Paradigm shifts in extension


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Paradigm shifts in extension

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  • Paradigms guide us how we make decisions and do our research.
  • The beliefs are basic in the sense that they must be accepted simply on faith, there is no way to establish their ultimate truthfulness.
  • Like a cult with followers and attracts more followers.
  • Guides its followers how to do they research.
  • Because paradigms guide us how we do our research, there is a sort of expectation on what data will be gathered. Because we have expectations, anything that comes up outside it will be easily recognizable.
  • thus, paradigms are human constructions or inventions of the human mind and hence, subject to human error. That’s why anomalies emerge.
  • Practices can range from thought patterns to action.Positivism – a philosophy of science based on the view that in the social as well as natural sciences, data derived from sensory experience, and logical and mathematical treatments of such data, are together the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge. ex. Experimental testingPost positivism - i.e. a view that we need context and that context free experimental design is insufficientCritical theory - e.g. ideas in relation to an ideology - knowledge is not value free and bias should be articulatedConstructivism - i.e. each individual constructs his/her own reality so there are multiple interpretations.
  • These characteristics create a holistic view of how we view knowledge: how we see ourselves in relation to this knowledge and the methodological strategies we use to un/discover it.Ontology is what exists and is a view on the nature of reality.Are you a realist ? You see reality as something 'out there', as a law of nature just waiting to be found ?Are you a critical realist? You know things exist 'out there' but as human beings our own presence as researchers influences what we are trying to measure.Or, are you a relativist ? You believe that knowledge is a social reality, value-laden and it only comes to light through individual interpretation?Epistemology is our perceived relationship with the knowledge we are un/dis/covering. Are we part of that knowledge or are we external to it?Your view will frame your interaction with what you are researching and will depend on your ontological view. Your approach, for example, will be objective if you see knowledge governed by the laws of nature or subjective if you see knowledge as something interpreted by individuals. This in turn affects your methodology.Methodology refers to how you go about finding out knowledge and carrying out your research. It is your strategic approach, rather than your techniques and data analysis (Wainright, 1997). Some examples of such methods are:the scientific method (quantitative method),ethnographic approach, case study approach, (both using qualitative methods), ideological framework (e.g. an interpretation from Marxist, Feminist viewpoint), dialectic approach (e.g. compare and contrast different points of view or constructs, including your own).
  • Inquiry – random collection of “mere facts” (although often, a body of belief is already implicit in the collectionResearchers confronting the same phenomena describe and interpret these “mere facts” in different ways.These descriptions and interpretations entirely disappear in time and pre-paradigmatic schools appear which compete with each other for pre-eminence“To be accepted as a paradigm, a theory must seem better than its competitors, but it need not, and in fact never does, explain all the facts with which it can be confronted”.
  • Discovery – begins with awareness of “anomaly” i.e. the recognition that nature has violated the paradigm-induced expectations that govern normal science. The paradigm change is complete when the paradigm has been adjusted so that the anomalous become the expected. The scientist is able “to see in a different way”. The more precise and far-reaching the paradigm is, the more sensitive it is to detecting an anomaly and inducing change. Ironically, the more the paradigm resists change, the more it guarantees that anomalies that lead to the change will penetrate existing knowledge to the core.
  • The emergence of a new theory is generated by the persistent failure of the puzzles of normal science to be solved as they should. These failures can be brought about by observed discrepancies between theory and fact or changes in social/cultural climates. Failures result to “crisis”. The awareness and acknowledgement that a crisis exists loosens theoretical stereotypes and provides the incremental data necessary for fundamental paradigm shift. The recognition and acknowledgement of anomalies result in crises that are a necessary precondition for the emergence of novel theories and for paradigm change.All crises begin with the blurring of a paradigm and the consequent loosening of the rules for normal research.All crises close in one of three ways:Normal science proves able to handle the crisis-provoking problem and all returns to "normal."The problem resists and is labelled, but it is perceived as resulting from the field's failure to possess the necessary tools with which to solve it, and so scientists set it aside for a future generation with more developed tools.A new candidate for paradigm emerges, and a battle over its acceptance ensues. Once it has achieved the status of paradigm, a paradigm is declared invalid only if an alternate candidate is available to take its place. The decision to reject a paradigm is always simultaneously the decision to accept another. Since no two paradigms leave all the same problems unsolved, paradigm debates always involve the question: “which problem is it more significant to have solved?”.The transition from a paradigm to a new one is a reconstruction of the field from new fundamentals; the reconstruction changes some of the field’s foundational theoretical generalizations, methods and applications and rules.
