The Mandate for Change at MBA


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Project Presentation of Knowledge and Change Management by Lenny Martini & Achmad Fajar Hendarman - MSM 2006

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The Mandate for Change at MBA

  1. 1. THE MANDATE FOR CHANGE IN MBA - ITB Achmad Fajar H (29006010) Lenny Martini (29006014) Prepared for MB-6012 Course Knowledge Management March 26th, 2007
  2. 2. BACKGROUND On June 2003, Mr. Jann Hidajat, appointed as the new Director of MBA-ITB in Bandung, was given a mandate to improve the quality of MBA – ITB, to become the best Business School in Indonesia by 2006. He wanted to analyze the strength and weaknesses of the faculty; the learning system, the facilities and the networking of MBA – ITB, thus compare them to other competitors, before developing a strategic plan to improvement ITB needed to have the best MBA School in national level and good reputation in international level, because : •Increasing of national need in management and business skills caused by economic strategy development and global competition. •ITB had strong in science and technology, but needed closer relationship between technology and management. •Indonesia needed to develop new industries and encourage more entrepreneurship. •Indonesia needed more business people who care in social responsibility and high ethical standards
  3. 3. CHANGE IN MBA - ITB “MBA ITB needed to change, from strategic level to operational level”, Mr. Jann Hidajat said in the first meeting with MBA faculties on August 2003, and also in ITB leaders meeting on October 2004. Key success factors to be used as indicator for success of change: • MBA ITB graduated should have appropriate competencies with user need. • MBA ITB should have Professor with excellence competencies in lecturing method for business school and be opened for performance evaluation; • Curriculum should be up to date and contextual; • Learning mechanism should be appropriate with active learning system; • Lecturing implementation should be discipline and on time; • Facilities should be excellence for school of business; • Academic environment should be appropriate for active learning, team work, and support professor and students interaction closely, warm and respectful; • MBA ITB should have quality assurance system to measure and evaluate academic quality; • MBA ITB should have services excellence, including administration services as well as information services.
  5. 5. CHANGE IN MBA - ITB Actions done by Mr. Jann Hidajat & team to change MBA-ITB: • The Lecturers should apply to MBA program if they want to be a lecturer of MBA and sign a contract so they have a good commitment to the MBA program • Quality Assurance and Performance Appraisal become key issue in learning process • The learning process was evaluated by the student . • developed various learning methods including case analysis, debates, simulations, etc. • Financial Problem in MBA solves through increase the number of students and donation. • SBM has been cooperated with Sampoerna Foundation in 2004. Sampoerna Foundation gave donation in investment for SBM • 2006 : SBM established new MBA program in Jakarta, Business Leadership and Executive MBA (BLEMBA) • plan to establish Global Leadership and Executive MBA (GLEMBA).
  7. 7. 7 s McKinsey
  8. 8. • Moral and Ethics • Integrity • Diversity • High Impact 7 s McKinsey for MBA – ITB Shared Value Structure* Vision : Developing new leaders in business and creating a critical mass of entrepreneurs for Indonesia to become a modern society and highly respected by the world community. ‘act and think like the Best Business School” Strategy * Under SBM Advisory Commitee
  9. 9. System 7 s McKinsey for MBA – ITB Focus of Concentration : • Operations Management • Entrepreneurship • Strategic Marketing Programs : • Young Professional program • Executive Program • BLEMBA • GLEMBA • Concentration MBA (ENEMBA) 6 Research Group • Decision Making & Strategic Negotiation • Operation & Performance Management • Finance & Risk Management • Entrepreneurship & Management of Technology • Business Strategy & Marketing Learning System : • Case Analysis (up to date cases, exp : from HBR), • Outward bound • Fields Studies/Internship • Simulations • Debates • Seminars • Independent Studies • Business Plan Competition • Team Work • Bilingual Class Modules Students in both full-time and part-time MBA programs are required to complete 12 modules: - 7 Core Modules - 2 Compulsory Modules - 2 Elective Modules - 1 Final Project Financial System : • Autonomous, under SBM Internal Process : • Quality Assurance • IT based
  10. 10. 7 s McKinsey for MBA – ITB Staff • 2 Professors • 10 Lecturers with PhD Degree • 17 Lecturers with Master Degree • Part – time lectures from practitioner • Guest lecturers • Administration staffs Skill
  11. 11. 7 s McKinsey for MBA – ITB Style Style of Leadership The Director of MBA is elected by the member SBM and legitimated by the Rector of ITB. The style of leadership on the transformation period (during 2003) is transformation leadership. Characteristics of transformation leadership style (changing : • developing the vision • selling the vision • finding the way forward • leading the change The style of leadership used in MBA-ITB now is democratic leadership. Kurt Lewin’s definition of Democratic Leadership style : The leader involves the people in the decision-making, although the process for the final decision may vary from the leader having the final say to them facilitating consensus in the group. Style of Management • Democratic decision making.
