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Organizational Behavior - Session8


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Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior

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  • 1. Human Resource Policies and Practices Lecturer: Do Tien Long 09 04 51 54 46 [email_address]
  • 2. Learning objectives
    • Explain nature of human resource management (HRM), and contrast this with personnel management
    • Analyze HRM policies, activities
    • Human resource planning, recruitment and selection
    • Importance of training and development
    • Explain the system of performance appraisal
    • Nature of employee relations
  • 3. Human resource management
    • An essential part of the process of management is that proper attention be given to the efficient use of resources, in particular human resources
    • The efficiency & performance of staff & their commitment to organisational objectives are fostered by good human relationships at work
  • 4. The significance of HR
    • As the basis of her ‘living strategy’ Gratton proposes –
    • There are fundamental differences between people as an asset & the traditional assets of finance or technology
    • An understanding of fundamental differences creates a new way of thinking & working in organisations: a shift in mind-set
    • Business strategies can only be realised through people
    • Creating a strategic approach to people necessitates a strong dialogue across the organisation
  • 5. Human resource management or personnel management?
    • The discussion generally centres on the extent to which HRM is a new & distinctive philosophy with a particular paradigm shift towards a more strategic approach to people management
    • or
    • New wine in old bottles – HRM is no more than a different term for what good personnel managers have always been doing
  • 6. Human Resource Management (HRM)
    • Involves all management decisions and practices that directly affect or influence the people, or human resources, who work for the organization
    • Fisher et al.
  • 7. Defining HRM
    • The design, implementation & maintenance of strategies to manage people for optimum business performance including the development of policies & processes to support these strategies
    • CIPD
  • 8. Defining HRM
    • Organisations that get the people thing right are the organisations that are likely to be around in the future
    • Delaney
  • 9. A strategic approach
    • The strategic use of human resources will help managers to contribute to the release of true value by the optimum use of people’s competencies
    • A strategic HR approach requires that the needs & talents of employees become matched with organisational goals
  • 10. HRM policies & practices
    • The formulation of HRM policies & implementation of personnel practices & procedures should be based on underlying philosophies of managing behaviour & employee relationships
  • 11. Range of HRM policies & practices
    • Human resource planning
    • Recruitment, selection & induction
    • Salary & wage administration
    • Organisational design & patterns of work
    • Education, training & development
    • Employee relations
    • Employee services, welfare and health & safety
  • 12. Ethical frameworks for judging personnel practices
    • Basic right – to be consulted on all matters affecting the individual at work
    • Organisational justice – fairness in treatment, equality of opportunity & equity
    • Universalism – acknowledging respect for the individual
    • Community of purpose – recognition of how organisational decision-making affects different groups & stakeholders
    • Winstanley et al.
  • 13. HRM – a shared responsibility
  • 14. Approach taken by M&S
    • Every manager is a personnel manager
    • Every director is a personnel director
    • A strong, well-trained team of personnel staff provide support, training, guidance & advice to management at all levels
  • 15. To deliver organisational excellence HRM needs to become –
    • A partner with senior & line managers in strategy execution
    • An expert in the way work is organised & executed to ensure costs are reduced & quality is maintained
    • A champion for employees, representing their concerns to senior management
    • An agent of continuous transformation
    • Ulrich
  • 16. People management – impact on profits
    • Is critical to business performance
    • Companies where employees have high levels of job satisfaction & commitment showed improving financial performance
    • HR practices explained nearly one-fifth of the variation between companies in productivity and profitability
    • CIPD
  • 17. Resourcing the organisation Whose concern is this?
    • Managers & supervisors should have some say in the appointment of own staff
    • Recruitment & selection of staff can be regarded as a specialist activity but all managers should be well acquainted with the basic procedures & skills involved & have access to HR department for advice
  • 18. Prerequisites for an effective recruitment & selection policy
    • The clarification of corporate objectives
    • Design of an effective structure
    • A system of human resource planning
  • 19. HR planning
    • A strategy for the acquisition, utilisation, improvement & retention of an organisation’s human resources
  • 20. Main HR planning stages
    • Analysis of existing staffing resources
    • Estimating likely changes in resources by the target date
    • Forecasting staffing requirements necessary to achieve corporate objectives by the target date
    • Measuring the required staffing resources available as & when required
  • 21. Main stages in HR planning
  • 22. Value of HR planning
    • Foresee changes & identify trends in staffing resources
    • Adopt personnel policies that help to avoid major problems
    • Reconcile differences between supply & demand
    • Provides framework in which action can be taken to overcome staffing differences
  • 23. Value of HR planning
    • Continuous process that seeks to ensure flexible resourcing related to internal/external environmental influences
    • Can help anticipate potential future difficulties while there is still a choice of action
  • 24. Recruitment & selection of staff
  • 25. Job analysis
    • The total process by which a job description & a person specification are produced
  • 26. Possible contents of a job description
  • 27. Person specification
    • Document that gives information about the job, providing a blueprint of the ideal person to do the job & the personal attributes & qualities associated with successful performance
  • 28. Attracting suitable candidates - sources
    • Employment services – job centres/agencies
    • Careers advisory offices
    • Schools/colleges/universities
    • Private employment agencies
    • Professional & executive appointment registers
    • Ex-service organisations
    • Personal introductions
    • Exhibitions for mass recruitment
    • Advertising
    • Headhunting – executive searches
  • 29. Methods of selection
    • Short-listing
    • Graphology
    • Peer rating
    • In-tray exercises
    • Selection tests
    • Peer questionnaires
    • Assessment centres
  • 30. The selection interview
    • Despite constant criticisms the interview is usually a central & indispensable element of the selection process and is still a widely used method of selection
  • 31. Interview style
    • Behavioural interviews – questions about how candidates have handled past situations
    • Situational interviews – posing hypothetical, future-oriented questions to help assess future job performance
  • 32. Interview considerations
    • Seating arrangements
    • Types of questions to ask
    • Purpose of questions
  • 33. Interview questions Leading Time keeping is important. Are you a good time keeper? I guess you regret that now, do you?