  • Any particular extension system can be described both in terms of both how communication takes place and why it takes place. It is not the case that paternalistic systems are always persuasive, nor is it the case that participatory projects are necessarily educational. Instead there are four possible combinations, each of which represents a different extension paradigm, as follows:[13]Technology Transfer (persuasive+paternalistic). This paradigm was prevalent in colonial times, and reappeared in the 1970s and 1980s when the Training and Visit system was established across Asia. Technology transfer involves a top-down approach that delivers specific recommendations to farmers about the practices they should adopt.Advisory work (persuasive+participatory). This paradigm can be seen today where government organisations or private consulting companies respond to farmers enquiries with technical prescriptions. It also takes the form of projects managed by donor agencies and NGOs that use participatory approaches to promote pre-determined packages of technology.Human Resource Development (educational+paternalistic). This paradigm dominated the earliest days of extension in Europe and North America, when universities gave training to rural people who were too poor to attend full-time courses. It continues today in the outreach activities of colleges around the world. Top-down teaching methods are employed, but students are expected to make their own decisions about how to use the knowledge they acquire.Facilitation for empowerment (educational+participatory). This paradigm involves methods such as experiential learning and farmer-to-farmer exchanges. Knowledge is gained through interactive processes and the participants are encouraged to make their own decisions. The best known examples in Asia are projects that use Farmer Field Schools (FFS) or participatory technology development (PTD).It must be noted that there is some disagreement about whether or not the concept and name of extension really encompasses all four paradigms. Some experts believe that the term should be restricted to persuasive approaches, while others believe it should only be used for educational activities. Paulo Freire has argued that the terms ‘extension’ and ‘participation’ are contradictory.[16] There are philosophical reasons behind these disagreements. From a practical point of view, however, communication processes that conform to each of these four paradigms are currently being organized under the name of extension in one part of the world or another. Pragmatically, if not ideologically, all of these activities are agricultural extension.
  • Achieving national food security through technology transfer, which was the dominant extension strategy in most developing countries during the 20th century;Increasing farm income through a more market-driven extension strategy that will enable farmers to intensify and diversify their farming systems based on market demand;Empowering farmers by getting them organized into groups (social capital) based on common interests, to gain more efficient access to both inputs and markets; andPromoting sustainable natural resource management practices to address soil nutrient, land degradation, water resource and other major problems, including global warming.
  • These extension challenges exist in a rapidly changing world. Realities putting new pressure on developing countries in their efforts to develop include as globalization, new technologies, new relationships developing between the public and private sectors, the multidisciplinary nature of agriculture, heterogeneity between and within the countries, the geographic dispersion of rural people.The state must take on a central role in financing advisory services.
  • Managerial transition – from colonial to local research and extension administrators;Scientific transition – from expatriate to national scientists;Financial transition – from dependence on financial support from colonial governments and large-scale farmers to mobilizing support from national governments, donors and beneficiaries;Political transition – from commercial farms to smallholders to private research and extension; andNew forms of public-private-civil society research-extension partnerships.
  • Rivera (2001) highlighted globalization, Highly competitive global markets, economic restructuring, trade liberalization and as a major factor shaping extension in developed and developing countries.Commodification – becoming a price-tag commodity
  • Globalization led to developing a new paradigm towards market-driven reforms and with an agribusiness orientation.Technologies must be tailored to new contexts to be effective and this require an educated workforce which require investment in education, in-service job training and the knowledge exchange component of the technology system.
  • Farming systems perspectives – seeing things from farmers’ viewpoint.
  • Paradigm shifts in extension

    1. 1. Paradigm Shifts in Extension CED 240-Extension Science Anna Merlinna T. Fontanilla August 3, 2012
    2. 2. What to learn from the report  What is a paradigm?  How do paradigm shifts happen?  Key features of paradigm shifts in agricultural extension  Factors shaping extension paradigms  New perspectives in R&D
    3. 3. What is a paradigm? The generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time (English WordNet Mobile Dictionary)
    4. 4. What is a paradigm?  Guba • • • and Lincoln (1998) Sets of basic beliefs that deals with ultimates or first principles. Represents a worldview that defines for its holder the nature of the “world”, the individual’s place in it and the range of possible relationships to that world and its parts Not open to proof in any conventional sense
    5. 5. What is a paradigm?  “…past scientific achievements that must be sufficiently unprecedented to attract an enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity and sufficiently open-ended to leave all sorts of problems for the redefined group of practitioners (and their students) to resolve” (Kuhn, 1972)
    6. 6. What is a paradigm?  Paradigms help scientific communities bound their discipline in that they help the scientist to create avenues of inquiry, formulate questions, select methods with which to examine questions, define areas of relevance and establish or create meaning.
