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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_16

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  • 1. Organizational Change and Development Chapter 16 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
  • 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
    • Describe forces that act as stimulants to change
    • Contrast two views of change
    • Summarize Lewin’s three-step change model
    • Describe factors that lead to resistance to change and how resistance can be reduced
  • 3. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
    • Explain the values underlying most organizational development (OD) efforts
    • Contrast continuous improvement and process reengineering
    • Describe potential sources of, and ways of managing, work stress
    • List characteristics of a learning organization
    • Explain how organizational change may be culture-bound
  • 4. Forces for Change
  • 5. Change Agents
    • Persons in organization responsible for managing change activities
    • Can be managers or nonmanagers, current employees, newly hired employees or outside consultants
  • 6. “Calm Waters” Simile
  • 7. Lewin
    • Unfreezing can be achieved by:
      • Increase driving forces that direct behavior away from the status quo
      • Decrease restraining forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium
      • Combine the two above approaches
  • 8. “White-Water Rapids” Simile
    • Stability and predictability don’t exist
    • No occasional and temporary disruptions in the status quo, happens all the time
    • Face constant change, bordering on chaos
  • 9. Resistance to Change
    • Habit
    • Security
    • Structural Inertia
    • Limited Focus of Change
  • 10. Overcoming Resistance to Change
    • Education and Communication
    • Participation
    • Building Support and Commitment
    • Selecting People who Accept Change
    • Coercion
  • 11. Organizational Development
    • Respect for People
    • Trust and Support
    • Power Equalization
    • Confrontation
    • Participation
  • 12. OD Interventions
    • Sensitivity Training
    • Survey Feedback
    • Process Consultation
    • Intergroup Development
    • Appreciative Inquiry
  • 13. Contemporary Issues
    • How are changes in technology affecting the work lives of employees?
    • How do I reduce stress among my work staff?
    • How do managers create organizations that continually learn and adapt?
    • Is managing change culture-bound?
  • 14. Technology in the Workplace
    • Continuous Improvement Process – recognizes that good isn’t good enough and performance should be improved upon; constant reduction in variability
    • Process Reengineering – How you would do things if you could start over from scratch
  • 15. Stress
    • Dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important
    • Managing Stress
      • Organizational: Employee Selection, Organizational Communication, Goal-setting Programs, Job Redesign
      • Personal: Counseling, Time Management, Physical Activity
  • 16. Creating a Learning Organization
    • An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change
    • Single-loop learning – when errors are detected, the correction process relies on past routines and present policies
    • Double-loop learning – when an error is detected, it’s corrected in ways that involve the modification of the organization’s objectives, policies and standard routines
  • 17. Characteristics of Learning Organization
  • 18. Learning Organizations
    • Remedy for three inherent problems in organizations
      • Fragmentation
      • Competition
      • Reactiveness
    • How to make a firm a learning organization
      • Establish a strategy
      • Redesign the organization’s structure
      • Reshape the organization’s culture
  • 19. Managing Change: It’s Culture Bound
    • Cultures influence answers to:
      • Do people believe change is possible?
      • If it’s possible, how long will it take to bring about?
      • Is resistance to change greater in some cultures than in others?
      • Does culture influence how change efforts will be implemented?
      • Do successful idea champions do things differently in different cultures?
  • 20. Implications for Managers
    • The need for change encompasses almost all the concepts within OB
    • The real world is turbulent, requiring organizations and their members to undergo dynamic change if they are to perform at competitive levels
    • Managers must continually act as change agents
  • 21. Summary
    • Described forces that act as stimulants to change
    • Contrasted two views of change
    • Summarized Lewin’s three-step change model
    • Described factors that lead to resistance to change and how resistance can be reduced
  • 22. Summary
    • Explained the values underlying most organizational development (OD) efforts
    • Contrasted continuous improvement and process reengineering
    • Described potential sources of, and ways of managing, work stress
    • Listed characteristics of a learning organization
    • Explained how organizational change may be culture-bound

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