  12. 12. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS Porter’s Model of Five Forces • Supplier power are weak • Difficult to establish MBA program • Low threat of substitutes • Low rivalry in Indonesia • High rivalry in International • Customer are powerful
  13. 13. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTH • Strong ITB Brand, as one of the best university in the country. • outstanding faculty members with extensive research, teaching, and consulting experience. • good facilities : state-of-the-art facilities and the latest information technology such as libraries and e-libraries, online stock exchange, a simulation center, research centers, and students, workrooms Located in Bandung, conducive for learning activity. • two (2) language options (Bi-lingual Classes & English Classes) • Various learning methods and good curriculum design ensuring understanding ideas, developing skills, and building expertise in business topics and practices also enhance ability in building relationship with others (Case Analysis,Outward bound,Fields Studies/Internship,Simulations,Debates,Seminars, Independent Studies,Business Plan Competition,Team Work). • Brand position of MBA-ITB in the areas of Operation/Supply Chain Management and Innovation • Excellence in the learning process is assured by Quality Assurance. • Executive programs in the center of Indonesian business activities (BLEMBA & GLEMBA). • Won several prominent business games (L’OREAL, DANONE, UI)
  14. 14. SWOT ANALYSIS WEAKNESSES • No scholarship • No international student • Lack of international lecturer • Not yet accredited to international council (AACSB, EQUIS) • No role model/ icon/ internationally prominent faculty member • Lack of Ability to teach in English language • Case analysis not contextual in Indonesia business cases (bought from HBS). • Full time lecturers do not have time to practice consultancy in business world (lack of experience and up to date information about business practices). • No integrated alumni tracking system. • No integration with Career Development System • No preparation simulation for job seeking (interview, resume-writing, application- writing, test simulation).
  15. 15. SWOT ANALYSIS OPPORTUNITY • The learning process and curriculum are continuously improved and updated, in part, based on feedback from businesses. • extensive relationships with industries and businesses, locally and globally. • Global market needs of efficiency through operations excellence • More than 1,800 alumni have worked as business leaders, professional managers, or entrepreneurs. • Funding from Sampoerna foundation • Partnership with international university (Nanyang, NUS, Australia, dll) THREAT • Unharmonious relationship with ITB rectorat • Competitors keep increasing their quality and pushing marketing efforts to get the best students learn at their schools. • Unpredictable government policy about high education
  16. 16. BENCHMARKING Harvard Business School Among the key features that distinguish the HBS MBA experience are: • General management focus : flexibility to achieve success in a wide range of sectors, industries, and functions in any country in the world • The case method : 500 cases (30% new). Real business problems to refine analytical skills, develop skill in decision making and judgment, strengthen ability to work with others, and build a framework of knowledge and experience. • Global reach : network of Global Research Centers in key regions—Asia-Pacific (including the Japan Research Office), Silicon Valley, Latin America, India, and Europe. 20,000 alumni in 40 countries. • A community experience : students become a part of a remarkable network of 65,000 individuals that spans the globe • An Exceptional campus :33 buildings (40 acres), 2 amphitheater classrooms, world-class librairs, residence halls, dining facilities, student center, fitness center. Integrated IT environment. • Interdisciplinary research project : entrepreneurship initiative/incubator of ideas, the global initiative, the healthcare initiative, the leadership initiative, the social enterprise initiative. • A commitment to Teaching : faculty member from pioneering researchers; leaders of companies, nonprofits, and government agencies; entrepreneurs. They bring the talents to the classroom and put student at the top of their priority. Students are actively engaged in the educational process, they teach as they learn.
