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carlo vezzoli Politecnico di Milano Learning Network on Sustainability course   Product-Service System Design for Sustaina...
1.  Sustainable development and system innovation 2.  The evolution of sustainability in design (Europe) 3.  Eco-Efficient...
1.  SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEM INNOVATION
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A SOCIAL AND PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT that takes place within the limits set by the “nature” an...
ENVIRONMENTAL - not to exceed the biosphere and geosphere “resilience ” SOCIO-ETHICAL - same resources ( satisfaction ) le...
EU DEFINITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION “ safeguard the earth's capacity to support life in...
SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION   “ promotion of a democratic, socially inclusive, cohesive, healthy, safe and just society wit...
ECONOMIC PROSPERITY “ Promote a prosperous, innovative, knowledge-rich, competitive and eco-efficient economy which provid...
IN 50 YEARS A  WORLD-WIDE EQUITABLE SYSTEMS OF PRODUCTION AND CONSU M PTION SHOULD USE   ~ 90% LESS   RESOURCES  THAN THE ...
SUSTAINABILITY:  QUALITY  OF CHANGE PROMOTE (EVEN) SYSTEM INNOVATIONS RADICAL CHANGE (“DISCONTINUITY”) DIFFUSED INNOVATION...
2.  THE EVOLUTION OF SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN (IN EUROPE)
low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion Product-Service System design for eco-efficiency Product Li...
new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign...
3.  ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM (PSS)
PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM: DEFINITION pdf available at:  http://www.uneptie.org/pc/sustain/design/pss.htm “ the result of an ...
<ul><li>ECO-EFFICENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM EXAMPLES (AND TYPOLOGIES) </li></ul>
<ul><li>KLUBER LUBRIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>offers lubricants +  service  on-site identification (movable lab) of equip...
E-E PSS INNOVATION (TYPE I) ADDING VALUE TO THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE a c ompany  ( alliance of companies )  provides   addit...
<ul><li>AMG: SOLAR HEAT SERVICE </li></ul><ul><li>hot water itself is sold as an entire service (payment x litre); hot wat...
E-E PSS INNOVATION (TYPE II) P ROVIDING FINAL RESULTS TO CUSTOMERS a c ompany  ( alliance of companies )  provides a custo...
<ul><li>ARISTON + ENEL :  PAY-PER-USE </li></ul><ul><li>payment is based on number of washes and includes: delivery of a w...
E-E PSS INNOVATION (TYPE III) ENABLING PLATFORMS FOR CUSTOMERS company  ( alliance of companies )  provides   access to pr...
BUT ONLY SOME PSS TYPES ARE ECO-EFFICIENT! IN FACT, PSS IS NOTHING NEW!  (IN EUROPE) NOWADAYS   every most of the products...
<ul><li>ECO-EFFICIENT PSS TYPOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>- adding value to the product life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>- provid...
<ul><li>E-E PSS INNOVAT. MAIN CHARACTERITICS: </li></ul><ul><li>radical innovations, not much as technological ones, but a...
4.  SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY
…  introducing eco-efficient PSS innovation in design ... REQUIRES NEW DESIGN DEFINITION, APPROACHES, SKILLS, METHOD/TOOLS
<ul><li>“ the design for eco-efficiency of the  system of products and services  that are together able to fulfil a partic...
<ul><li>. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM”  APPROACH   DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>. “STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS”  APP...
STAKEHOLDERS’  INTERACTIONS DESIGN
<ul><li>. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM”  APPROACH   DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>. “STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS”  APP...
<ul><li>-  design an integrated system   of   products   and   services   fulfilling a particular demand for  “satisfactio...
SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY:  METHODS AND TOOLS EU RESEARCHES WITH METHOD/TOOLS OUTCOMES:  van Halen, Vezzoli & Wimme...
SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY CRITERIA . system life optimisation . transportation/distribution reduction  . resources ...
SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN-ORIENTING (SDO)/IDEA TABLE the 6 environmental criteria ... a set of stakeholders'’ interactions pro...
