Education in the United States of America

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Education in the United States of America

  1. 1. Education in the United States of America Prof. LYRMA C. HIFE, Ed.D. Professor Presented by: LEMUEL BALTAZAR ESTRADA
  2. 2. Education in the United States • Public education is universally available, with control and funding coming from the state, local, and federal government.[4] Public school curricula, funding, teaching, employment, and other policies are set through locally elected school boards, who have jurisdiction over individual school districts. State governments set educational standards and mandate standardized tests for public school systems. • Private schools are generally free to determine their own curriculum and staffing policies, with voluntary accreditation available through independent regional accreditation authorities. 88% of school-age children attend public schools, 9% attend private schools, and nearly 3% are homeschooled.
  3. 3. Education in the United States • Education is compulsory over an age range starting between five and eight and ending somewhere between ages sixteen and eighteen, depending on the state. This requirement can be satisfied in public schools, state-certified private schools, or an approved home school program. In most schools, education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high school, and high school. Children are usually divided by age groups into grades, ranging from kindergarten and first grade for the youngest children, up to twelfth grade as the final year of high school. • There are also a large number and wide variety of publicly and privately administered institutions of higher education throughout the country. Post-secondary education, divided into college, as the first tertiary degree, and graduate school, is described in a separate section below.
  4. 4. PROCESS OF INSTRUCTION • Formal education in the USA is divided into a number of distinct educational stages. Most children enter the public education system around ages five or six. They may begin in preschool, kindergarten or first grade. They normally attend 12 grades of study over 12 calendar years of primary and secondary education before graduating, earning a diploma that makes them eligible for admission to higher education. Education is only mandatory until age 16, however. There are generally five years of primary (elementary) school, during which students customarily advance together from one grade to the next as a single cohort or "class", three years of middle school, which may have cohorts, and four years of high school. There is some variability in the arrangement of grades. • In the U.S., ordinal numbers (e.g., first grade) are used for identifying grades. Typical ages and grade groupings in contemporary, public and private schools may be found through the U.S. Department of Education. Generally there are elementary school (K-5), middle school (6-8) and high school (9-12). Many different variations exist across the country.
  5. 5. • Generally, at the high school level, students take a broad variety of classes without special emphasis in any particular subject. Students are required to take a certain minimum number of mandatory subjects, but may choose additional subjects ("electives") to fill out their required hours of learning. • The following minimum courses of study in mandatory subjects are required in nearly all U.S. high schools: • Science (usually three years minimum, normally biology, chemistry and physics) • Mathematics (usually four years minimum, normally including algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, and frequently pre-calculus, statistics, and/or calculus) • English (usually four years minimum, including literature, humanities, composition, oral languages, etc.) • Social sciences (usually three years minimum, including various history, government/economics courses) • Physical education (at least one year)
  6. 6. • Students completing high school may choose to attend a college or university. Undergraduate degrees may be either associate's degrees or bachelor's degrees (baccalaureate). • Community college typically offer two- year associate's degrees, although some community colleges offer a limited number of bachelor's degrees. Some community college students choose to transfer to a four-year institution to pursue a bachelor's degree. Community colleges are generally publicly funded and offer career certifications and part-time programs. • Four-year institutions may be public or private colleges or universities.
  7. 7. GOALS • The Department of Education has identified a limited number of priority goals that will be a particular focus over the next two years. These goals, which will help measure the success of the Department's cradle-to-career education strategy, reflect the importance of teaching and learning at all levels of the education system. These goals are consistent with the Department's four-year Strategic Plan and will be used to regularly monitor and report progress.
