Theories And Models Of Student Change

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This is an overview of Chapter 2 in How College Affects Students by Terenzini and Pascarella, 2005

This is an overview of Chapter 2 in How College Affects Students by Terenzini and Pascarella, 2005

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  • 1. Theories and Models of Student Change in College Pascarella and Terenzini Presented by John LeMasney
  • 2. Pupose and Introduction    
    • Distinctions between development and change
    • Development: "systematic [organized and] successive" or growth, positive, striving towards
    • Change: "alterations over time in students' cognitive skills, affective characteristics, attitudes, values or behaviors"
  • 3. Categories of Theories of College Student Change
    • Developmental Theories or Models
    • intraindividual changes 
    • Nature
    • Structure
    • Processes
    • Dominated by stage theories, such as Erikson's
    • Also contains some environmental factors, but less so than ->
    • College Impact Models
    • Environmental
    • interindividual changes
    • identify and evaluate sets of variables:
    • may be student related (gender, achievement, status, race)
    • organizational (inst size, controls, selectivity, mission)
    • or environmental (academic, cultural, social, political climate created by members) 
  • 4. Developmental Theories of Student Change
    • Development: "A general movement towards greater differentiation, integration, and complexity in the ways that individuals think and behave. "
    • Four categories or clusters:
    •  
      • Psychological development (e.g. Identity)
      • Cognitive-structural theories
      • Typological models (looks at differences in people or settings)
      • Person-environment interaction theories and models
  • 5. Psychosocial Theories
      • The accomplishment of a series of "developmental tasks"
      • developmental challenges
      • variables of age and developmental status
      • presented serially but may be encountered out of sequence
      •   Erikson: "the progenitor of the psychosocial models"
      • Epigenetic Principle states  "anything that grows has a ground plan and that out of this ground plan the parts arise, each part having its time of special ascendancy, until all the parts have risen to form a functioning whole"
      • Crises: A time for decision requiring significant choices among alternative courses of action resulting in developmental progression, regression, or stasis.
      • (Stage 5) Identity versus Identity Crisis = key developmental task for college age.
  • 6. Chickering's Seven Vectors of Student Development
      • Arthur Chickering: key theorist in College Student Development and specifically Identity
      • Vectors: "(each vector) seems to have direction and magnitude--even though the direction may be expressed more appropriately by a spiral or by steps rather than a straight line"
      • Development: "differentiation and integartion as students encounter increasing complexity in ideas, values, and other people and struggle to reconcile these new positions with their own ideas, values and beliefs"
      • With Linda Reissner revised and reordered vectors to have them be applicable more universally to all ages, genders and backgrounds. 
  • 7. The seven vectors:
      • Achieving competence (knowledge, intellectual aesthetic, and cultural sophistication, and higher order thinking)
      • Managing emotions (controlling impulses, developing appropriate responses)
      • Moving toward autonomy toward interdependence (freedom from the need for reassurance, organization, problem solving, decision making)
      • Developing mature interpersonal relationships
      • Establishing identity (knowing who you are sexually, in self image, in gender, in society )
      • Developing purpose (Who am I going to be? Where am I going?)
      • Developing integrity ("clarification and rebalancing of personal values and beliefs")
    •  
    • Institutional support: clear institutional objectives, opportunity for participation, developing student faculty relationships, societal integration, flexible teaching, student community, student development
  • 8. Identity Development: General
    • James Marcia: resolution of 2 psychological tasks 
      • exploration, or the search for and choice among many competing alternatives, leading to differentiation and individualization
      • commitment, or the level of individual investment in 4 areas (occupational, religious, political, sexual values) promoting stability, continuity, and comfort.
    • 4 responses: 
      • Identity-diffused () 
      • Foreclosed (C) 
      • Moratorium (E) 
      • Identity Achieved (EC)
  • 9. Identity Development: Gender
      • Ruthellen Josselson's Theory of identity development among women
      • Longitudinal study with 60 college age women, then 30 when they were older
      • Used Marcia's four groups to classify based on their pathway of decision making
      • Commitments of social, sexual, and religious issues are less identity forming than a woman's sense of effect upon the world. 