AN ONGOING POLIMI DIS APPLIED RESEACRH ON  SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY (USING THE MDSD METHOD)
abridged LCA ABRIDGED LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM INNOVATION INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION PATH ECO-EFFICIENT ...
5.  SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION
1° REMARK: (in Europe) Product-Service System innovations have received concern mainly: . for their environmental win-win ...
2° REMARK: a promising economic model to couple environmental and socio-ethical sustainability DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES:     ...
<ul><li>key example of  Distributed Economies </li></ul><ul><li>“ DISTRIBUTED ENERGY GENERATION” </li></ul><ul><li>(RENEWA...
group of 40 persons organised to a collective purchase and debating on consumption : .  p reference for local, season / bi...
<ul><li>DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES MAIN SUSTAINABLE CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul>LOCALLY-BASED:   start from sustainable local res...
> DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES ARE IN FACT   PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM INNOVATION WHICH ARE COMMUNITY-BASED AND COUPLING ECO-EFFICIE...
POLIMI DIS CO-PROMOTED SOME RESEARCH/PROJECTS ON EE PSS DESIGN POTENTIALS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION
workshop 1 (1.2006)   ITCP-USP, Sao Paolo method/tool development DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY TOOLS/ME...
sustainable system design product design system innovation introd. and diffusion path United Nations Industrial Developmen...
SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION CRITERIA . improve employment/working conditions . increase   equity and just...
SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN-ORIENTING (SDO)/IDEA TABLE the 6 environmental criteria ... a set of stakeholders'’ interactions pro...
<ul><li>“ the design for social equity and cohesion of  eco-efficient system of products and services  that are together a...
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2.1 European-Italian perspective on PSS design for sustainability

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  1. 1. carlo vezzoli Politecnico di Milano Learning Network on Sustainability course Product-Service System Design for Sustainability subject 2 System Design for Sustainability learning resource 2.1 SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: THE EUROPEAN / ITALIAN APPROACH
  2. 2. 1. Sustainable development and system innovation 2. The evolution of sustainability in design (Europe) 3. Eco-Efficient Product-Service System (PSS) 4. System design for eco-efficiency 5. System design for social equity and cohesion CONTENTS
  3. 3. 1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEM INNOVATION
  4. 4. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A SOCIAL AND PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT that takes place within the limits set by the “nature” and meets the needs of the present without compromising those of the future generation within a world-wide equitable distribution of resources 1987, UN “our common future”; 1992 UN conf. Rio; 2002 UN conf. Johannesburg; 2006 UE Sustainable Development Strategy; etc…
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL - not to exceed the biosphere and geosphere “resilience ” SOCIO-ETHICAL - same resources ( satisfaction ) level for future generations - equity in the distribution of resources ( satisfaction ) ECONOMIC - economically practicable solutions THE SUSTAINABILITY DIMENSIONS
  6. 6. EU DEFINITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION “ safeguard the earth's capacity to support life in all its diversity, respect the limits of the planet's natural resources and ensure a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment. Prevent and reduce environmental pollution and promote sustainable consumption and production to break the link between economic growth and environmental degradation.” [EU, SDS, 2006]
  7. 7. SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION “ promotion of a democratic, socially inclusive, cohesive, healthy, safe and just society with respect for fundamental rights and cultural diversity that creates equal opportunities and combats discrimination in all its forms” [EU, SDS, 2006] EU DEFINITION OF SOCIO-ETHICAL SUSTAINABILITY
  8. 8. ECONOMIC PROSPERITY “ Promote a prosperous, innovative, knowledge-rich, competitive and eco-efficient economy which provides high living standards and full and high-quality employment throughout the European Union.” [EU, SDS, 2006] EU DEFINITION OF ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
