expertise, factual knowledge and talent in the target work domain. It is the foundation of all creativities. Second, ‘The creativity skills’ depends on personality characteristics and provides “something extra” which can be related to any domain. Third, ‘Task Motivation’ is the capability of the individual to work in target domain. It is driven by interest, curiosity and enjoyment. An individual apply utmost efforts to acquire skills for the target domain. Higher the level of each component, higher would be the creativity. Hence the theory proposes that creativity transpire when skills overlaps inherent interest and innermost obsession. (M.Amabile, January 5, 1996). A fundamental component of creativity is the creativity that arises at organisational level. (Andriopoulos, 2001) Due to organisational setting, twisting influences on the component model of creativity (Exhibited in fig. 1, page 1.) are observed. The component theory illustrates the constituents of the individual creativity which serves as chief source of innovation inside the organisation but due to the impacts of the social environment the components are distorted and need for an altered component model is prompted. (Exhibited in fig.2, page. 2) It also has three chief components. First, ‘Organisational motivation’ is acquainting with risks, generally initiated by the highest management levels. It is taking a lead forward on the basis of the existing capabilities. Creativity emerges by appreciating new ideas, rewards, active communication, fair evaluation etc. Organisational motivation does not embrace political problems, stringent managerial control, and inter organisation competition. Second, ‘Resources’ comprises of everything possessed by the organisation to aid domain targeted work. Resources can be time, proficient individuals, finances, material, arrangement, procedures, pertinent information, and knowledge availability for work in the domain. Third, ‘Management Practices’ is applied at both organisational and individual sections. Individuals are assigned tasks that match with their talent and interest. (Amabile & S.Gryskiewicz, 1987).Complete project objectives are set first and then based on the capabilities, tasks are assigned. For creativity, effectual work groups are prepared that constitutes assortment of skills in the individuals who are compatible with each other. The team is formulated in such a way that the individuals can challenge each other’s thoughts in a constructive way, can communicate efficiently, and can support each other with complete commitment towards the assigned domain. (Albrecht and Hall, 1991; Ekvall, 1983; Monge and Cozzens, 1992) Figure II Component model of organisational creativity Source: Creativity and Innovation In organisation- by Prof. Teresa M. Amabile
  • 4. BEMM 162 THE CREATIVE ORGANISATION ORGANISATIONAL CREATIVITY Report by: Ayush Agrawal (Student No. 630058475) (Candidate no. 02330) 3 In organisational context, people think that “creativity” is unlike to what has been done before and is effective and desirable to the customers. They believe that creativity is high amount of novelty in the basic idea and concludes that it has virtually no role in successful ventures. However novelty is found not only in product but also in creating and delivering it. (M.Amabile, January 5, 1996) Creativity is a phenomenon which is applied at almost all levels of an operating business. Prolific creativity stipulates discipline in an organisation. The organisations do not give freedom to the workforce, not even goal oriented; as a result they lose onto artistic abilities. Pragmatically constrained autonomy enhances the productivity of the organisation but for boosting up growth and competence level of the business unrestricted freedom is required, although it can develop dominance and can result in regression. Further giving remuneration and sovereignty to employees for creative works can encourage them for further organisational growth. The organisations empathises creativity as a time bound assignment and deems no obstructions. Ample time must be given to individuals/groups to process the output. Individuals are difficult to manage as their creativity depends on personality traits, but creativity also entails commitment, flexibility, persistence and perseverance. Group creativity is the team effort created by individuals working together. It is inflaming innovative ideas that deliver enhanced performance by new ways of doing things. Further superiors hamper the ongoing work performance by involving excessively, as channelizing of the individuals is mandatory to keep the process in track. In order to circumvent such situation the bosses are required to deliver persuasive speeches to exhibit, routine work look like exciting. As a matter of fact organisational creativity is both structured and disengaged; it augments productivity but assert control over individuals and groups. According to Wolffs, creativity in artistic work is like a production process only which is subjected to social and ideological factors involving individuals of the organisation. (Gahan, Minahan, & Glow, Mar 2007). Above substantiation demonstrates the complications in an artistic creativity when applied in organisational environment. Although such hitch are obligatory for efficient administration. From business perspective creativity entails certain dimensions but in arts it is dimensionless. On the contrary dimensions of creativity can be measured by the people having a good extent of awareness with work done in particular domain. (Amabile,1982;In press). E.g. Poets can identify the level of creativity in poems; MBA students can recognize creativity in business solutions. Etc. Due to the generalisation, the creativity has become adrift and has lost its quintessence from arts. The artists now are circumscribed by the rational planning which is against being innovative. Rationales behind this are the orthodox managing and financing principles that governs the organisations and hence creative ideas are dulled. The artists now focus on supply side instead of creative side as they need to maintain the equilibrium of demand and supply. Also arts explore the ideas by amending the perception, for which the present situation is uncertain especially in terms of its funding. Owing to all this, the artists themselves have lost confidence in their skills. There are two allegations to embody creative art, first is the creative quality, which is inhabited in all activities not necessary in drawing, literature, science etc but also in playing, cooking etc. Second is omnipresence of creativity in all acts which can be done by anyone not just the intellectuals. (Lytton, 1971) Hence artistic creativity needs space to flourish but due to tension in the market it is restricted.(Scanlon 2005).
