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Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
Bab 1 fundamental of os
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Bab 1 fundamental of os

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  • 1. PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 2. PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 3. COURSE ASSESSMENT I- CONTINOUS ASSESSMENT (PB) = 50% a) Quiz = min 7 (15%) b) Assignment =min 5 (25%) c) Lab work = min 10 (20%) Will be converted to 50% d) Theory Test = min 2 (40%) II- FINAL EXAMINATION = 50%PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 4. CHAPTERS IN FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING SYSTEM 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM 2.0 BASIC OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPT MANAGEMENT 3.0 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 4.0 FILE MANAGEMENT 5.0 WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEMPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 5. CHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEMPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 6. INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) WHAT IS OPERATING SYSTEM ? OS IS THE SOUL♦ a program that acts as an intermediary between a user OFand the computer hardware THE COMPUTER♦ An operating system, or OS, is a software program thatenables the computer hardware to communicate andoperate with the computer software. Without a computeroperating system, a computer would be useless ♦ Operating systems can also be considered to be managers of the resources. An operating system determines which computer resources will be utilized for solving which problem and the order in which they will be used ♦ Software controlling the overall operation of a multipurpose computer system, including such tasks as memory allocation, input and output distribution, interrupt processing, and job scheduling.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 7. MAIN RESPONSIBILITIES OF OS Three (3) main responsibilities of operating system : ♦ Perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. ♦ Ensure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. ♦ Provide a software platform on top of which other programs (i.e., application software) can run.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 8. COMPUTER SOFTWARE ♦Computer software can be divided into two main categories : a) application software :consists of the programs for performing tasks particular on behalf of user .Examples: spreadsheets, database systems, desktop publishing systems, program development software, and games b) system software : designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for running application software. Divided into two categories which are operating system (MS Windows, Linux,Mac)and utilities (eq: antivirus software, clean disk, disk defragment).PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 9. HISTORY OF OS : GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER 1st GENERATION 2nd GENERATION GENERATIONS OF 3rd GENERATION COMPUTER 5 th GENERATION 4 th GENERATIONPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 10. 1st GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER : VACUUM TUBES & PLUG BOARDS (1945-1955) 1. Use of vacuum tubes 2. Big & Clumsy 3. High Electricity Consumption 4. Programming in Mechanical Language 5. Larger AC were needed 6. Lot of electricity failure occurredPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 11. 2nd GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER : TRANSISTORS & BATCH SYSTEMS, (1955-1965) 1. Transistors were used 2. Core Memory was developed 3. Faster than First Generation computers 4. First Operating System was developed 5. Programming was in Machine Language & Assembly Language 6. Magnetic tapes & discs were used 7. Computers became smaller in size than the First Generation computers 8. Computers consumed less heat & consumed less electricityPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 12. 3 rd GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER : ICs & MULTIPROGRAMMING (1965-1980) 1. Integrated circuits developed 2. Power consumption was low 3. SSI & MSI Technology was used 4. High level languages were usedPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 13. 4 th GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER : PERSONAL COMPUTERS, (1980-Present) 1. LSI & VLSI Technology used 2. Development of Portable Computers 3. RAID Technology of data storage 4. Used in virtual reality, multimedia, simulation 5. Computers started in use for Data Communication 6. Different types of memories with very high accessing speed & storage capacityPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 14. 5 th GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER (Present) 1. Used in parallel processing 2. Used superconductors 3. Used in speech recognition 4. Used in intelligent robots 5. Used in artificial intelligencePREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 15. VARIOUS TYPES OF OS STRATEGY ♦Batch Operating System - This strategy involves reading a series of jobs (called a batch) into the machine and then executing the programs for each job in the batch. This approach does not allow users to interact with programs while they operate. ♦Multiprogramming Operating System - The ability to do more than one job is called multiprogramming. The system separates the memory out into several pieces and lets each one of the pieces be a different job that the computer was running. The ability to do multiprogramming speed the computers up tremendously. - When one job idled to wait for input or output, the operating system could automatically switch to another job that was ready. ♦Distributed Operating System - An operating system that manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer - Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine - When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 16. VARIOUS PRODUCT /TYPES OF OS IN TODAY’S