    7. 7. What is a paradigm? A paradigm (though it resists change) plays an essential role in allowing a scientist to recognize something as anomalous, as contrary to expectation, and this is an important precondition for discovery.
    8. 8. What is a paradigm?  Any given paradigm represents simply the most informed and sophisticated view that its proponents have been able to devise (Guba and Lincoln, 1998)
    9. 9. What is a paradigm?   In scientific research, a paradigm is simply a belief system that guides the way we do things, or more formally, establishes a set of practices. Disciplines tend to be governed by particular paradigms, such as: o o o o positivism post positivism critical theory constructivism
    10. 10. What is a paradigm?  Paradigms their: o o o can be characterised through ontology (What is reality?) epistemology (How do you know something?) methodology (How do you go about finding out?).
    11. 11. How is a paradigm created? Inquiry Description and interpretation Pre-paradigmatic schools appear A paradigm emerges
    12. 12. What are paradigm shifts?  Paradigm shift (or revolutionary science) is the term used by Kuhn in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1972) to describe a change in basic assumptions, or paradigms within the ruling theory of science.
    13. 13. What are paradigm shifts? A change from one way of thinking to another.  A radical change in underlying beliefs.
    14. 14. How do paradigm shifts happen?  In science, there are two ways on how a paradigm change:  Discovery  Invention
    15. 15. How do paradigm shifts happen?  Discovery Awareness of anomaly Adjusting the paradigm Paradigm shift
    16. 16. How do paradigm shifts happen?  Invention Awareness of anomaly Loosening of theoretical stereotypes Crisis Persistent failure to solve the “puzzle” Awareness of crisis End of crisis (Paradigm shift)
    17. 17. How do paradigm shifts happen?  The transition from a paradigm to a new one is a reconstruction of the field from new fundamentals; the reconstruction changes some of the field’s foundational theoretical generalizations, methods and applications and rules.
    18. 18. How do paradigm shifts happen?
    19. 19. Four paradigms of agricultural extension  Technology transfer  Advisory work  Human resource development  Facilitation for empowerment
    20. 20. Factors shaping extension paradigms  National goals in relation to extension functions (Swanson, 2010) a. b. c. d. Achieving national food security through technology transfer; Increasing farm income through a more market-driven extension strategy; Empowering farmers by getting them organized into groups (social capital) based on common interests; and Promoting sustainable natural resource management practices
    21. 21. Factors shaping extension paradigms  Government’s role in agricultural and rural extension reform (Rivera, 2001)  Government's concern: • • • • • production, impact of agricultural practices on the environment, regulations governing quality standards, food safety, and in general, the well-being of the people.
    22. 22. Factors shaping extension paradigms  New extension challenges for government: o o o meeting the need to provide food for all, raising rural incomes and reducing poverty and sustainably managing natural resources
    23. 23. Factors shaping extension paradigms  Government's o o o critical role: establishing markets for commercial and farmer-to-farmer extension services, providing rural communication infrastructure, and developing human resources.
    24. 24. Factors shaping extension paradigms  Emerging challenges in extension (Anandjayasekeram, et. al. 2008) o 5 complex transitions that will ultimately influence productivity and sustainability of the R&D system a. b. c. d. e. Managerial transition Scientific transition Financial transition Political transition New forms of public-private-civil society research-extension partnerships.
    25. 25. Factors shaping extension paradigms  Emerging o challenges in extension Recent developments that present challenges to agricultural research and innovation in developing countries a. Confronting new priorities in a rapidly changing world (e.g. stronger demand for competitive and quality-conscious agriculture) and adapting to changes within a more complex innovation systems framework where there are a greater number of actors and linkages to consider;
    26. 26. Factors shaping extension paradigms b. c. Redefining the role of government in agricultural research and service provision and defining the role of the private sector, civil society and end users; Strengthening the demand side of agricultural research and services to ensure that these programs are more responsive and accountable to end users;
    27. 27. Factors shaping extension paradigms d. Developing a clear understanding of the institutional structures needed at the national, regional and subregional levels for agricultural research and service provision and of whether, and how, this understanding would imply changes in the current structures present at national, regional and global levels;
    28. 28. Factors shaping extension paradigms  Developing a clear understanding of the institutional structures needed at every level for agricultural education within the emerging food and agricultural innovation systems;  Ensuring stakeholder participation and developing local, regional and global partnerships and alliances;
    29. 29. Factors shaping extension paradigms f. Facilitating development of innovative funding instruments that make public institutions more sustainable, reduce donor dependence, and enhance cofinancing by end users and others
    30. 30. Factors shaping extension paradigms h. i. Assisting in developing mechanisms through which internal and external support for food and agricultural innovation systems in developing countries are better coordinated; and Strengthening system linkages and coordination, including linkages between agricultural research policy and wider policies for science and technology.