  9. 9. IN 50 YEARS A WORLD-WIDE EQUITABLE SYSTEMS OF PRODUCTION AND CONSU M PTION SHOULD USE ~ 90% LESS RESOURCES THAN THE HIGHLY INDUSTRIALISED CONTEXTS ARE DOING TODAY SUSTAINABILITY: DIMENSION OF CHANGE
  10. 10. SUSTAINABILITY: QUALITY OF CHANGE PROMOTE (EVEN) SYSTEM INNOVATIONS RADICAL CHANGE (“DISCONTINUITY”) DIFFUSED INNOVATION PROMOTE PLAUSIBLE AND “ATTRACTIVE” (SYSTEM) INNOVATIONS
  11. 11. 2. THE EVOLUTION OF SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN (IN EUROPE)
  12. 12. low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion Product-Service System design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN: EVOLUTION (EUROPE) widening the “object” to be designed
  13. 13. new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN: STATE OF ART (EUROPE) Product-Service System design for eco-efficiency CONSOLIDATION (research achievements) (education and practice) DISSEMINATION 100% 100% 0 widening the “object” to be designed … aim at
  14. 14. 3. ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM (PSS)
  15. 15. PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM: DEFINITION pdf available at: http://www.uneptie.org/pc/sustain/design/pss.htm “ the result of an innovation strategy, shifting the business focus from designing and selling physical products only, to designing selling a system of products and services which are jointly capable of fulfilling specific client demands (satisfactions).” “ system innovation can lead, throughout innovative stakeholders’ interactions, to system eco-efficiency.” [UNEP, 2002]
  16. 16. <ul><li>ECO-EFFICENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM EXAMPLES (AND TYPOLOGIES) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>KLUBER LUBRIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>offers lubricants + service on-site identification (movable lab) of equipment in efficiency , and the potential reduction of emissions’ impact </li></ul>the innovative interaction between the company and the client, make the companies’ economic interest to be other than only selling higher amount of lubricants
  18. 18. E-E PSS INNOVATION (TYPE I) ADDING VALUE TO THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE a c ompany ( alliance of companies ) provides additional services - maintenance, repair, up-grading , substitution and product take back - to guarantee life cycle performance of the product ( sold to the client)
  19. 19. <ul><li>AMG: SOLAR HEAT SERVICE </li></ul><ul><li>hot water itself is sold as an entire service (payment x litre); hot water is produced by sun energy + methane; service include: methane supply ( not directly paid ), equipments and meter ( not owned ) transportation, installation and maintenance. </li></ul>the innovative interaction between the company and the user, make the companies’ interest to design equipment minimising methane consumption (maximises the income) and increase solar energy (because of higher income)
  20. 20. E-E PSS INNOVATION (TYPE II) P ROVIDING FINAL RESULTS TO CUSTOMERS a c ompany ( alliance of companies ) provides a customised mix of services, instead of products, in order to provide a specific final result to the customer the client does not own the product and/or does not buy the resources for its functioning and does not operate on it to obtain the final satisfaction, i.e. the client pays the company to provide the agreed final results
  21. 21. <ul><li>ARISTON + ENEL : PAY-PER-USE </li></ul><ul><li>payment is based on number of washes and includes: delivery of a washing machine at home ( not owned ), electricity supply ( not directly paid ), maintenance, up-grading and end-of-life collection. </li></ul>the innovative interaction between the companies and the client, make the companies’ interest to design and provide high efficient, long lasting, reusable and recyclable washing machines
  22. 22. E-E PSS INNOVATION (TYPE III) ENABLING PLATFORMS FOR CUSTOMERS company ( alliance of companies ) provides access to products, tools, opportunities enabling clients to get their “satisfaction” the client does not own the product and/or does not buy the resources for its functioning, but operates on it to obtain the “satisfaction”, i.e. the client pays only for the use of the product
  23. 23. BUT ONLY SOME PSS TYPES ARE ECO-EFFICIENT! IN FACT, PSS IS NOTHING NEW! (IN EUROPE) NOWADAYS every most of the products involve services and vice versa and change towards service economy is happening anyway services (not products) generate: . more than 50 % of GDP in Europe (. more than 75% of GDP in USA)