  8. 8. Priority Goals • Improve outcomes for all children from birth through third grade. By September 30 2013, at least nine states will implement a high-quality plan to collect and report disaggregated data on the status of children at kindergarten entry. • Improve learning by ensuring that more students have an effective teacher. By September 30th, 2013, at least 500 school districts will have comprehensive teacher evaluation and support systems and a majority of States will have statewide requirements for comprehensive teacher and principal evaluation and support systems. • Demonstrate progress in turning around the nation's lowest-performing schools. By September 30th 2013, 500 of the nation's persistently lowest-achieving schools will have demonstrated significant improvement and serve as potential models for future turnaround efforts. • Make informed decisions and improve instruction through the use of data. By September 30th, 2013 all states will implement comprehensive statewide longitudinal data systems. • Prepare all students for college and career. By September 30th 2013, all states will adopt internationally-benchmarked college- and career-ready standards. • Improve students' ability to afford and complete college. By September 30th, 2013, the Department will develop college scorecards designed to improve consumer decision-making and transparency about affordability for students and borrowers by streamlining information on all degree-granting institutions into a single, comparable, and easily-understandable format, while also helping all states and institutions develop college completion plans.
  9. 9. MATERIALS AND EXAMINATION • All learning resources and materials in US Education are endless and limitless depending on the subject matter.
  10. 10. EXAMINATIONS • During high school, students (usually in 11th grade) may take one or more standardized tests depending on their post-secondary education preferences and their local graduation requirements. In theory, these tests evaluate the overall level of knowledge and learning aptitude of the students. The SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) and ACT (American College Testing) are the most common standardized tests that students take when applying to college. A student may take the SAT, ACT, or both depending upon the post- secondary institutions the student plans to apply to for admission. Most competitive schools also require two or three SAT Subject Tests (formerly known as SAT IIs), which are shorter exams that focus strictly on a particular subject matter. However, all these tests serve little to no purpose for students who do not move on to post-secondary education, so they can usually be skipped without affecting one's ability to graduate.
  11. 11. EXAMINATIONS • The SAT is a standardized test for most college admissions in the United States. • The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a nonprofit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still administers the exam. The test is intended to assess a student's readiness for college. It was first introduced in 1926, and its name and scoring have changed several times. It was first called the Scholastic Aptitude Test, then the Scholastic Assessment Test.
  12. 12. EXAMINATIONS • The ACT originally an abbreviation of American College Testing) college readiness assessment is a standardized test for high school achievement and college admissions in the United States produced by ACT, Inc. It was first administered in November 1959 by Everett Franklin Lindquist as a competitor to the College Board's Scholastic Aptitude Test, now the SAT Reasoning Test. The ACT originally consisted of four tests: English, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Natural Sciences. In 1989, the Social Studies test was changed into a Reading section (which included a Social Studies subsection) and the Natural Sciences test was renamed the Science Reasoning test, with more emphasis on problem solving skills.
  13. 13. DELIVERY SYSTEM • FORMAL • Preschool (Pre-K) • Primary education • Secondary education • Higher Education • NON-FORMAL • Special Education Commonly known as special classes, are taught by teachers with training in adapting curricula to meet the needs of students with special needs. According to the National Association of School Nurses, 5% of students in 2009 have a seizure disorder, another 5% have ADHD and 10% have mental or emotional problems • Homeschooling In 2007, approximately 1.5 million children were homeschooled, up 74% from 1999 when the U.S. Department of Education first started keeping statistics. This was 2.9% of all children. Many select moral or religious reasons for homeschooling their children. The second main category is "unschooling," those who prefer a non-standard approach to education.
  14. 14. U.S. Education Organizational Structure
  15. 15. EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURE AND PERSONNEL Office of the Secretary Office of Communications and Outreach Office of the General Counsel Office of Inspector General Institute of Education Sciences Office for Civil Rights Office of Legislation and Congressional Affairs Office of the Chief Financial Officer Office of Management Office of the Chief Information Officer Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development Budget Service Office of Educational Technology Faith Based and Neighborhood Partnerships International Affairs Office Office of the Deputy Secretary Office of Innovation and Improvement Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Risk Management Service
  16. 16. EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURE AND PERSONNEL Name Office Position Arne Duncan Secretary Secretary Jack Buckley National Center for Education Statistics Commissioner Brenda Dann-Messier Vocational and Adult Education Assistant Secretary Deborah Delisle Elementary and Secondary Education Assistant Secretary John Easton Institute of Education Sciences Director ation Appointments Since January 2009
  17. 17. FUNDING/GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE • ED currently administers a budget of $68.4 billion in discretionary appropriations and operates programs that touch on every area and level of education. The Department's elementary and secondary programs annually serve nearly 16,000 school districts and approximately 49 million students attending more than 98,000 public schools and 28,000 private schools. Department programs also provide grant, loan, and work- study assistance to more than 15 million postsecondary students.