  17. 17. BENCHMARKING Harvard Business School Admission CrIterias : • the highest potential leaders from an applicant pool of very talented candidates from around the world. • the selection process emphasizes : - leadership potential (extracurricular activities,workplaces, and communities) - strong academic ability (prior academic performance, GMAT and TOEFL, nature of work experience, particular attention to ability to master quantitative concepts) - personal qualities and characteristics (highest ethical standards and respect for others, actively engaged in the educational process ) • no minimum work experience requirement for the MBA Program • diverse backgrounds and global perspectives to add to the richness of both the HBS learning experience and the HBS community broadly( inc. disable student) • The application : - Responses to the application essay questions - Current resume - Three recommendations (must be submitted online) - Self-reported transcripts from all undergraduate and graduate academic institutions attended (full- or part-time) - HBS Community Values Statement - Statement of Application Integrity - GMAT & TOEFL/ IELTS scores (average GMAT score in fall 2006 was 707) - Nonrefundable U.S. $235 application fee (credit card only) - Interview • Full time, 2 years program
  18. 18. BENCHMARKING MIT’s Sloan Business School The history were almost similar with SBM ITB, because it was the management school born in a Technology University : • MIT Sloan began in 1914 as the engineering administration curriculum in the MIT Department of Economics and Statistics. • A program offering a master's degree in management was established in 1925 • The world's first university-based executive education program - the Sloan Fellows - was created in 1931 under the sponsorship of Alfred P. Sloan. • A Sloan Foundation grant established the MIT School of Industrial Management in 1952 with the charge of educating the "ideal manager”. • In the 1960s, the school played a leading role in the development of the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta. • In 1990, the MIT Entrepreneurship Center was founded at MIT Sloan. • The main professional degree awarded at MIT Sloan, prior to 1995, was the SM in Management – an advanced professional degree combining the course requirements of the more widely-known MBA degree with a formal Master of Science dissertation. • in 1995, the school began awarding the MBA degree entirely on the basis of coursework. • MIT Sloan's SM and MBA have always been viewed as equivalent in industry, although the SM is generally preferred as preparation for Ph.D. work. MIT Sloan offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees, as well as non-degree executive education programs Ratio of admittancy : Of the approximately 2,600 applications received last year for the MBA and Leaders for Manufacturing programs, about 500 were admitted and 372 matriculated
  19. 19. BENCHMARKING MIT’s Sloan Business School MIT Sloan is home to a number of research centers, including the MIT Entrepreneurship Center, the Financial Engineering Lab, the MIT Center for eBusiness, the System Dynamics Group, the Operations Management Group, and the Center for Innovation in Product Development. It also publishes the peer-reviewed management journal MIT Sloan Management Review MIT Sloan does not offer an Executive MBA program or a part-time MBA program, it offer specialized degree programs : • Leaders for Manufacturing (LFM) program is a dual-degree partnership program run by both MIT Sloan and the MIT School of Engineering. LFM students earn both an MBA (or SM in Management) from MIT Sloan as well as an SM in any participating engineering department at MIT, all within a 24 month timeframe. • MIT Sloan Fellows Program in Innovation and Global Leadership Depending on the curricula they choose, students can earn either an MBA, an SM in Management, or a Master's degree in the Management of Technology (MOT) in either 1 or 2 years of full-time study. • System Design and Management program is a joint program run by both MIT Sloan and the Engineering Systems Division of MIT, in which students are awarded a joint SM degree in Engineering and Management (single degree, 13-month full-time basis, or 24-month part-time distance learning) • Biomedical Enterprise Program or BEP is a joint partnership program run by MIT Sloan and the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. SM degree in Health Sciences and Technology in addition to an MBA or SM in Management Science also offers those who already hold a graduate degree in management the option of earning a 1-year SM degree in Health Sciences and Technology .