  • 10. Identity Development: Racial and Ethnic
    • Helms' 3 components of racial identity: a personal identity, a reference group identity, an ascribed identity, resulting in "resolutions"
    • Cross's Model of Nigrescence
      • preencounter: eurocentric worldview
      • encounter: awareness of difference through events
      • immersion-emersion: the search for self as black, and emergence from the simplified either-or awareness of immersion
      • internalization: dissonance is resolved
      • internalization-commitment: a course of action
  • 11. Helms's people of color racial identity model
    • status 1: Conformity (identity internalized from whites)
    • status 2: Dissonance (realization that cannot live fully as part of white society)
    • status 3: Immersion (struggle for a new identity, rejection of white)
    • status 4: Emersion (a fuller embrace of one's socioracial values)
    • status 5: Internalization (commital to own racial group)
    • status 6: Integrated Awareness (expression of a positive racial identity)
  • 12. Helms's White Racial Identity Model
    • Phase 1: the abandonment of racism
    •     status 1: Contact (obliviousness to racism)
    •     status 2: Disintegration (struggle with notions of equality)
    •     status 3: Reintegration (questioning of meaning of race)
    • Phase 2: development of a nonracist white identity
    •     status 4: Pseudo independence (acceptance of other races)
    •     status 5: Immersion-emersion (white individual confronts idea that racial issues are white based issues)
    •     status 6: Autonmy (diversity awareness, seek out knowledge, reject benefits of race)
  • 13. Phinney's Model of ethnic identity development
    • Self-identification as a member of and a sense of belonging to an ethnic group are necessary conditions for an ethnic identity. 
    • identity development stages: 
      • Diffusion-Foreclosure (neither a search for, nor a commitment to, an ethnic identity has taken place)  
      • Moratorium (growing awareness, stress, emotion of Ethnic issues, can negatively reflect on own ethnic group)
      • Identity Achievement (resolution to stage 2, and a solid acceptance of one's own group)
  • 14. Identity Development: Gay Lesbian, Bisexual
    • Originally seen as pathology, search for cures, causes, biological origin, genetic mutation, etc. 
    • recent identity formation study is compicated by sexual nature of concepts, political views, ideological agenda. 
    • Broido: Gay and Lesbian refer to identity which homosexual descibes behavior, and Bisexual and Heterosexual define both identity and behavior. 
    • The following models apply to gays, lesbians, and bisexuals
  • 15. Cass's Psychosocial model of Sexual Identity Formation
    • Stage 1: Identity Confusion (unexamined awareness of possible gay or lesbian feelings, possibly leading to conflict)
    • Stage 2: Identity Comparison (begins to consider the possibility of being gay or lesbian, and the realization of the challenges that may bring)
    • Stage 3: Identity Tolerance (a separation from heterosexual culture and a move toward identity with a homosexual culture begin, though this lifestyle is hidden)
    • Stage 4: Identity Acceptance (increasing relationship and acceptance from the gay society)
    • Stage 5: Identity Pride (Coming out, Gay pride, rejection of hetero culture non-acceptance)
    • Stage 6: Identity Synthesis (private and public lives come together with considerable support)
  • 16. D'Augelli's model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development
      • Does not see sexuality as stable, but as an ongoing social construction over time, malleable and variable, affected by internal and external conditions. 
      • Identity requires rejection of hetero lifestyle and creation of a new identity
      • 3 factors influence identity formation:
        • personal subjectivities and actions (feelings and beliefs)
        • interactive intimacies (with everyone)
        • sociohistorical connections (society, law and culture)
      • leads to six identity processes:
  • 17. D'Augelli's model: Six Identity Processes:
      • Exiting heterosexual identity (recognizance)
      • Developing a personal lesbian-gay-bisexual identity status (challenging beliefs)
      • Developing a lesbian-gay-bisexual social identity (support)
      • Becoming a lesbian-gay-bisexual offspring (disclosure to family)
      • Developing a lesbian-gay-bisexual intimacy status (developing cultural guidelines)
      • Entering a gay-lesbian-bisexual community (sociopolitical action)
  • 18. Cognitive-Structural Theories
    • Jean Piaget is the Erikson of these theories
    •  
    • "cognitive-structural theorists seek to describe the nature and processes of changes, concentrating on the episemological structures individuals construct to give meaning to their worlds"
    • Differences between psychosocial and cognitive-structural theory: "One descibes what students will be concerned about and what decisions will be primary; the other suggests how students will think about those issues and what shifts in reasoning will occur"
    • Involves stimulus and response
  • 19. Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development (King's 4 clusters)
      • Dualism (pos 1 & 2) expert based dichotomy and black/white worldviews and the uncertainty that emerges
      • Multiplicity (pos 3 & 4) multiple perspectives are possible, other views are tolerated
      • Relativism (pos 5 & 6) "knowledge is contextual and relative" and analytical thinking skill emerges -- choosing truth can be difficult amongst seemingly equal choices
      • Commitments in Relativism (pos 7, 8 & 9) "active affirmations about themselves and their responsibilities in a pluralistic world" commitments such as career and marriage occur.