  24. 24. <ul><li>ECO-EFFICIENT PSS TYPOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>- adding value to the product life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>- providing final results to customers </li></ul><ul><li>- providing enabling platforms for customers </li></ul><ul><li>(THESE ARE NOT SO DIFFUSED IN EUROPE) </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>E-E PSS INNOVAT. MAIN CHARACTERITICS: </li></ul><ul><li>radical innovations, not much as technological ones, but as new interactions/partnership between the satkeholders of the particular offer-demand (satisfaction) system </li></ul><ul><li>business model potentially delinking economic interests from environmental impact increase, i.e. win-win potential </li></ul>
  26. 26. 4. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY
  27. 27. … introducing eco-efficient PSS innovation in design ... REQUIRES NEW DESIGN DEFINITION, APPROACHES, SKILLS, METHOD/TOOLS
  28. 28. <ul><li>“ the design for eco-efficiency of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular demand of “satisfaction”, as well as the design of the interaction of the stakeholders taking part to this offer-demand satisfaction system ” </li></ul><ul><li>(VEZZOLI, Maggioli, Milan, 2007) </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: DEFINITION
  29. 29. <ul><li>. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>. “STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS” APPROACH STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION DESIGN </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: APPROACHES
  30. 30. STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS DESIGN
  31. 31. <ul><li>. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>. “STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS” APPROACH STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>. SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY APPROACH ECO-EFFICIENCY -ORIENTED SYSTEM DESIGN </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: APPROACHES
  32. 32. <ul><li>- design an integrated system of products and services fulfilling a particular demand for “satisfaction” </li></ul><ul><li>- design new socio-economic stakeholders’ interactions </li></ul><ul><li>- promote/facilitate participated design between different stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>- ORIENTATE THE ABOVE PROCESSES TOWARDS ECO-EFFICENT SOLUTIONS </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: SKILLS
  33. 33. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: METHODS AND TOOLS EU RESEARCHES WITH METHOD/TOOLS OUTCOMES: van Halen, Vezzoli & Wimmer, Methodology for product service system innovation, Van Gorcum, Assen, The Netherlands, 2005 MEPSS Manzini, Collina & Evans, Highly Customerised Solutions, Cranfield University, 2006 HiCS MSDS : M ethod for S ystem D esign for S ustailability adopted by Polimi-dis: company consulting + teaching
  34. 34. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY CRITERIA . system life optimisation . transportation/distribution reduction . resources reduction . waste minimisation/valorisation . conservation/biocompatibility . toxic reduction [DEVELOPED WITHIN MEPSS PROJECT WITH A RELATED SET OF GUIDELINES AND INTEGRATED INTO THE SDO TOOLKIT]
  35. 35. SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN-ORIENTING (SDO)/IDEA TABLE the 6 environmental criteria ... a set of stakeholders'’ interactions promising guidelines (criteria-related) type stakeholders’ interactions idea for each criteria …
  36. 36. AN ONGOING POLIMI DIS APPLIED RESEACRH ON SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY (USING THE MDSD METHOD)
  37. 37. abridged LCA ABRIDGED LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM INNOVATION INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION PATH ECO-EFFICIENT SCENARIOS ELABORATION commissioned by: system innovation introd. and diffusion path eco-efficient scenarios elaboration PSS concept design PSS engineering PSS CONCEPT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Impatto relativo (%) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% and production Pre - production - Distribution Disposal Impatto relativo (%)
  38. 38. 5. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION
  39. 39. 1° REMARK: (in Europe) Product-Service System innovations have received concern mainly: . for their environmental win-win potential . in relation to industrialised contexts A RECENT RESEARCH QUESTION: WHAT ABOUT PSS POTENTIALS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION?