  20. 20. BENCHMARKING MIT’s Sloan Business School Academic and student life : • The MIT Sloan culture is similar to, but also distinct from, overall MIT culture, and is influenced most strongly by its MBA program. Academic rigor has a strong influence on the school's culture. • Courses are taught using both the case method as well as through lectures and team projects. • a greater emphasis on analytical reasoning and quantitative analysis than most top programs. • C-functions : The school sponsors food and drink for all members of the MIT Sloan graduate community. Distinguish Faculty members : Daron Acemoglu, economist, 2005 John Bates Clark Medal recipient Thomas J. Allen, inventor of the Allen Curve, co-author of "Lean Enterprise Value" Dan Ariely, leading expert on behavioral economics. Richard Beckhard, pioneer in the field of Organizational Development Warren Bennis, leading expert on Leadership, author of "Leaders" Fischer Black, co-inventor, Black-Scholes option pricing model Erik Brynjolfsson, leading expert on information technology productivity John C. Cox, inventor of binomial options model, author of "Options Markets" Michael A. Cusumano, author of "Competing on Internet Time" Rudi Dornbusch, author of "Macroeconomics" Networking : • cross-register for courses at Harvard Business School • cross-register for courses at Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. It benefit the students because Fletcher's internationally recognized and highly reputed international affairs program
  21. 21. BENCHMARKING MIT’s Sloan Business School Distinguish Faculty Members : Kristin Forbes, youngest-ever member of U.S. Council of Economic Advisers Jay W. Forrester, founder of System Dynamics Michael Hammer, creator of Business process reengineering theory John R. Hauser, co-founder of marketing science Jerry A. Hausman, economist, 1985 John Bates Clark Medal recipient Rebecca Henderson, leading expert on Technology Strategy S. P. Kothari, editor of the Journal of Accounting and Economics John Little, Institute Professor, founder of marketing science Thomas W. Malone, original Wired magazine columnist, author of "The Future of Work" Douglas McGregor, inventor of "Theory X and theory Y" Robert C. Merton, 1997 Nobel Laureate in Economics Franco Modigliani, 1985 Nobel Laureate in Economics Kenneth Morse, co-founder of 3Com and director of the MIT Entrepreneurship Center Stewart Myers, inventor of real option theory, author of "Principles of Corporate Finance" Edward B. Roberts, Founder and Chair of the MIT Entrepreneurship Center Stephen Ross, inventor of arbitrage pricing theory Paul Samuelson, first American Nobel Laureate in Economics, 1970 Edgar Schein, inventor of the term "corporate culture" Myron S. Scholes, 1997 Nobel Laureate in Economics Peter Senge, author of "The Fifth Discipline", Fortune Magazine top management guru George P. Shultz, former US Secretary of State Robert Solow, 1987 Nobel Laureate in Economics John Sterman, leading expert on System Dynamics Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric, Fortune "Manager of the Century"
  22. 22. INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION AACSB BENEFITS OF AACSB ACCREDITATION Benefits to Schools/Programs • Participation in the AACSB accreditation process affirms the school's responsibility for the quality of education offered and demonstrates its commitment to continuous improvement. • By undergoing the self-evaluation, a school assesses planning and goal setting processes and measures accomplishments against objectives. • The peer review process includes a review of the program's strengths, limitations and opportunities, with the ultimate purpose of improving educational effectiveness. • Peer review provides advice and counsel and offers new perspectives on the program's operations. • The accreditation process contributes to the harmony of the business administration disciplines by bringing together all constituents in continuous improvement. AACSB International accreditation represents the highest standard of achievement for business schools, worldwide. Institutions that earn accreditation confirm their commitment to quality and continuous improvement through a rigorous and comprehensive peer review. AACSB International accreditation is the hallmark of excellence in management education
  23. 23. INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION AACSB Benefits to Students • The school/program has an appropriate mission achieved through relevant curricula, qualified faculty, and effective policies and practices. • The degree program offered has completed a rigorous self-evaluation peer review. • The degree program offered satisfies criteria established and accepted by the management education community. Benefits to Employers • Accreditation assures prospective employers that graduates come from a program where the content and quality have been evaluated and satisfy established standards. • The employer can be confident that the graduate's course of study included an understanding of today's complex business environment. • The program offered is current and reflects changes in knowledge and practices generally accepted in the management education community. Benefits to the Public •Accredited status represents a commitment of the program and the institution to quality and continuous improvement. •The school/program has a clearly defined mission and educationally appropriate objectives. •The school/program has voluntarily undertaken a self-evaluation and peer review.