  • 20. King and Kitchener's Reflective Judgement Model (critical thinking)
      • Prereflective thinking (stages 1-3)
        • stage 1 knowledge is assumed to be concrete
        • stage 2 knowledge is not available to everyone
        • stage 3 knowledge may not always be known
      • Quasi reflective thinking (stages 4-5)
        • stage 4 knowledge is uncertain and abstract
        • stage 5 knowledge is contextually shaped
      • Reflective thinking (stages 6-7)
        • stage 6 knowledge requires action and construction
        • stage 7 knowledge is an outcome of active inquiry
  • 21. Baxter Magolda's Epistemological Reflection Model
    • Fours ways in which (study's) students make meaning:
      • Absolute knowing: taking in what is projected, and accepting it as concretely correct. Recieving pattern (listening) vs mastery pattern (inquiry and interaction)
      • Transitional knowing: knowledge may or may not be certain. Reliance on experts recedes. Understanding > acquiring. Interpersonal pattern (gathering) vs. Impersonal pattern (prodding). 
      • Independent knowing: Knowledge is uncertain. Open mindedness. Authorities may argue. Interindividual pattern (interactive and collective) vs. individual pattern (internal)
      • Contextual knowing: independent thought within the context of others. Judgement of claims and evidence. No gender specificity was determined due to low numbers.
  • 22. Baxter Magolda longitudinal work
    • Homogeneity of study participants makes the study potentially non-generalizable. 
    • 3 story-lines that are generalizable:
      • development of voice
      • shifting relationships with authority
      • evolving relationships with peers
    • longitudinal work led to 4 phases on the way to 'self-authorship' which focused on 3 dimensions of development:
      • epistemological (how do I know?)
      • intrapersonal (Who am I?)
      • interpersonal (What relationships do I want with others?)
  • 23. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
      • Level 1: Preconventional
        • stage 1: obedience and punishment orientation (concern for law is based on consequence)
        • stage 2: naively egoistic orientation (others are considered secondarily)
      • Level II: Conventional
        • stage 3: good boy orientation (need for approval)
        • stage 4: authority and social order orientation (social obligation, aversion to social chaos)
      • Level III: Postconventional 
        • stage 5: contractual legalistic orientation (duty as part of a social contract, such as the Constitution) 
        • stage 6: conscience or principle orientation (value of life, equality and dignity) dropped due to lack of evidence
  • 24. Gilligan's Model of Women's Moral Development (revelation of gender bias in Kohlberg theory)
      • Sees Kohlberg's theory as socially oriented rather than individully oriented, which potentially reflects male view.
      • Female identity is highly defined via interpersonal interactions with others. 
      • Justice is a male voice, whereas care is a female voice.
      • Rights versus responsibility
      • Three stages of female moral development from individual to societal to universal morality:
        • orientation to individual survival (self-preservation)
        • goodness as self-sacrifice ("good is equated with caring for others")
        • morality of nonviolence ("nonviolence as a moral principle and a basis for decision making")
  • 25. Other Models
      • Kegan's constructive-developmental model: 5 orders of consciousness relating to "cognition, self-concept and interpersonal relations"
      • Fowler focused on spiritual development, sees making meaning as a spiritual as well as cognitive process, and is more interested in the path to belief than the belief itself. 
      • Daloz Parks examines the development of a sense of purpose in life as the development of an inderstanding of faith. Four stages are shaped by cognitive processes, relationships, and community are:
        • Adolescent
        • Young Adult 
        • Tested Adult
        • Mature Adult
  • 26. Typological Models
      • Focuses on the ways in which individuals perceive the world and respond to it. 
      • MBTI and Multiple Intelligences are well known examples.
      • Features include
        • differential characteristics appear early and change infrequently
        • people may act outside of their type, but tend to act and react according to type
        • explain commonalities, but do not explain differences (e.g. zip code)
      • Change is of marginal importance to type theorists
      • Theorists include David Kolb, John Holland, Katherine Briggs, Isabel Briggs Myers, Witkins, Gardner, Evans, Forney, and Guido-DiBrito
  • 27. Person-Environment Interaction Theories and Models
      • Like type theories, do little to interpret change or development
      • Can help assess or explain cases or situations, and how they may be affected by or interact with developmental stage 
      • Clusters of models (Strange and Banning):
        • Physical Models
        • Human Aggregate Models
        • Organizational Development Models
        • Constructed Environments
  • 28. Physical Models
      • Focus on external environment
      • determines affect on behavior by setting controls 
      • may be walled or open, such as a tent, a dormitory, or an urban setting. 