MARKET SUN / SOLARIS MICROSOFT WINDOWS LINUX MAC OSPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 17. VERSION S OF WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM WINDOWS 95 WINDOWS 98 WINDOWS 2000 WINDOWS ME WINDOWS 7 WINDOWS XP WINDOWS VISTAPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 18. DISTRIBUTIONS OF LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM UBUNTU LINUX SUSE LINUX RED HAT LINUX CENTOS LINUX TURBO LINUX FEDORA LINUX DEBIAN LINUXPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 19. MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR INSTALLATION OF WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM VISTA BUSINESS EDITIONPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 20. MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR INSTALLATION OF LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM UBUNTU LINUX Processor: Intel: Pentium 1-4 or Xeon; AMD: Duron, Athlon, Athlon XP, Athlon MP, Athlon 64, Sempron or Opteron 256 MB of RAM (512 MB recommended) 500 MB of disk space (800 MB to 2 GB often required when including a basic set of applications) GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR LINUXPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 21. OPEN SOURCE VS CLOSED SOURCE OS OPEN SOURCE ♦ means the source code is available to the end-user. The user can use,change,modify and improve the software, to redistribute it in modified or unmodified forms . Eq: Linux OS CLOSED SOURCE ♦ means that the source code is held by the developer, and only they can make any changes or study it. Eq: Windows OS.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 22. MENU-DRIVEN SYSTEMA program that obtains input from a user by displaying a list of options – the menu – fromwhich the user indicates his/her choice. Eq: ATM Machine, automatic washing machine. SHELL PROGRAM The shell is used to issue commands, start processes, control jobs, redirect input and output, and other mundane things that you do on a modern computer. Not only that, the shell is a pretty complete programming language.FULLY GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE Type of user interface item that allows people to interact with programs in more ways than typing that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse such as computers; hand-held devices such as MP3 Players, Portable Media Players or Gaming devices;PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 23. NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM ♦Coordinate the activities of multiple computers across a network. The network operating system acts as a director to keep the network running smoothly ♦Operating system that contains components and programs that allow a computer on a network to serve requests from other computer for data and provide access to other resources such as printer and file systems. ♦Network operating systems typically are used to run computers that act as servers. They provide the capabilities required for network operation. ♦The two major types of network operating systems are: - Peer-to-Peer - Client/Server ♦ Some of the Network services such as File Sharing, Print sharing, User administration & Backing up dataPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 24. TERMINOLOGIES IN OS Cooperative Multitasking: ♦ A form of multitasking where it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor to allow other tasks to run. ♦A type of multitasking in which the process currently controlling the CPU must offer control to other processes. It is called cooperative because all programs must cooperate for it to work. If one program does not cooperate, it can stop the CPU. Preemptive multitasking: ♦A method of running more than one program on a computer at a time, in which control of the processor is decided by the operating system, which allocates each program a recurring time segment. ♦is task in which a computer operating system uses some criteria to decide how long to allocate to any one task before giving another task a turn to use the operating system. The act of taking control of the operating system from one task and giving it to another task is called preempting. Multithreading: ♦Multi-Threading is the ability of a CPU to execute several threads of execution apparently at the same time. CPUs are very fast at executing instructions. Modern PCs can execute nearly a billion instructions every second. Instead of running the same program for one second, the CPU will run one program for perhaps a few hundred microseconds then switch to another and run it for a short while and so on.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 25. OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURE 1) MONOLITHIC SYSTEM ♦ This system considered as “ The big mess” because this structure is no structure actually ♦ The components of monolithic system are unorganized ♦ Any module can call any other module without any reservation. ♦ Does not enforce data hiding . Every procedure is visible to every other procedure. It delivered better application performance but extending such a system can be difficult Work because modifying a procedure can introduce bugs in unrelated parts of the system. ♦ Example system : CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers) & MS-DOSPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 26. Figure 1: Monolithic Operating System ♦When a user –mode program calls a system service, the processor traps the call and then switches the calling thread to kernel mode. Completion of system service, switches the thread back to the user mode, by the operating system and allows the caller to continue.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 27. Figure 2: A simple structuring model for a monolithic system ♦A main program that invokes the requested service procedure. ♦A set of service procedures that carry out the system calls. ♦ A set of utility procedures that help the services procedures.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 28. 