Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_13

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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_13

  1. 1. Conflict and Negotiation Chapter 13 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
  2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Define conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast task, relationship and process conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the conflict process </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the five conflict-handling intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the five steps in the negotiation process </li></ul><ul><li>Describe whether there are individual differences in negotiator effectiveness </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conflict <ul><li>Process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Transitions in Conflict Thought <ul><li>Traditional View – conflict is harmful and must be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Human Relations View – conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group and need not be negative </li></ul><ul><li>Interactionist View – conflict is encouraged to prevent group from becoming stale </li></ul>
  5. 5. Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict <ul><li>Task conflict – relates to the content and goals of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship conflict – focuses on interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Process conflict – relates to how the work gets done </li></ul>
  6. 6. Conflict Process <ul><li>Stage I: Potential opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Stage II: Cognition and Personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Stage III: Intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Stage IV: Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Stage V: Outcomes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conflict Process
  8. 8. Stage I: Potential Opposition <ul><li>Sources of conflict: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Variables </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization <ul><li>Potential for opposition becomes realized </li></ul><ul><li>When individuals become emotionally involved - parties experience anxiety, tension, frustration, or hostility </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stage III: Intentions <ul><li>Competing </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating </li></ul><ul><li>Compromising </li></ul>
  11. 11. Intentions
  12. 12. Stage IV: Behavior <ul><li>Where conflict becomes visible </li></ul><ul><li>Are usually overt attempts to implement each party’s intentions </li></ul><ul><li>A dynamic process that moves along a continuum of intensity </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stage V: Outcomes <ul><li>Functional Outcomes – Conflict is constructive when it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves the quality of decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates creativity and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages interest and curiosity among group members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional Outcomes – uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties, and eventually leads to the destruction of the group </li></ul>
  14. 14. Creating Functional Conflict <ul><li>Managers can reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders </li></ul>
  15. 15. Negotiation <ul><li>Process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bargaining Strategies
  17. 17. The Negotiation Process
  18. 18. Individual Differences in Negotiation <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul>
  19. 19. Personality <ul><li>The best distributive bargainer appears to be a disagreeable introvert </li></ul><ul><li>Those who can check their egos at the door are able to negotiate better agreements </li></ul>
  20. 20. Gender Differences in Negotiation <ul><li>Men have been found to negotiate better outcomes than women, although the difference is relatively small </li></ul><ul><li>Women may unduly penalize themselves by failing to engage in negotiations when such action would be in their best interest </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cultural Differences in Negotiations <ul><li>Cultural context significantly influences... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount and type of preparation for bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relative emphasis on task versus interpersonal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tactics used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the negotiation should be conducted </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Implications for Managers: Managing Conflict <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul>
  23. 23. Implications for Managers: Improving Negotiation Skills <ul><li>Set Ambitious Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Pay Little Attention to Initial Offers </li></ul><ul><li>Research Your Opponent </li></ul><ul><li>Address the Problem, Not the Personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Be Creative and Emphasize Win-Win Solutions </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Defined conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasted task, relationship and process conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Outlined the conflict process </li></ul><ul><li>Described the five conflict-handling intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasted distributive and integrative bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Identified the five steps in the negotiation process </li></ul><ul><li>Described whether there are individual differences in negotiator effectiveness </li></ul>

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