      • may focus on architecture, social psychology, cultural anthropology
      • environments encourage or constrain behaviors depending on physical and symbolic characteristics of the setting, as well as co-users of the space
  • 29. Human Aggregate Models
      • Environmental influence in regards to aggregate human characteristics such as:
        • sociodemographic traits
        • goals
        • values
        • attitudes
      • Strange suggests two groups of models:
        • subcultures, typologies and styles
        • person environment interactions
      • Often an aspect of other models and theories described here.
  • 30. Organizational Environment Models
      • Environments can be systems influenced by organizational goals, values, activities which shape organizational structures and design (Strange)
      • environments may be static or dynamic, depending on the organizations change tolerance and culture
      • nature of the environment depends on an organization's complexity, centralization, stratification, production, efficiency (Hage & Aiken)
  • 31. Constructed Environments
      • Deep roots in social psychology and cultural anthropology
      • Occupant perception defines and characterizes environment
      • Pascarella and Terenzini called these perceptual models
      • Strange has 3 categories:
        • Environmental Press
        • Social Climate
        • Campus Cultures
  • 32. Commonalities in Developmental Theories
      • These theories differ in important ways:
        • Structure of developmental process
        • end points
        • number of developmental stages
        • origins of developmental growth
        • characterizations and labeling of stages
      • But there are many similarities
  • 33. Similarities in Substance
      • emergence of self-understanding and awareness of self as a learner
      • with experience, external controls give way to internal controls
      • regardless of primary diversity
      • growth in self awareness
      • appreciation of roles of, and obligation to others
      • Stage theories lead 
        • to self definition and self direction
        • to greater differentiation and greater integration
        • to responsibility and interdependence
        • to self control and maturity
  • 34. Similarities in Process
      • psychosocial development is continuous
      • psychosocial development is cumulative
      • development progresses from simple to complex
      • developmental progress is orderly
      • developmental progress depends on the completion of tasks
      • Cognitive readiness is a necessary but not sufficient condition for development
      • Recognition of complexity precedes higher-level developmental change
      • Developmental movement originates in a challenge to the current state of development (a structure at rest will remain at rest unless challenged)
      • The capacity for detachment from self and for empathy controls access to higher developmental levels.
  • 35. Sociological Perspectives
      • Feldman: Developmental models psychologize student change and ignore a variety of other changes that students experience, such as social experiences. 
      • Dannefer says the entire developmental approach is flawed, in that the sequentiality, unidirectionality, permanence, etc, all disregard or diminish social and environmental influences. 
      • Dannefer says that environment affects development:
        • macro/societally
        • local/organizationally
        • micro/social
      • College as gatekeeper determines who is fit for development, affecting it directly (Clark; Feldman)
      • environmental effects, social effects, cultural effects are largely ignored by developmental theory as influencers.
  • 36. Sociological Perspectives
      • Academic tribes exert a net influence on students' abilities, skills, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors (Smart, Feldman, Ethington). 
      • Pascarella and Terenzini find that the net effects are small compared to other factors. 
      • Smart argues that this is because sociological social psychologists focus on processes rather than psychological social psychologists who emphasize effects.
      • Resultant point: please consider that developmental theory must be applied in context of other factors, such as society, environment, academic setting, and others.
  • 37. College Impact Models of Student Change
      • Origins and processes of change is the focus
      • Less specific and detailed than individual development theories
      • less related to other theorist work
  • 38. Astin's I-E-O Model and "Theory" of Involvement
      • Input-Environment-Outcome
        • Conceptual, methodological guide to the study of college effects
        • Inputs: demographics, family background, academic history
        • Environments: The people, programs, policies, cultures, and experiences encountered
        • Outcomes: characteristics, skills, knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors after college
      • Theory of Involvement: students learn by becoming involved
      • investment of energy in objects (tasks, people, activities)
      • involvement is continuous
      • involvement is quantitative and qualitative
      • higher involvement = higher learning
      • capacity to induce involvement predetermines success
  • 39. Tinto's Theory of Student Departure
    • Seeks to explain the withdrawal process
  • 40. Pascarella's General Model for Assessing Change
  • 41. Weidman's Model of Undergraduate Socialization
  • 42. Commonalities in College Impact Models
      • Each looks at the context in which a student acts and thinks
      • Institutional structures, policies, programs, services
      • Attitudes, values, behaviors of others
      • Environment as active force in development
      • Change is influenced by how the student responds as well as the environmental approach as designed by the institution
      • tend to generalize the individual traits so deeply focused upon in developmental theories.
  • 43. Conclusions
      • College can be a psychosocial moratorium, an opportunity to experiment
      • College can be a culture shocking experience, one which provides Eriksonian crises with which students can develop the identity
      • College is a socializing and desocializing experience
      • Exposure to diversity is a key capability of the college experience
      • developmental and social views, while sometimes conflicting, both have much to offer in assessment, and should not be viewed exclusively