  40. 40. 2° REMARK: a promising economic model to couple environmental and socio-ethical sustainability DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES: “ selective share of production distributed to regions where activities are organized in the form of small scale, flexible units that are synergistically connected with each other ” [IIIEE, SWEEDEN, 2006]
  41. 41. <ul><li>key example of Distributed Economies </li></ul><ul><li>“ DISTRIBUTED ENERGY GENERATION” </li></ul><ul><li>(RENEWABLE RESOURCES SUN , HYDROGEN … ) </li></ul>environmental sustainability: non-ex h a u stable + greenhouse effect reduction + lower environmental impact for extraction, transformation, distribution socio-ethic sustainability: s un (and hydrogen) acquisition: local + with simple processes > micro-plants installable/manageable by small economic entity > user-producer > energetic micro network building > global network > access, self-sufficiency , power (and interdependency) local communities/households > resources democratisation > inequality reduction
  42. 42. group of 40 persons organised to a collective purchase and debating on consumption : . p reference for local, season / biological produces . p reference for small local producer / social coop . . d irect contact with suppliers + production site . c ost reduction duet to de-intermediation other examples of Distributed Economies (not energy related) SOLIDARITY PURCHASING GROUPS (GAS)
  43. 43. <ul><li>DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES MAIN SUSTAINABLE CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul>LOCALLY-BASED: start from sustainable local resources and needs, but could become open non-local or global systems + NETWORK-STRUCTURED: gain critical mass and potential by their connections in network
  44. 44. > DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES ARE IN FACT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM INNOVATION WHICH ARE COMMUNITY-BASED AND COUPLING ECO-EFFICIENCY WITH SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION RESEARCH QUESTION: IS THERE A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR THE DESIGN IN SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION WHEN AND IF PSS INNOVATION ARE LACALLY-BASED AND NETWORK STRUCTURED?
  45. 45. POLIMI DIS CO-PROMOTED SOME RESEARCH/PROJECTS ON EE PSS DESIGN POTENTIALS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION
  46. 46. workshop 1 (1.2006) ITCP-USP, Sao Paolo method/tool development DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY TOOLS/METHODS FOR SOCIAL INCUBATOR Incubadora Tecnológica de Cooperativas Populares ITCP NETWORK University of Sao Paolo Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba Politecnico di Milano - DIS workshop 2 (8.2006) ITCP-UFPR, Curitiba
  47. 47. sustainable system design product design system innovation introd. and diffusion path United Nations Industrial Development Organization A Global UNIDO Network of University Chairs on Innovation <ul><li>- FARKA , a system for drinkable water transportation in Burkina Faso; </li></ul><ul><li>DUMBO , a system for vegetable’s transportation in Zambia </li></ul><ul><li>– NIGO , a system for disabled students transportation in South Africa. </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABLE PILOT PROJECT AIMING AT AN INTRODUCTION OF LOCALLY-BASED AND LONG LASTING MOBILITY SYSTEM FOR LOW INCOME CONTEXTS IN AFRICA Politecnico di Milano Cape Peninsula University of Technology
  48. 48. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION CRITERIA . improve employment/working conditions . increase equity and justice in relation to stakeholders . enable a responsible/sustainable consumption . favor/integrate the weak and marginalized . improve social cohesion . empower/enhance local resources [DEVELOPED BASED ON EXPERIENCES MATURED IN UNIDO, ITCP AND INFORMAL LENS (2003 IIT) AND INTEGRATED INTO THE SDO TOOLKIT]
  49. 49. SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN-ORIENTING (SDO)/IDEA TABLE the 6 environmental criteria ... a set of stakeholders'’ interactions promising guidelines (criteria-related) type stakeholders’ interactions idea for each criteria …
  50. 50. <ul><li>“ the design for social equity and cohesion of eco-efficient system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular demand of (community) “satisfaction”, as well as the design of the locally-based and network-structured interaction of the stakeholders directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system ”” </li></ul><ul><li>(VEZZOLI, Maggioli, Milan, 2007) </li></ul>A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR THE DESIGN?: SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY (ENVIRONM. + SOCIAL EQUITY)
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