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The accomplishment of a series of "developmental tasks"
variables of age and developmental status
presented serially but may be encountered out of sequence
Erikson: "the progenitor of the psychosocial models"
Epigenetic Principle states "anything that grows has a ground plan and that out of this ground plan the parts arise, each part having its time of special ascendancy, until all the parts have risen to form a functioning whole"
Crises: A time for decision requiring significant choices among alternative courses of action resulting in developmental progression, regression, or stasis.
(Stage 5) Identity versus Identity Crisis = key developmental task for college age.
Chickering's Seven Vectors of Student Development
Arthur Chickering: key theorist in College Student Development and specifically Identity
Vectors: "(each vector) seems to have direction and magnitude--even though the direction may be expressed more appropriately by a spiral or by steps rather than a straight line"
Development: "differentiation and integartion as students encounter increasing complexity in ideas, values, and other people and struggle to reconcile these new positions with their own ideas, values and beliefs"
With Linda Reissner revised and reordered vectors to have them be applicable more universally to all ages, genders and backgrounds.
"cognitive-structural theorists seek to describe the nature and processes of changes, concentrating on the episemological structures individuals construct to give meaning to their worlds"
Differences between psychosocial and cognitive-structural theory: "One descibes what students will be concerned about and what decisions will be primary; the other suggests how students will think about those issues and what shifts in reasoning will occur"
Involves stimulus and response
Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development (King's 4 clusters)
Dualism (pos 1 & 2) expert based dichotomy and black/white worldviews and the uncertainty that emerges
Multiplicity (pos 3 & 4) multiple perspectives are possible, other views are tolerated
Relativism (pos 5 & 6) "knowledge is contextual and relative" and analytical thinking skill emerges -- choosing truth can be difficult amongst seemingly equal choices
Commitments in Relativism (pos 7, 8 & 9) "active affirmations about themselves and their responsibilities in a pluralistic world" commitments such as career and marriage occur.
King and Kitchener's Reflective Judgement Model (critical thinking)
Prereflective thinking (stages 1-3)
stage 1 knowledge is assumed to be concrete
stage 2 knowledge is not available to everyone
stage 3 knowledge may not always be known
Quasi reflective thinking (stages 4-5)
stage 4 knowledge is uncertain and abstract
stage 5 knowledge is contextually shaped
Reflective thinking (stages 6-7)
stage 6 knowledge requires action and construction
stage 7 knowledge is an outcome of active inquiry
Baxter Magolda's Epistemological Reflection Model
Fours ways in which (study's) students make meaning:
Absolute knowing: taking in what is projected, and accepting it as concretely correct. Recieving pattern (listening) vs mastery pattern (inquiry and interaction)
Transitional knowing: knowledge may or may not be certain. Reliance on experts recedes. Understanding > acquiring. Interpersonal pattern (gathering) vs. Impersonal pattern (prodding).
Independent knowing: Knowledge is uncertain. Open mindedness. Authorities may argue. Interindividual pattern (interactive and collective) vs. individual pattern (internal)
Contextual knowing: independent thought within the context of others. Judgement of claims and evidence. No gender specificity was determined due to low numbers.