    31. 31. Factors shaping extension paradigms     Globalization Privatization has caused “commodification” of agricultural knowledge (Rivera, 2001) Extension services are viewed as tools to generate income Countries particularly the low-income countries, promote services to provide practical, income-generating agricultural information.
    32. 32. Factors shaping extension paradigms Globalization Competitive challenges to agricultural extension • Rural people go to urban centers • S&T pressure to modernize New Paradigm Technologies tailored to new contexts Adaptation: • Educated workforce • Investment in education • Market-driven reforms • Agribusiness orientation Extension services • Purposespecific • Target-specific • Need-specific
    33. 33. Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Driving motive Efficiency: maximize productivity and profit/return to limited resources; competitiveness Productivity, achieving food and nutritional security, poverty alleviation, ecological sustainability and equity Assumed causes of problems Lack of knowledge Farmers are irrational Political-economic roots of problems, neglect of ecology and farmers’ needs (and knowledge), poor understanding of production systems
    34. 34. Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Assumption and key features Crop/commodity specific monoculture, uniformity/ homogeneity, reductionism, simplification of systems, efficiency focus on limited variable (land, labor, capital) Agro-ecosystems, polycultures, multiple and high-value crops and resources in system, diversity/heterogeneity, holistic view of productivity and resource management Institutional relations and actors Top down (linear) technology development and transfer model Research to extension (or private sector) to farmers Interactive systemic model, collaboration and networks, horizontal relations (farmer to farmer); agricultural innovation systems, pluralism (research, extension, NGOs, education, civil societies, CBOs, private sectors)
    35. 35. Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Main beneficiaries and locus of control of technology Private sector, formal institutions Public interests, communities and farmers (especially the poor), women and children, vulnerable groups Focus of innovation Single technologies (seeds, agro-chemical, bio-technology) Production technologies Agro-ecological principles, institutional innovations, ITK, empowerment and capacity strengthening, relationship among partners and actors
    36. 36. Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Main types of research Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Unidisciplinary, reductionist, scientists over private sector, generate knowledge, mainly doen in laboratories and research stations Multidisciplinary, farmers are researchers and innovators, on-farm, participatory, in communities Common view of Passive farmers audience/partners, irrational seen as conservative and ignorant Active, rational, key partners in innovation proves with valuable knowledge Farmers are active in adopting new research findings to improve productivity
    37. 37. Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Skills required Specialization in technology, biological/agronomic sciences, business/finances, biotechnology Biological systems management, social and institutional relations, people/partnering skills, facilitating skills Policy arena Political agencies form rules, close connection with private sectors Public (community) actively involved in setting agenda and decisions Link to environmental/social/ food interests
    38. 38. New perspectives  Farming systems perspective  Participatory research methods  Action research  National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS)  Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS)
    39. 39. New perspectives Paradigm Ontology Epistemology Farming systems perspective Farming systems Interaction among components The problem of the farm/farmer cannot be understood or solved by looking at single elements alone. Participatory Non-adoption of research technologies is because methods of deficiencies in the technology and the process that generated it, especially inadequate participation in all stages of the process by those intended to benefit. Participation eliminates weaknesses of the traditional “top-down” approach to R&D. Inputs of the beneficiary and indigenous knowledge are important components of the project.
    40. 40. New perspectives Paradigm Ontology Epistemology Action research People learn best, and more willingly apply what they have learned, when they do it themselves. People themselves have the capacity to solve their own problems and bring about change. National Agricultural Research Systems A system exists which is composed of agencies or actors involved in conducting national agricultural research. Agricultural development is best promoted when the components in a system interact effectively.
    41. 41. New perspectives Paradigm Ontology Epistemology Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS) Agricultural research, extension and education operates in one system that generate knowledge and information for farmers. Research and extension are not separate institutions. Farmers, agricultural educators, researchers and extension personnel must be integrated to harness knowledge and information from various sources for better farming and improved livelihoods.