  24. 24. INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION AACSB 543 accredited university in the World (US, Europe, Asia Pacific, Africa) 25 universities in Asia Pacific : # Australian Graduate School of Management (Australia) # The University of Queensland (Australia) # Queensland University of Technology (Australia) # The University of Sydney (Australia) # University of Technology, Sydney (Australia) # The Chinese University of Hong Kong (China) # City University of Hong Kong (China) # The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (China) # Keio University (Japan) # Nagoya University of Commerce and Business (Japan) # Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) (Korea, South) # Korea University (Korea, South) # Seoul National University (Korea, South) # The University of Auckland (New Zealand) # University of Otago (New Zealand) # The University of Waikato (New Zealand) # Asian Institute of Management (Philippines) # King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) # Nanyang Technological University (Singapore) # National University of Singapore (Singapore) # Fu Jen Catholic University (Taiwan) # National Chengchi University (Taiwan) # National Sun Yat-sen University (Taiwan) # Bilkent University (Turkey) # United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) (United Arab Emirates). AACSB International accreditation assures stakeholders that business schools : • Manage resources to achieve a vibrant and relevant mission. • Advance business and management knowledge through faculty scholarship. • Provide high-caliber teaching of quality and current curricula. • Cultivate meaningful interaction between students and a qualified faculty. • Produce graduates who have achieved specified learning goals.
  25. 25. INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION AACSB Accreditation Process Step : 1. AACSB International membership 2. Eligibility application 3. Mentor from Pre Accreditation Committee 4. Review standards of eligibility application by Mentor develop Accreditation plan 5. Accreditation Coordinating Committee reviews the Eligibility Application 6. prepares and submits an Accreditation Plan and a Strategic Plan 8. The Initial Accreditation Committee reviews the Accreditation Plan and approves it 9. The mentor continues to work with the applicant for up to three years as the applicant implements its Accreditation Plan 10. Initial accreditation must be achieved within five years of the Initial Accreditation Committee acceptance of the Accreditation Plan 11. Two years in advance of the anticipated accreditation review visit, a Peer Review Team chair (but not the full team) is appointed 12. Self-Evaluation Report during the two years of working with the team chair 13. The Initial Accreditation Committee ratifies or remands the recommendation from visit report done by Peer Review Team 14. Recommendations for accreditation or denial that are ratified by the Initial Accreditation Committee are then sent to the Board for ratification or remand
  26. 26. INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION EQUIS • The fundamental objective of EQUIS is to raise the standard of management educations,both individually for Schools and Faculties and systematically for national management education structures. • Facilitates standard setting, benchmarking, mutual learning, and the dissemination across borders of good practice. • EQUIS has now accredited 4 institutions and more than 150 management education academics and professionals have participated in peer review assessments around the world • Give recognition to institutions that, in addition to high standing in their own national environments, have demonstrated that they emerge as players on a wider national market. • Designed to help prospective students and recruiting companies from one country to identify those institutions in other countries that deliver high quality education for international management. • Provides a framework for assessing quality in highly diverse institutional and cultural contexts. • Flexibility and respect for diversity are fundamental principles underlying the system. • EQUIS is fast establishing itself as a major international reference in the area of quality and accreditation
  27. 27. INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION EQUIS Requirement for Accreditation : 1. Has Executive and International program 2. Has Reputable and permanent staffs 3. Selected and diversified student 4. Give support to get international job 5. standardized administrative process & learning evaluation 6. open to get feedback 7. Qualified and publicized research 8. Good service and carrier development of student 9. Develop managerial skill, ethics, values and leadership
  28. 28. GAP ANALYSIS Existing Condition • 7S McKinsey • Porter Model • SWOT Future Condition World Class Business School Benchmarking International accreditation gap analysis • No scholarship • No international student • Lack of international lecturer • Not yet accredited to international council (AACSB, EQUIS) • No role model/ icon/ internationally prominent faculty member • Lack of Ability to teach in English language • Case analysis not contextual in Indonesia business cases • Lack of experience and up to date information about business practices • No integrated alumni tracking system. • No integration with Career Development System • No preparation simulation for job seeking Lack of networking with international institutions/ business schools
