Table of Contents
• How to get Around....8
• Customs and Manners....9
• Where to Stay....9,10
• The Food....10,11
• Health and Safety....12
• Fashion and Entertainment....14,15
Italy is a very interesting and beautiful country to go to. Do you know where Italy is?
No? Yes? Well, Italy is in the South of Europe, maybe the last country in Europe
(location-wise, if you are traveling South). It has many cities and places to visit and the
people are very nice and welcoming. It is important to know where to go, so that you can
experience the most unique things while still staying safe and healthy. So this is a
travel guide for Italy, that tells you the most important and special places to visit, for a
truly once-in-a-lifetime experience. What are the most important cities in ‘Italia’?
Florence, Rome and Venice. Maybe you could also get to know some Italian in this book,
who knows? Just turn the page and find out!
A map of Italy today.
Florence is a very beautiful city and most of the art and architecture comes from
Florence. Do you know where Florence is? Precisely located in between Livorno and
Ancona (horizontally), and it isn’t really in the North, just close to it. A lot of beautiful
sites can be seen in Florence, like The Palazzo Vecchio. Home of the Florentine guilds,
used to discuss and determine city issues, this palace is very big, and it is very tiring,
so be sure to bring your ‘bocetta’ (your own leather water bottle). Another important site
to visit is the Duomo dedicated to Santa Maria del Fiore, the cathedral of Florence. Many
artists continued to work on it throughout the years. If you go there, try to detect the
different style of work for each different ‘artisti’. The massive octagonal cupola, a very
important part of the dome, was proudly built by Filippo Brunelleschi. Maybe he also
built other things on the Cathedral, try and see if you can find them! The doors
(nominated the “Doors of Paradise” by Michelangelo)were built by Lorenzo Ghiberti. The
Gothic style used in many buildings in Florence, is also a very beautiful thing to see,
first used by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1294. Florence is one of the most beautiful cities in
Italy, and it is highly praised for its art and architecture. There are also many bars and
‘ristoranti’ to go and hang out and eat with the local ‘persone’.
The Palazzo Vecchio- Is a Duomo di Santa Maria del’ Fiore-
nice thing to go visit. It may Wonderful to see it from the outside as
be big, but it’s worth it. well as the inside.
A map of Fiorenza today.
Local ‘gente’ hanging out near
the water ‘canale’ in the middle
Rome is a very wonderful city to visit. If you go to Italy then there is no way you could
leave without visiting Rome. Rome became second after Florence, with its beautiful art
and architecture after the “Renovatio Urbis” (renovation of the city). You couldn’t miss
visiting the colosseum in Rome! It is so beautiful and interesting to see.The San
Giovanni Laterano, Cathedral of Rome, is a very beautiful church to go visit. It is full
of beautiful art and exquisite architecture, it is the first church of the Popes, and make
sure to visit the souvenir shop at the end! They have wonderful ‘pezzi d’arte’. Another
beautiful site to go and visit is the Vatican, made by Nicolas V, the palace and official
residence of the Pope in Rome. Pope Sisxtus IV remodeled the city, and many beautiful
sites can be visited. The Capitoline Museums (the first museum in the World!) that
shows Roman statues, inscriptions and collections of today's art, jewels and coins. The
Apostolic Library, located in the Vatican city, contains significant historical texts and
about 75, 000 codices from history. Rome is starting to change, it is becoming more of
a modern city where many tourists can visit, and it is definitely worth it. Visitate
The Capitoline Museums- you can find out more about Rome’s ruling past with all the statues,
books and architecture.
A map of Rome today.
The Cathedral of Rome-San Giovanni Rome today. You can see how it has become
Laterano, is very big and you may a more modern city with all the buildings
get tired after visiting it, so be sure to and roads.
bring the ‘bocetta’ and a straw hat.
Venice is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It has many beautiful sites
and is known as the “City of Water”, because it is separated by canals functioning
as roads and highways. Imagine going everywhere just with the boat! Of course you
can go by foot or by horse. The population today is of about 150, 000 people. Venice is
a successful city because the leaders create a powerful navy. Like Florence, there are
many artists in Venice, though they are very much patronized by wealthy
merchants. One of the most famous Venetian Artists is Titian. He creates wonderful
works of art and he is one of the reasons why Venice is one of the most beautiful
cities in the World. The Basilica di San Marco in Piazza San Marco, is a very
beautiful church to visit, the outside is extremely beautiful with its golden pieces
and its religious paintings and statues. If you go visit the Basilica di San Marco,
be sure to take a ride on a boat, to see the whole city on water is a magnificent
Piazza San Marco with the Basilica di San Marco. A celebration is
going on. You can see the nuns in the lower right, and a navy
The famous ‘gondola’ ride. It is quite parade far off in the upper left corner.
expensive, but worth it. ALso, be
careful of the owners of the boat. As
they may be robbers or fakes with no
qualification. Some fakes could also
charge you more for a gondola ride.
A map of Venice today.
One of Titians most famous
paintings- ‘The Rape of Europa’.
