2.4 Finnish perspective on PSS design for sustainability
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  • 09.07.09
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2.4 Finnish perspective on PSS design for sustainability 2.4 Finnish perspective on PSS design for sustainability Presentation Transcript

  • course/learning collection LeNS Pilot #3 (IIT Delhi) subject Design for Sustainability learning resource DfS in Finland, overview contributors Tatu Marttila & TaiK LeNS Team (Eija Nieminen, Cindy Kohtala) University of Art and Design (TaiK) / School of Design / Finland LeNS, the Learning Network on Sustainability: Asian-European multi-polar network for curricula development on Design for Sustainability focused on product service system innovation. Funded by the Asia-Link Programme, EuroAid, European Commission.
  • 07/09/09 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Background, some design principles 2. Design for Sustainability in Finland 3. DfS in University of Art and Design Helsinki Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 Background, some design principles 1. View slide
  • 07/09/09 EMERGING GLOBAL NEED FOR SUSTAINABILITY The global financial crisis, energy crisis and food crisis are all symptoms of the same disease: The limits of growth are getting close, or have already been exceeded on some markets. * Global need for new sustainable and more material-/resource-effective solutions * New solutions must be radically innovative to fulfill the rapidly increasing need for eco-effiency (up to 90% less materials per service in 2050) Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland View slide
  • 07/09/09 One globe is not sufficient anymore, but we don’t have a spare one: The date when the annual global resources were depleted in 2007: Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: WWF
  • 07/09/09 There is a global inequality with the wealth and the ecological footprint: Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABLE DESIGN * Merging environmental and social aspects into design process, while sustaining or bettering the economic aspects * Disconnection of material consumption and wealth, by increasing immaterial solutions * Create/enlargen connections between services and products, focus to satisfactory units and system thinking Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 MERGING ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS INTO DESIGN PROCESS Instead of being some additional values to the design process, the environmental as well as social and culturally sustainable points of view have to be taken into account as equal aspects to the design process. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Green Imperative (2008), Eija Nieminen, Kerttu Kurki, Mats Lönngren & Katja Sorvali, Designium, TaiK & Tekes
  • 07/09/09 DISCONNECTION OF MATERIAL CONSUMPTION AND WEALTH   If we are to increase wealth in a world with limited material resources, the connection between the use of natural materials and creation of value and services has to be broken. Modern business has to be able to work on a global market with increasing prices for most of the traditional materials, such as metals and fossil fuel, and energy in general.   Basic principles: * Dematerialization * Immaterialization Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 CREATE/ENLARGEN CONNECTIONS BETWEEN SERVICES AND PRODUCTS   To create more value with diminished material and energy usage, a new way to introduce services and products to the consumer must be adapted. The whole consumer-producer chain must be re-evaluated and redesigned with the product-service-system thinking model.   Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 Vs. PSS-THINKING COMPARED TO MORE TRADITIONAL TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABILITY Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 BENEFITS OF PSS-THINKING AS A DESIGN STRATEGY Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland If designers’ scope is widened to the system level: * Easier to understand material flows * Easier to find innovative new interactions * Thus easier to reduce material flows compared to the user satisfaction A framework for PSS-thinking
  • 07/09/09 THE GROWING ROLE OF DESIGN   Design can be seen as an asset into changing the whole field of services and their production into a more sustainable one. Design is usually already so multi-disciplinary process that new principles can be adapted relatively fast.   Design processes already include tools that help designers to find completely new and innovative solutions based on fuzzy concept search, service focused design, and by for example studying the behaviour of the end-consumers and so forth. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 IN SEARCH FOR NEW INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Green Imperative (2008), Eija Nieminen, Kerttu Kurki, Mats Lönngren & Katja Sorvali, Designium, TaiK & Tekes Vs. Source: Carlo Vezzoli & Fabrizio Ceschin
  • 07/09/09 IN SEARCH FOR NEW INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Carlo Vezzoli & Fabrizio Ceschin Source: Green Imperative (2008), Eija Nieminen, Kerttu Kurki, Mats Lönngren & Katja Sorvali, Designium, TaiK & Tekes
  • 07/09/09 Design for Sustainability in Finland 2.