2) LAYERED SYSTEM ♦The operating system is divided into a number of layers (levels), each built on top of lower layers. ♦This system had 6 layers. The Structure of the THE ()operating systemPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 29. ♦ Layer 0 dealt with allocation of the processor, switching between processes when interrupts occurred or timers expired. Layer 0 provided the basic multiprogramming of the CPU. ♦ Layer 1 did the memory management. It allocated space for processes in main memory and on a 512k word drum used for holding parts of processes (pages)for which there was no room in main memory. The layer 1 software took care of making sure pages were brought into memory whenever they were needed. ♦Layer 2 handled communication between each process and the operator console. Above this layer each process effectively had its own operator console. ♦ Layer 3 took care of managing the I/O devices and buffering the information streams to and from them. ♦Layer 4 was where the user programs were found. They did not have to worry about process, memory, console, or I/O management. ♦The system operator process was located in layer 5. ♦Example system: VAX /VMS, MULTICS, UNIXPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 30. 3) VIRTUAL MACHINES ♦The heart of the system, known as the virtual machine monitor, runs on the bare hardware and does the multiprogramming, providing not one, but several virtual machines to the next layer up. ♦ Each virtual machine is identical to the true hardware, each one can run any operating system that will run directly on the hard ware. ♦Different virtual machines can, and usually do, run different operating systems. Some run one of the descendants of OF/360 for batch processing, while other ones run a single-user, interactive system called CMS (conversational Monitor System) for timesharing users.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 31. Virtual Machine Model SystemPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 32. 4) CLIENT-SERVER MODEL ♦All the kernel does is handle the communication between clients and servers ♦By splitting the operating system up into parts, each of which only handles one fact of the system, such as file service, process service, Terminal service, or memory service, each part becomes small and manageable. ♦ Another advantage of the client-server model is its adaptability to use in distributed system. If a client communicates with a server by sending it messages, the client need not know whether the message is handled locally in its own machine, or whether it was sent across a network to a server on a remote machine. As far as the client is concerned, the same thing happens in both cases: a request was sent and a reply came back.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 33. The client-server model A distributed OSPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 34. MAJOR SUBSYSTEM IN OS 1) PROCESS MANAGEMENT ♦ A process is a program in execution ♦ A process needs certain resources, including CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devices, to accomplish its task. ♦ A process is an active entity whereas a program is a passive entity. ♦ OS process management activities: - Process creation and deletion. - Process suspension and resumption. - Process synchronization. - - Process communication. - Process deadlock handlingPREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 35. 2) FILE MANAGEMENT ♦ The OS provides a uniform logical view of information storage. (Many different types of physical media.) ♦ A file is a collection of related information defined by its creator. File contents, file formats, file structures, file attributes. ♦ Files are organized into directories. ♦ OS file management activities - File creation and deletion. - Directory creation and deletion. - Support of primitives for manipulating files and directories. - Mapping files onto secondary storage. - File backup on stable (nonvolatile) storage media.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 36. 3) MEMORY MANAGEMENT♦Memory is a large array of words or bytes, each with its own address.♦Memory is a repository of quickly accessible data shared by the CPU and I/O devices.♦ Main memory is a volatile storage device. It loses its contents in the case of system failure.♦OS memory management activities: - Keep track of which parts of memory are used and by whom. - Decide which processes are to be loaded when memory space becomes available. - Allocate and deallocate memory space as needed. PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 37. SYSTEM CALLSinition: ♦ Provide an interface between Operating System and it’s application program. ♦ Generally available as assembly-language instructions. ♦ Languages defined to replace assembly language for systems programming allow system calls to be made directly (e.g., C, C++, Perl)Types Of System Calls: 1) Process control 2) File management 3) Device management 4) Information maintenance 5) Communications PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 38. 1) PROCESS CONTROL ♦ Create and terminate processes: fork, exit. ♦ Execute processes: exec. ♦ Get/set process attributes. ♦ Abort, end processes. ♦ Wait for time, wait for event, signal event. ♦ Allocate and free memory. 2) FILE MANAGEMENT ♦ Create file, delete file. ♦ Open, close. ♦ Read, write, reposition. ♦ Get/set file attributes. ♦ Similar operations for directories.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 39. 3) DEVICE MANAGEMENT ♦ Request/release device. ♦ Read, write, reposition. ♦ Get/set device attributes. ♦ Logically attach or detach devices. 4) INFORMATION MAINTENANCE ♦Get time or date, set time or date. ♦ Get system data, set system data. ♦ Get process, file or device attributes. ♦ Set process, file or device attributes.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP
  • 40. 5) COMMUNICATION ♦ Create, delete communication connection. ♦ Send, receive messages. ♦ Transfer status information. ♦ Attach or detach remote devices.PREPARED BY: NURBAYA GHAZALI, JTMK, PSP

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