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Presentation1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Discourse Analysis Discourse analysis was first introduced by Zellig Harris in 1952. Discourse analysis is about studying and analysing the uses of language.for succesful communication discourse analysis focuses on knownledge about language beyond the word, clause, phrase, and sentence.
  • 2. Relationship Language and Context Discourse analysis considers the relationship between language and the contexts in which it is used and is concerned with the description and analysis of both spoken and written interaction.
  • 3. Discourse analysis and Pragmatic Discourse analysis (DA) is a general term for a number of approaches to analizing written, spoken or signed language use. Discourse analysis not only study language use beyond the sentence boundary, but also prefer to analyze naturally occuring language use, and not invented examples. Pragmatic is studies how people comprehend and produce a communicative act or speech act in a concrete speech situation which is usually a analysis.
  • 4. Cultural ways of speaking and writing The context of a speech also includes the social and cultural characteristics of the spaker and the audience. The transmission of meaning between people from different cultures or between people from different groups within a society.But, there are cultural influences that affect any public speaking situation.
  • 5. Communicative competence and Discourse Communicative competence is an important part of the theoretical background to the ethnography of communication as well as, more recently, communicative perspectives on language teaching and learning. Communicative competence is often described as being made up of four underlying component.
  • 6. Discursive competence A further way of looking at cultural ways of speaking and writing is through the notion of discursive competence (Bhatia 2004).Discursive competence draw together the notions of textual competence, generic competence and social competence.
  • 7. Discourse as the social construction of reality  Discourse is shaped by the people who use the language as well as shaping language. It is shaped by the people who use the language as well as shaping the language that people use. Discourse is also shaped by the medium in which it occurs as well as it shapes the possibilities for that medium.
  • 8. Discourse and socially situated identities  When we speak or write we use more than just language to display who we are, and how we want people to see us. The way we dress, the gestures we use, and the way we act and interact also influence how we display social identity. Other factors which influence this include the ways we think. The attitudes we display. And the things we value, feel and believe.
  • 9. Discourse and performance  A discourse is a dance that exists in the abstract as a coordinated pattern of words, deeds, values, beliefs, symbols, tools, object, ti mes, and places in the here and now as a performance that is recognizable as just such a coordination.
  • 10. Differences between spoken and written discourse  There are a number of important differences between spoken and written language which have implications for discourse analysis
  • 11. There are some different between spoken and written discourse : Grammatical intricacy and spoken discourse Lexical density in spoken and written discourse Nominalization in written and spoken discourse Explicitness in spoken and written discourse Contextualization in spoken and written discourse The spontaneous nature of spoken discourse Repetition, hasitation and redundancy in spoken discourse 8. A continum of differences between spoken and written discourse 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.