  • 07/09/09 BUSINESS IN FINLAND AND SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS   Finland has been top-ranked in the World Economic Forum's Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) since 2000. Finland also fares well in other international indexes describing environmental sustainability, competitiveness, clean water, and innovative solutions. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 MATERIAL CONSUMPTION AND WEALTH   In Finland the material consumption and the creation of wealth have already disconnected partially, and more and more resources are targeted towards digital services sector, research and design. How ever, the amount of used resources is still climbing higher.   For example the mobile and ICT industry has been trying to increase the amount of services that are available via mobile phones to switch their business model from material to immaterial. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 GNP and emissions to atmosphere in Finland 1960-2000 GNP per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuels SO2 emissions NO2 emissions The disconnection between GNP and pollution to air has taken place after the industry has been forced to put effort in pollution control: Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Ministry for Environmental Issues, Finland
  • 07/09/09 IMPROVING ECO-EFFIENCY IN FINNISH BUSINESS   Improving eco-efficiency - by creating more value with less environmental impact - has been recognized as one of the main ways business can contribute to sustainable development. Effective environmental controls often help to reduce the costs of industrial processes and business operations, while also creating new markets and business opportunities for environmental products and services. Legislative controls also promote innovation, and encourage businesses to avoid the wasteful use of natural resources. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 DESIGN AND NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS The resources put into design research and education should increase in line with national competitive-ness to sustain the growth. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Global Design Watch 2008, Katja Sorvali & Eija Nieminen, Designium, TaiK
  • 07/09/09 Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Global Design Watch 2008, Katja Sorvali & Eija Nieminen, Designium, TaiK
  • 07/09/09 Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Global Design Watch 2008, Katja Sorvali & Eija Nieminen, Designium, TaiK
  • 07/09/09 WINNERS AND LOSERS ON THE GLOBAL MARKET   Rapidly changing global markets are also changing Finnish markets. Finnish work force is well educated but also quite expensive in the global comparison. In Finland the unemployment rates are relatively high (~5-7%), and social security system is expensive and sometimes ineffective. Finland has, however, ranked well in several different studies concerning national competitiveness. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 Some assets in Finnish industry: * Mobile industry is still growing, mobile platform offers many possibilities on the field of service design. * ICT sector is gaining value from the close relationship with mobile companies. * A big portion of R&D targeted towards new ICT and mobile solutions. * The clean nature with a low population density offers possibilities for turism and also a ground for domestic production of wood, natural fiber or food products. * No or only a little corruption, quite stable society. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 Some problems with Finnish industry: * Wood industry has struggled for some time, and its future in Finland seems uncertain. The problem is that there is already a lot of wood on the global market, and the cost of wood production is too high compared to the market price. Somehow the extensive Finnish know-how on wood processes should be transformed into new hi-tech solutions as nanoproducts or paper based materials with electric components. * Metal industry and mining industry face similar challenges as production moves towards countries with lower costs. * Technologies with materials such as metal or wood require processes that are difficult to change. These business sectors aren't adapting new solutions rapidly enough. * Domestic food production struggles as well. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN FINLAND   Recycling in Finland is quite well organized, and the legislation around environmental issues is relatively strict. Businesses have to take environmental aspects into account and some companies are already gaining reputation in being active in the search for new more sustainable techs. How ever, the growing trend is to burn the waste in centralized waste incinerators. This has some major problems as waste is many times more valuable (processed) than primary fuels.   Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 EXAMPLES AROUND FINLAND & SCANDINAVIA:   * SKYPE - Global ICT solution from Estonia   * GOOGLE buying a closed wood factory and changes it into SERVER-FACILITY   * ECOCITY concept design at VTT   * PROBLEMS with waste: Electronic waste etc. Case FINNJET.   Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 DfS in University of Art and Design Helsinki 3.
  • 07/09/09 UNIVERSITY OF ART AND DESIGN HELSINKI (TAIK) University of Art and Design Helsinki – TaiK – is an international postgraduate university institution with students from over 50 countries. It offers doctoral, masters’ and bachelors’ degrees in a wide range of disciplines – fine art, design, new media, art education, visual culture, motion picture and production design. TaiK has been leader in Finnish art and design education for over 130 years. The University has approximately 1900 students in various degree programmes. An international spirit and English language are part of our everyday life. Almost 17 percent of our students come from abroad making us Finland’s most international university.   Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09   TaiK and its surroundings during the four seasons: Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 THE ROLE OF TAIK IN CHANGING THE WAY OF DESIGN Research in the fields of ecology and sustainability has developed over ten years from environmental design issues to multi-scientific research in sustainability, recently focusing in social innovation and other main stream fields. This is, to some extent, due to the advanced strategic research tradition in user-centered design, as well as applied design research traditions in material and other technologies. In near future, along with the merger of our university with the Helsinki School of Economics and the Helsinki University of Technology, also the cross-disciplinary cooperation with business and technology will intensify. A number of multi-scientific programs in the fields of sustainability are under development. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 DFS IN PROJECTS AND RESEARCH IN TAIK TaiK’s projects and research in Design for Sustainability can be divided into several categories. Some of these categories also reflect research groups in TaiK.