How to get Around
It is fairly easy to get around in Italy depending on where you are. The cheapest way
to get around would be by water! So, even if the other sites in Venice are quite
expensive, you wouldn’t be spending most of it for transport! If in Venice, it may be
also possible to go by foot. Taking a horse and/or carriage is also possible! In
Florence, taking a horse or a carriage could be the best solution, even if it is
expensive. Going by foot in Florence is very practical, because there are many roads
and the important things to visit aren’t too far apart, but make sure to wear a ‘capello
di paglia’ (straw hat) and bring a ‘bocetta’. In Rome, it is very organized. The roads
are clean and it isn’t too bumpy if you’re going with horse and carriage. The most
efficient way to go around Rome though, would be by foot. The sites aren’t far apart
either and there isn’t too much walking involved. It is also possible to loan a horse,
donkey or ox from a farmer or merchant to get around. Of course, you will have to
pay, but not too much. Any way of transport there is, there is bound to be one right
one for anywhere you are.
The famous Gondola’s in Venice port.
The horse and carriage.
A Roman road, very smooth and easy
to walk on. Especially with a horse
Customs and Manners
If you are going to visit another country, it is important to know how to behave there as
not to insult any of the local people. When visiting Italia, it’s also important to know
the customs and manners, in Italy the beliefs are taken really seriously. When
greeting a person, it is friendly and welcoming to give them one kiss on each cheek (it
is also acceptable and more common if you only do cheek to cheek). This should only be
done if you’ve met the person already before. If you are meeting a person for the first
time, it’s OK to do nothing but greet them (“Saluti”, “Salve”). Also, when invited to a
meal, it is polite to belch, because this shows you have enjoyed it. You should also make
sure that you don’t finish everything on your plate, as this shows that you are still
hungry and the food wasn’t enough. When at the food table, you also shouldn’t spit
across the table or pick at your teeth with your finger or knife. It is also forbidden to dip
the meat directly into the salt dish.
Where to Stay
There are a variety of places to stay in Italy and the different cities. There are Private
Homes out in the countryside, but don't expect those to be very comfortable. They’re
usually owned by farmers who don’t make so much money. Depending on how poor the
family is, the conditions matter as well. If you get lodged in a very poor peasant's
house, there may not be a bed and all the animals and other lodgers share one big room.
If you go into a more wealthy house, maybe a merchants house, there may even be more
than one floor! Merchants houses may also have entertainers like fiddlers and jokers.
Those can be good for boring nights when you’re left to do nothing. Another place you
could stay are public accommodations. Inns are mostly found in the city and
sometimes, the innkeepers have fights over business, so be careful when you choose. Try
to arrive at an Inn in daylight. People who arrive at Inn's after dark are usually
nominated dishonest. Be careful when you are at an Inn, because you are likely to be
robbed. Some Inn's are clean and have average accommodations, and some are quite
dirty. There are many places to choose from, and it is important to choose wisely, so be
sure to get informed.
A wealthy merchant’s house dinner. It
even has its own servants!
A typical farmer’s Private Home.
Quite small isn’t it? But not that
The basic eating in Italy is very fine. You can find many type of foods for
different tastes. There are many fresh fruits and a lot of spices, meats, grains and
vegetables that can satisfy anyone. The most common food in Italy today are
birds. The size of the bird depends on the status of the person. A peacock or swan
would be served to wealthy merchants, and smaller birds such as pheasant and
heron are eaten by farmers on special occasions. It is a popular custom to serve
pork with fried chest-nuts, so be sure to try that if you have the chance. Another
famous and very expensive food is the soup. Usually used as desserts and sweet
meal endings, soups are still eaten in different ways. They are spiced up with
different kinds of spices, and sweetened with sugars and syrups. Soups are
usually quite expensive, but if you can afford it, then it would be a really good
experience to taste all the different kinds. If you are ever invited to a wealthy
merchants dinner, remember the customs and manners!
A roasted chicken.Usually served to wealthy merchants.
People sitting around a table
eating. Possibly wealthy
A typical Italian feast. Usually consumed in Inns and wealthy merchants
Health and Safety
It is very important to stay healthy when on a trip. There are quite a few
diseases in Italy at the moment, and it is important to be informed about all
of them so that you can stay safe while still enjoying the cities. The Bubonic
plague is one of the very deadly diseases that hit many cities in Italy, and not
much can be done for it. It is a skin disease at first, and then it enters the
body through the lymphatics. This disease is transmitted by the bite of an
infected flea, which are mostly found on rats and mice. It is possible to dodge
the disease, if you make sure that the place you are staying overnight is quite
clean. It is safer to stay away from private home accommodations, as some
may be quite poor and only have one room for people and animals. So, be sure
to choose the right accommodations and be sure that you don't stay too near to
people who already have it. Also, stay away from alleys, it is very dirty and
you may get infected.
In Trieste. Hundreds of people died of the bubonic A local doctor examines a quasi-infected woman.