  18. 18. FUNDING/GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE • FUNDING FOR COLLEGE • At the college and university level student loan funding is split in half; half is managed by the Department of Education directly, called the Federal Direct Student Loan Program (FDSLP). The other half is managed by commercial entities such as banks, credit unions, and financial services firms such as Sallie Mae, under the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP). Some schools accept only FFELP loans; others accept only FDSLP.
  19. 19. CULTURES • The racial achievement gap in the US refers to the educational disparities between minority students and Asian and Caucasian students. This disparity manifests itself in a variety of ways: African-American and Hispanic students are more likely to receive lower grades, score lower on standardized tests, drop out of high school, and are less likely to enter and complete college. • Professor Lino Graglia has suggested that Blacks and Hispanics are falling behind in education because they are increasingly raised in single-parent families.On the other hand, the late UC Berkeley professor Arthur Jensen, in a controversial paper published in 1969, argued that the achievement gap was the result of IQ differences between blacks and whites.
  20. 20. THE STATUS LADDER • American college and university faculty, staff, alumni, students, and applicants monitor rankings produced by magazines such as U.S. News and World Report, Academic Ranking of World Universities, test preparation services such as The Princeton Review or another university itself such as the Top American Research Universities by the University of Florida's The Center. These rankings are based on factors like brand recognition, selectivity in admissions, generosity of alumni donors, and volume of faculty research. In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 27 of the top 50 universities, and 72 institutions of the top 200, are located within the United States.The US has thereby more than twice as many universities represented in the top 200 as does the country with the next highest number, the United Kingdom, which has 29.
  21. 21. LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR EDUCATION • CHAPTER 1—OFFICE OF EDUCATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 2—TEACHING OF AGRICULTURAL, TRADE, HOME ECONOMICS, AND INDUSTRIAL SUBJECTS (§ ) • CHAPTER 3—SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, NATIONAL MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES (§ ) • CHAPTER 4—NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK (§ ) • CHAPTER 5—GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR RESEARCH, AND MATERIAL FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (§ ) • CHAPTER 6—AMERICAN PRINTING HOUSE FOR THE BLIND (§ ) • CHAPTER 6A—VENDING FACILITIES FOR BLIND IN FEDERAL BUILDINGS (§ ) • CHAPTER 7—INSTRUCTION AS TO NATURE AND EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS AND NARCOTICS (§ ) • CHAPTER 8—HOWARD UNIVERSITY (§ ) • CHAPTER 9—NATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL FOR BOYS (§ ) • CHAPTER 10—NATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL FOR GIRLS (§ ) • CHAPTER 11—NATIONAL ARBORETUM (§ ) • CHAPTER 12—FOREIGN AND EXCHANGE STUDENTS (§ ) • CHAPTER 13—FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES (§ ) • CHAPTER 14—SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION IN AREAS AFFECTED BY FEDERAL ACTIVITIES (§ ) • CHAPTER 15—STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS IN EDUCATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 16—PUBLIC LIBRARY SERVICES AND CONSTRUCTION (§ ) • CHAPTER 17—NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION PROGRAM (§ ) • CHAPTER 18—GRANTS FOR TEACHING IN THE EDUCATION OF HANDICAPPED CHILDREN (§ ) • CHAPTER 18A—EARLY EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN (§ ) • CHAPTER 19—SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION IN AREAS AFFECTED BY FEDERAL ACTIVITIES (§ ) • CHAPTER 20—GRANTS FOR TEACHING IN THE EDUCATION OF THE DEAF (§ ) • CHAPTER 20A—NATIONAL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE FOR THE DEAF (§ ) • CHAPTER 20B—GALLAUDET COLLEGE (§ ) • CHAPTER 