  • 5. BEMM 162 THE CREATIVE ORGANISATION ORGANISATIONAL CREATIVITY Report by: Ayush Agrawal (Student No. 630058475) (Candidate no. 02330) 4 As Gahan argued that due to the complexities in an organisation, the creativity has been hallowed out. But organisations in current landscape have realised the importance of creativity for long term growth. Current position of ‘Organisational creativity’ is different to what Gahan and his colleagues experienced in 2007. Today’s Organisations always thrust to unleash creative tactics in the workplace. e.g. ‘Google’ has setup a 20 percent program where the individuals spend 20 percent of working hours on side jobs. Due to this the employees can revitalise themselves and think innovatively. As mentioned in the essay that creativity apart from what is inherited, it is something which is learned and developed in course of time. Conducive environment has to be developed for expressing creativity by the employees. Certain ways that present organisations adopt to encourage employees in contemporary environment are as described. (Poh., 2011) Reward creativity is a motivational tool and vital for out-of-the-box thinking. The rewards can either be tangible i.e. monetary incentives or intangible i.e. recognition by organisation by announcing as competition winner etc. e.g. Contest to determine goals to improve efficiency in the work process. Anonymity and Confidentiality is providing a suggestion box in which employees drop the creative idea they wish to inculcate, this method is less effective because of the private channel that will give no recognition to the employee, In actual fact most creativity is perceived by brainstorming sessions. Innovation teams is assigning tasks with deadlines to different teams to come up with a work related creative idea which is rewarded if it is exceptional, this method hinders flourishing creativity if it gets too rigid on certain issues. Support creativity is by the open mindedness of the seniors which makes them less judgemental to the propositions made by the employees. Employees are frightened by the repercussions of blunders or their recommendations might be immensely dissimilar to previous processes. Diversity among Employees is hiring employees from diverse expertise and background to work in a casual setting where they can interchange their contemplation. This creates a harmonised atmosphere with great room of creativity to flourish. Positive thinking environment is generating optimism by entertainment during work. This relaxation spurs creativity, team bonding and employee involvement as their perception is widened. Open minded staff members can explore alternatives constructive for the organisation. Organisations carry out such workshops to inject creativity. (Poh., 2011) Today’s organisation focuses on second generation of creativity. It acknowledges better opportunities to connect with artistic abilities as a result of pedagogical works. (Dawson, 14 February 2008). Based on all the above mentioned concepts, theory established by gahan et al is deviated in today’s context. The present scenario focuses on artistic abilities to a great extent. Today creativity is not cramped to merely individuals but is omnipresent in the organisation. Although in organisational theory, the concept of creativity is erroneous; the ideological function is not recognised and also omits its characteristics with market failure. Some of the implications that can further improve the level of creativity in the organisation can be considering art as an industry (DOCA 1994 document). Creativity is a solemn issue and needs countenance; it has both pros and cons and hence needs judicial implementation. As Oswick et al. (2002) said creativity is as much a process of failure as success. (Gahan, Minahan, & Glow, Mar 2007)
  • 6. Report by: Ayush Agrawal (Student No. 630058475) (Candidate no. 02330) BEMM 162 THE CREATIVE ORGANISATION ORGANISATIONAL CREATIVITY Bibliography Andriopoulos, C. (2001). Determinants of organisational creativity: a literature review. Glasgow: Management Decision, Vol. 39 Iss: 10, pp.834 - 841. Burns, P. (n.d.). Entrepreneurship & Small business Start-up, growth and maturity, Third edition. Palgrave Macmillan. Dawson, E. M. (14 February 2008). Teaching for creativity: towards sustainable and replicable pedagogical practice. Springer Science + Business Media B.V.2008 , High Educ (2008) 56:633-643, DOI 10.1007/s10734-008-9115-7. Donna Y. Ford, J. H. (September 1992). The elusive definition of creativity . The Journal of Creative Behavior , Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 186-198. Publishing : 22 DEC 2011 DOI: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.1992.tb01175.x Gahan, P., Minahan, S., & Glow, H. (Mar 2007). A creative twist: Management theory, creativity and the Arts. Journal of Management and Organization 13, 1 , 41. Lytton, H. (1971). Creativity and Education. Gateshead: Routledge Library editions: education. M.Amabile, P. T. (January 5, 1996). eativity and Innovation in Organisation. Harvard Business School, 396-239 . Poh., M. (2011). 6 Ways To Unleash Creativity In The Workplace. Hongkiat.com . Retrieved February,21, 2104, from http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/unleash-creativity-workplace/