The people in Italy have different types of positions. The first position is the
peasants. They own land and they farm to sell their products at the local
markets. Then there are the craftsmen and the merchants in the towns, they
make things and sell them too. They are in a higher position than the
peasants because they don't farm and grow the crops themselves, they paint
and sell what they make to get money for food. Then come the highest rank.
The Dukes or powerful families that own banks. If you go to Italy as a tourist,
you would be in between the peasants and the merchants, because you are
there as a guest and you also need to obey the status of the people.
Cosimo de’ Medici. A wealthy banker A wealthy merchant working at his
in Florence. He is in the highest desk, selling painted plates.
status of hierarchy.
A local peasant, working on the bread.
They make the bread themselves, by
using the grain that they cultivate.
Fashion and Entertainment
The fashion in Italy today range from wide, to barrel-shaped and square
fashions. Fashion is a status symbol, and the different type of status also
depends on the clothes worn. The wealthy spend a lot of their money to buy
expensive clothes to show their rank, and mostly they buy dark color clothes to
show the jewels that can be woven in for decorations. A lot of fabrics used by the
wealthy are very expensive and are used to also show the status, such as silk,
cotton and velvet. It is important to now how to dress when visiting higher ranks
of people, because it is a sign of respect. If you are a woman, then you have to wear
five compulsory things- skirt, underskirt, bodice, overbodice, hoop and collar.
These things can be pawned. You can find a pawn stall almost anywhere in any
city in Italy. In attempt to control fashion, the wealthier people have stated that
lower ranks could only wear one color of clothing. This is very unpopular, and
the peasants decided to invent a new technique called slashing, for their dresses.
Now it is used even on shoes. Men;s fashion also decided to take a leap. They
invented new ways of wearing the vests and they focused on more richer fabrics.
If you want to look quite good when visiting, it would be good if you could spend
a little more money on better fabrics, to show that you are a tourist.
There are many ways to be entertained in the Cities of Italy. If you can stay at a
wealthy merchants house to sleep, you may experience some of the local
entertainment, like fiddlers and jokers. You can go into an Inn and experience
all the stories and tales that the travelers have to tell, also the singing and the
music. Traveling musicians also may be staying at an Inn,and they can
entertain you by playing music and singing. You could also experience the
dancing at the Inns and watching people dance in courtship if you have the
chance. You could go to Rome and watch all the wonderful plays and scripts that
are performed there. You could participate in one of the local games, like jousting,
archery, wrestling and swordsmanship. Finally, you can see the many beautiful
art and architecture in the cities in Italy and see all the most unique things.
Musicians play local music at Inns
and on the streets.
A wealthy merchant’s wife plays with
her children. The dress is a common
and popular dress used in Italy.
Local merchants talk. The man
wearing the read suit is a banker, and
the other man is a merchant.
1. Detailed map of Renaissance Italy
3. Which cities to visit
4. How to get around
5. Local customs and manners
6. What to wear
7. What to see and do
8. Where to stay (provided as sample)
9. Where to eat
10. How to stay safe and healthy
11.. Who's who in Renaissance Europe
Criterion A: Knowledge
The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below.
The use of terminology is inconsistent or incorrect.
Facts and examples are either absent, or those used are irrelevant or do not show understanding.
The use of terminology is mostly accurate and usually appropriate, though some errors remain.
Facts and examples used are mostly relevant, and usually show understanding.
Terminology is used accurately and appropriately.
Relevant facts and examples are used to show understanding.
The student provides accurate descriptions; explanations are adequate but not well developed.
A range of terminology is used accurately and appropriately.
A range of relevant facts and examples are used to show understanding.
The student shows an excellent command of a wide range of terminology, and uses it appropriately. An extensive range of relevant facts and
examples are used to show understanding.
Criterion C: Skills
The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below.
The student can select and use some relevant information..
The student attempts to carry out investigations, demonstrating few skills.
The student selects and uses mostly relevant information.
The student demonstrates basic investigative skills.
The student selects and uses relevant information.
The student demonstrates adequate investigative skills.
The student selects and uses a range of relevant information.
The student demonstrates effective investigative skills.
The student selects and uses a wide range of relevant information.
The student demonstrates sophisticated investigative skills.
Criterion D: Organization and presentation
The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below.
The student communicates information that may not always be relevant.
The student attempts to structure the work, but it may be unclear and/or inappropriate to the format required.
Presentation is unclear and imprecise. There may be some evidence of documentation.
The student communicates information that is mostly relevant.
The student attempts to structure and sequence the work but is not always successful.
Presentation is occasionally unclear.
Sources of information are documented, though there may be omissions or consistent errors in adhering to conventions.
The student communicates information that is relevant.
The student uses a structure appropriate to the task and sequences the content logically.
Presentation is clear; attention is paid to the audience and purpose in terms of appropriate language, style and visual representation.
Sources of information are documented, with occasional errors in adhering to conventions.
The student communicates information that is always relevant.
The student organizes information into a well-developed and logical sequence, appropriate to the format required.
Presentation is clear, concise and effective, and the language, style and visual representation used are always appropriate to the audience and
All sources of information are documented according to a recognized convention.