      • DESIGN FOR ALL promotes designer’s responsibility in developing sustainable solutions that serve all people equally.
      • SOCIAL MEDIA DESIGN contributes media design by making it more accessible.
      • WORLD DESIGN is an interdisciplinary research project aiming at exploring and building design-related tools as strategies for development in marginalized communities.
      • DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT focuses on innovative material research.
      • ART AND MEDIA projects in the fields of visual communication and media content creation favor content that aims to promote sustainability.
    Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 SOME CASE-EXAMPLES FROM TAIK:   * EcoDesign in all its forms * Sustainable materials research * ICT / Mobile solutions * Urban architecture system concepts Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Green Imperative (2008), Eija Nieminen, Kerttu Kurki, Mats Lönngren & Katja Sorvali, Designium, TaiK & Tekes
  • 07/09/09 Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Green Imperative (2008), Eija Nieminen, Kerttu Kurki, Mats Lönngren & Katja Sorvali, Designium, TaiK & Tekes
  • 07/09/09 Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland Source: Green Imperative (2008), Eija Nieminen, Kerttu Kurki, Mats Lönngren & Katja Sorvali, Designium, TaiK & Tekes
  • 07/09/09 Some more cases around DfS in TaiK: CityCab and its design is based on a detailed passanger survey. CityCab is a non-commercial R&D project even though more than 40 companies are involved in the project. Design Education Tools for Namibian Context – Namibian research project was carried out in two workshops: Katutura, urban Namibian crafts community, and Opuwo, rural outreach project. Based on the analyzes of the previous workshops the prototypes of pedagogical interfaces were tested in these two workshops and developed further. go2 – A campaign against global warming – is a web-page campaign project that was created by MA-students of graphic design from the School of Visual Culture, TaiK. ICING – Innovative Cities for the Next Generation – proposes to research concepts of e-Government based on a multimodal, multi-access approach to a ”thin-skinned City” that is sensitive to the citizen and to the environment, using mobile devices, universal access gateways, social software and environmental sensors. LeMill is a web community for finding, authoring and sharing learning resources. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 On the way to ECOCITY – 3D animation is a vision of ecocity in China that was executed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT. Urban Mediator (part of ICING) is a platform that provides communities a way to mediate local, location-based discussion, activities, and information. … And some research papers: Jacobson, Susanne; Pirinen, Antti (2007): User Innovation and Accessible Living Environments. Proceedings of International Future Design Conference on Global Innovations in Macro- and Micro- Environments for the Future, Institute of Millennium Environmental Design & Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Raija Siikamäki (2006): Glass Can Be Recycled Forever. Utilisation of End-of-Life Cathode Ray Tube Glasses in Ceramic and Glass Indystry (Doctoral dissertation). Hortling, A. Jokinen E. (2001): Leadless Glazes for redware. Euro Ceramics VII, Brygge, Belgium. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 TAIK AND THE NEW AALTO UNIVERSITY   New Aalto University brings together three Finnish top universities: the University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), the University of Technology (TKK) and the Helsinki School of Economics (HSE). The new university is due to start in August 1, 2009. Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland The goal of the new university is to be one of the leading institutions in the world in terms of research and education in the field of technology, business studies and art and design. 
  • 07/09/09 NEW INITIATIVES AT AALTO UNIVERSITY   * Creative Sustainability -programme Creative Sustainability –programme begins in Aalto University in autumn 2009 as a minor programme and is supposed to expand into a complete master programme in autumn 2010.   Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
    • Cross-disciplinary skills and content
    • Competency in sustainable design
    • Latest scientific knowledge related to sustainability
    • Case studies in multidisciplinary teams
    • Co-operation with industry, cities, municipalities and other organizations around the globe
    • System theory and thinking as the basic model
  • 07/09/09 DESIGNERS' TASK FOR THE FUTURE * Design always for the user or user community, while keeping the other stakeholders in mind. - > Business benefits in the end * Design a product-service-system instead of a physical, owned product with no service concept -> De-/immaterialization & lower costs from materials * Design always with the sustainability issues (ecological as well as socio-ethical) in mind -> Enables also the far-future profits Tatu Marttila (MA) & TaiK LeNS Team / University of Art and Design Helsinki (TaiK), Finland
  • 07/09/09 THANK YOU!