  29. 29. RECOMMENDATION • Full commitment, not full time lecturers. So the faculty member still have time to practice consultancy in business and keep up to date information about business practice in Indonesia, and MBA ITB not losing its opportunity to get best lecturers from business practitioners and business lecturers who only want to be part time staff. • Produce and teach business case in Indonesian context. • Develop an integrated Career Development Center as a place to build network of alumni that can help students to get access for internship and job applications. • Give scholarship for best students, so it can increase the brand as the best MBA School in Indonesia • Build network with other schools in ITB/ Faculty and develop join program (like MIT Sloan have) to gain a double degree. • Build network with prominent business schools in Asia Pacific to get more access to international research network. • Follow procedures of accreditation from international council (AACSB/ EQUIS)
  30. 30. RECOMMENDATION Key Performance Indicators : US Official MBA Guide provide some criteria to rank business school, they are : • Average GMAT Score • Average starting salary • Percent of student with work experience • Percent of new applicants rejected • Computer use in the curriculum • Number of computers per business student • Student/ faculty ration • Number of companies recruiting on campus • Percent of MBA graduates getting jobs • Program Desirability • Size of entering class • undergraduate/ graduate business student ration • percent of courses taught in MBA-dedicated rooms • Percent of senior faculty • Percent of doctorate faculty • Percent of faculty who publish articles • Percent of faculty who publish textbooks • Percent of faculty who publish on-line • articles published per faculty • Textbooks published per faculty
  31. 31. RECOMMENDATION Other Criteria : The School Public/ private university School accreditation Tuition requirement size of the MBA program enrollment Cost of university-provided housing The Students Average GMAT Score work experience vs without work experience average MBA student age ratio women to men percentage of minority students percentage of international students The Classes and Curriculum Number of students per class meeting course structure lock step/ unstructured Level of computer use technical orientation style of teaching educational philosophy
  32. 32. The ADKAR® Model Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement Change Concept Senders and receivers Resistance and comfort Authority For change Change is A process The right answer Is not enough Value system Incremental vs Radical Change
  33. 33. Phase 1- Preparing for Change Phase 2- Managing Change Phase 3- Reinforcing Change Define your change management strategy Prepare your change management team Develop your sponsorship model Develop change management plans Take action and implement plans Collect and analyze feedback Diagnose gaps and manage resistance Implement corrective actions and celebrate success before 2003 2003 – until now Now & future..
  34. 34. Phase 1- Preparing for Change Identifying change characteristics Assessing the organization Creating a change management strategy Acquiring resources Assessing team competencies Preparing the change management team Identifying sponsor and stakeholders Assessing sponsor competencies Preparing sponsors Managing Change Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement ChangeCharacteristic OrganizationalAttributes Customized activity design Five Channels Communications Coaching Training Sponsor roadmap Resistance management Phase 3- Reinforcing Change Listening to employees & gathering feedback Auditing compliance with new process, Systems and roles Analyzing change management effectiveness Identifying root causes and pockets For resistance Developing corrective action plans Enabling sponsors and coaches to manage resistance Implementing corrective action Celebrating early successes & Reinforcing the change Conducting “after action reviews” and Transferring ownership
  35. 35. Awareness Many stakeholders aware about improvement in MBA, but they who understand why MBA should change are just a little. They who understand why MBA should change are the people who have an interest from MBA. The factors that have created a need to change was the quality of learning process. The awareness rank is 4. Desire The motivating factor related to the change in MBA was pilot project to establish Business and management Faculty, now School of Business and management. The other factor was the vision that MBA ITB should become world class MBA. The desire rank is 4. Knowledge The skills and knowledge needed to support the change in MBA were: The competency of lecturers The competency of administrative staffs The leadership skill As MBA ITB should be the world class MBA so the knowledge rank is 3. Ability Considering the skills and knowledge, the overall ability rank to implement this change is 3 Reinforcement The incentive to make change stick is the increasing of staff salary. In the other side the contract from MBA program to the lecturer has made some of the lecturer don’t involve in MBA program again. The reinforcement rank is 4. The ADKAR® Model
  36. 36. The ADKAR® Model
  37. 37. Thank you..