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Robbins eob9 inst_ppt_02

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  • 1. Chapter 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge
  • 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
    • Explain the relationship between ability and job performance.
    • Contrast the three components of an attitude.
    • Discuss similarities and differences between job satisfaction and the other job attitudes discussed.
    • Discuss the causes and consequences of job satisfaction.
    • Understand how to shape the behavior of others.
    • Distinguish among the four schedules of reinforcement.
  • 3. Ability
    • Refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job
    • Is a current assessment of what one can do
    • Intellectual ability is one of the best predictors of performance
    • The correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction is about zero
    • Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high ability-job fit
  • 4. Attitudes
    • Evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable – concerning objects, people or events
    • Attitudes reflect how one feels about something
  • 5. Major Components of Attitude
    • Cognition – an opinion or belief
    • Affect – the emotional or feeling segment
    • Behavior – the intention to behave in a certain way
  • 6. Consistency of Attitudes
    • People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior
    • When there is an inconsistency, the individual may alter either the attitudes or behavior, or develop a rationalization for the discrepancy
  • 7. Cognitive Dissonance
    • Any inconsistency between two or more attitudes, or between behavior and attitudes
    • Individuals seek to minimize dissonance
    • The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by:
      • The importance of the elements creating the dissonance
      • The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements
      • The rewards that may be involved in dissonance
  • 8. Moderators of the attitudes-behavior relationship
    • Importance of the attitude
    • Specificity of the attitude or behavior
    • Accessibility of the attitude
    • The existence of social pressures
    • A person’s direct experience with the attitude
  • 9. Self-Perception Theory
    • The view that behavior influences attitudes
    • Argues that attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than as devices that precede and guide action
    • Tend to infer attitude from behavior when you have had few experiences regarding an issue
    • Attitudes likely to guide behavior when your attitudes have been established for a while
  • 10. Major Job Attitudes
    • Job satisfaction
    • Job involvement
    • Psychological empowerment
    • Organizational commitment
      • Affective commitment
      • Continuance commitment
      • Normative commitment
    • Perceived organizational support
    • Employee engagement
  • 11. What causes job satisfaction?
    • Work itself – the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction
    • Pay – not correlated after individual reaches a level of comfortable living
    • Advancement opportunities
    • Supervision
    • Coworkers
    • A person’s personality
  • 12. Effects of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees
    • Job performance – strong correlation
    • OCB – modest relationship but more related to conceptions of fair outcomes, treatment and procedures
    • Customer Satisfaction – strong correlation
    • Absenteeism – moderate to weak negative correlation
    • Turnover – moderate negative correlation
    • Workplace deviance – strong correlation
  • 13. Learning
    • Learning involves change
    • The change must become ingrained
    • Some form of experience is necessary for learning
    Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  • 14. Theories of Learning
    • Operant Conditioning
      • Argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don’t want
    • Social Learning
      • Individuals can learn by observing what happens to other people and just being told about something, as well as by direct experiences
  • 15. Methods of Shaping Behavior
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Punishment
    • Extinction
  • 16. Schedules of reinforcement
    • Continuous – reinforces behavior each and every time it is demonstrated
    • Intermittent
      • Fixed or variable ratio
      • Fixed or variable interval
  • 17. Schedules of Reinforcement
  • 18. Implications for Managers
    • Ability
      • Effective selection process improves fit
      • Promotion and transfer based on abilities
      • Fine-tune job to better match abilities
    • Attitudes – raise satisfaction by focusing on making work challenging and interesting
    • Learning – Use reinforcement instead of punishment
  • 19. Summary
    • Explained the relationship between ability and job performance.
    • Contrasted the three components of an attitude.
    • Discussed similarities and differences between job satisfaction and the other job attitudes.
    • Discussed the causes and consequences of job satisfaction.
    • Understand how to shape the behavior of others.
    • Distinguished among the four schedules of reinforcement.