21—HIGHER EDUCATION FACILITIES (§ ) • CHAPTER 22—NATIONAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS (§ ) • CHAPTER 23—TRAINING AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMS FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (§ ) • CHAPTER 24—GRANTS FOR EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS, FACILITIES AND SERVICES, AND STRENGTHENING OF EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES (§ ) • CHAPTER 25—PAY AND PERSONNEL PROGRAM FOR OVERSEAS TEACHERS (§ ) • CHAPTER 25A—OVERSEAS DEFENSE DEPENDENTS EDUCATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 26—SUPPORT AND SCHOLARSHIP IN HUMANITIES AND ARTS; MUSEUM SERVICES (§ ) • CHAPTER 26A—INDEMNITY FOR EXHIBITIONS OF ARTS AND ARTIFACTS (§ ) • CHAPTER 27—NATIONAL VOCATIONAL STUDENT LOAN INSURANCE (§ ) • CHAPTER 28—HIGHER EDUCATION RESOURCES AND STUDENT ASSISTANCE (§ ) • CHAPTER 29—INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND RESEARCH (§ ) • CHAPTER 30—BASIC EDUCATION FOR ADULTS (§ )
  22. 22. LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR EDUCATION • CHAPTER 31—GENERAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING EDUCATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 32—VOCATIONAL EDUCATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 33—EDUCATION OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (§ ) • CHAPTER 34—NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (§ ) • CHAPTER 35—ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 36—EMERGENCY SCHOOL AID (§ ) • CHAPTER 37—ASSIGNMENT OR TRANSPORTATION OF STUDENTS (§ ) • CHAPTER 38—DISCRIMINATION BASED ON SEX OR BLINDNESS (§ ) • CHAPTER 39—EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TRANSPORTATION OF STUDENTS (§ ) • CHAPTER 40—CONSOLIDATION OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS (§ ) • CHAPTER 41—NATIONAL READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (§ ) • CHAPTER 42—HARRY S TRUMAN MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIPS (§ ) • CHAPTER 43—AMERICAN FOLKLIFE PRESERVATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 44—CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 45—CAREER EDUCATION AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT (§ ) • CHAPTER 46—CAREER EDUCATION INCENTIVE (§ ) • CHAPTER 47—STRENGTHENING AND IMPROVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS (§ ) • CHAPTER 48—DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (§ ) • CHAPTER 49—ASBESTOS SCHOOL HAZARD DETECTION AND CONTROL (§ ) • CHAPTER 50—NATIONAL CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF AFRO-AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE (§ ) • SITE: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode
  23. 23. FYI: SALARY OF TEACHERS • The median expected salary for a typical Teacher Elementary School in the United States is $53,121 OR (P2,390,445). • PHILIPPINE SALARY • Teacher I: 222,588 • Principal I: 406,308 • The annual median wage of a high school teacher working in New York City, NY is $75,300 (P3,338,500.00), which is $21,030 more than the average pay in the profession. • Average pay US = $54,270 (P2,442,150.00)
  24. 24. TEACHER SUPPLY SYSTEM • Criteria: Requirements for inclusion in teacher-applicant pool • Excellent command of the English language • Five years of teaching experience (Other teachers with only 3 years experience may also be considered on a case-to-case basis.) • Acceptable grade point average (at least 2.5 on a 4.0 scale) • Possesses a valid Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) teaching certificate • Pleasing personality • Observable passion for teaching • Documents to be submitted • Application forms • Official transcript of records (1 original and 2 photocopies) • Scholastic diplomas (3 photocopies) • Proof of English as medium of instruction at the university level (1 original and 2 photocopies) • PRC Certificate of Good Standing issued within the past 6 months (1 original and 2 photocopies) • NBI clearance (1 original and 2 photocopies) • Two (2) passport size photos (teacher- applicant professionally groomed and dressed) • SITE: http://www.philippineteachers.com
  25. 25. THANK YOU! GOD BLESS!!!

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