Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_12
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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_12 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Power and Politics Chapter 12 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
  • 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
    • Contrast leadership and power
    • Describe the five bases of power
    • Explain which bases of power are most effective
    • List and define nine influence tactics
    • Distinguish between use and effectiveness of influence tactics
  • 3. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
    • List the individual and organizational factors that stimulate political behavior
    • Explain how defensive behaviors can protect an individual’s self-interest
    • Identify seven techniques for managing the impression one makes on others
    • List the three questions that can help determine if a political action is ethical
  • 4. Power
    • Refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes
    • Two facets:
      • Its potential need not be actualized to be effective
      • It requires a dependency relationship
  • 5. Leadership and Power
    • Leaders use power as a way to attain group goals, and power is a means for facilitating their achievement
    • How they differ:
      • Goal compatibility
      • Direction of influence
      • Research emphasis
  • 6. Bases of Power
    • Formal
      • Coercive - One reacts to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one failed to comply
      • Reward - People comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive benefits
      • Legitimate - represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources
  • 7. Bases of Power
    • Personal
      • Expert - influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge
      • Referent - based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits
  • 8. Which Power Bases are Most Effective?
    • Personal sources of power are most effective
    • Expert and referent power are positively related to performance and commitment
    • Reward and legitimate power are unrelated
    • Coercive power is negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment
  • 9. Influence Tactics
    • Legitimacy
    • Rational persuasion
    • Inspirational appeals
    • Consultation
    • Exchange
    • Personal appeals
    • Ingratiation
    • Pressure
    • Coalitions
  • 10. Effectiveness of Influence Tactics
    • Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals and consultation are most effective
    • Pressure is least effective
    • Using more than one compatible tactic at the same time or sequentially increases chance of success
    • “Softer” tactics work better than “harder” tactics
  • 11. Coalitions
    • An informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single issue
    • Coalitions in organization often seek to maximize their size
    • More coalitions will likely be created when there is a great deal of task and resource interdependence
    • The more routine the task of a group, the greater likelihood that coalitions will form
  • 12. Political Behavior
    • Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization
  • 13. Factors Contributing to Political Behavior
    • Individual factors:
      • High self-monitors
      • Internal locus of control
      • High need for power
      • Large investment in the organization
      • More perceived job alternatives
      • High expectations of success
  • 14. Factors Contributing to Political Behavior
    • Organizational factors:
      • Existing pattern of resources is changing
      • Opportunity for promotion
      • Subjective performance criteria
      • Low trust
      • Role ambiguity
      • Zero-sum reward allocation practices
      • High pressures for performance
      • Politicking by top management
  • 15. How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics?
    • For most people with modest political skills or who are unwilling to play the politics game, outcomes are negative, including low job satisfaction, increased anxiety and stress, feeling of losing ground to politickers, quitting and demotivation
    • Moderated by individual’s understanding of who makes decisions and why they were selected
    • When perceived as a threat, people respond with defensive behaviors
  • 16. Defensive Behaviors
  • 17. Impression Management (IM)
    • The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them
    • Techniques include:
      • Conformity
      • Excuses
      • Apologies
      • Self-promotion
      • Flattery
      • Favors
      • Association
  • 18. Impression Management
    • Interview success – when used in interviews it works; self-promotion and ingratiation work well
    • Performance Evaluations – ingratiation works well but self-promotion does not
  • 19. The Ethics of Behaving Politically
    • Questions to consider:
      • What is the utility of engaging in the behavior?
      • How does the utility of engaging in the political behavior balance out any harm it will do to others?
      • Does the political activity conform to standards of equity and justice?
  • 20. Implications for Managers
    • Accept the political nature of organizations
    • Increase power by:
      • Acquire the bases of power that are most useful (expert, referent)
      • Use the power tactics that are most effective (consultation, inspirational appeal)
      • Avoid tactics that tend to backfire (coercion)
  • 21. Summary
    • Contrasted leadership and power
    • Described the five bases of power
    • Explained which bases of power are most effective
    • Listed and defined nine influence tactics
    • Distinguished between use and effectiveness of influence tactics
  • 22. Summary
    • Listed the individual and organizational factors that stimulate political behavior
    • Explained how defensive behaviors can protect an individual’s self-interest
    • Identified seven techniques for managing the impression one makes on others
    • Listed the three questions that can help determine if a political action is ethical