  • 34. Interview questions Open What made you decide to ……….? How did you happen to………….?
  • 35. Interview questions Direct / closed What grades did you get in each of your A- level subjects? Exactly how many staff report directly to you?
  • 36. Interview questions Reflective remark You appear to prefer working in a busy office It seems that you do not respond well to personal criticism
  • 37. Selection decision – grading schemes
  • 38. Benefits of training
    • Training can:
    • Increase confidence, motivation, & commitment of staff
    • Provide recognition, enhanced responsibility, & the possibility of increased pay & promotion
    • Give a feeling of personal satisfaction & achievement, & broaden opportunities for career progression
    • Help to improve the availability, quality & skills of staff
  • 39. A planned & systematic approach to training
    • Clear commitment to training throughout all levels of the organisation
    • An objective assessment of training needs
    • Staff themselves should feel a sense of involvement
    • A clear set of objectives & a defined policy for training
    • Planned training programmes
  • 40. A planned & systematic approach to training
    • Choice of the most appropriate methods of training
    • External courses & training opportunities linked to the educational system
    • Regard given to the training needs of those groups who are not currently active in the workforce
    • An effective system of review & evaluation
    • Evaluation related to objective, measurable factors
  • 41. Areas of training
    • With the rapidly changing nature of the business world and the need to maintain competitive advantage, organisations need to ensure that staff are fully trained in –
    • Knowledge of their products/services
    • Technical skills
    • Human relations skills
    • How to work with maximum effect
  • 42. Growth of e-learning
    • Learning via technology
    • Offers opportunities to provide a standard message to large numbers of geographically-dispersed people
    • Provides minimum disruption to people’s working lives & private lives
    • Can reduce costs where large numbers of learners are involved
    • Can be more accessible than other forms of training methodologies
  • 43. Investors in People
    • A standard for the training & development of people within an organisation
    • Launched in 1991 by the Department of Employment
    • Seeks to reward organisations that achieve prescribed standards
    • Provides a framework for improving business performance & competitiveness
    • Standard held for 3 years after which organisation is required to go through external assessment again
  • 44. Investors in People
    • The standard is based on the following principles:
    • Public commitment from the top to invest & develop people to achieve business goals
    • Planning how individuals & teams will be developed
    • Taking relevant action to meet training & development needs
    • Evaluating the outcomes of training & development
  • 45. Overview of performance appraisal
  • 46. Benefits to appraisal
    • Can identify individual’s strengths & areas of development
    • Can indicate how strengths can be utilised & weaknesses overcome
    • Can help reveal problems that may be restricting progress
    • Can develop a greater degree of consistency through regular feedback
    • Can provide information for HR planning
    • Can improve communications
  • 47. Performance appraisal & psychological principles
    • People work / learn / achieve more when they are given -
    • Adequate feedback as to their performance
    • Clear attainable goals
    • Involvement in the setting of tasks & goals
    • James
  • 48. Designing a successful appraisal system
    • Questions to be addressed
    • Who should be appraised?
    • Who should undertake the appraisal?
    • At what frequency should appraisals be undertaken?
    • Should the appraisal system be open?
  • 49. 360 degree feedback
    • An appraisal & feedback from different groups within the work situation
    • Includes feedback from peers, subordinates, bosses & possibly internal & external customers
  • 50. Upward appraisal feedback
    • An upward review or appraisal system that involves subordinates’ appraisal of managers
    • This can help to judge managers’ ability accept constructive criticism
    • Requires an appropriate organisational culture & open management
  • 51. Employment relations
    • Concerned with the relationships between the policies & practices of the organisation & its staff & the behaviour of work groups
  • 52. Influences on the employment relations policy
    • The type, nature & size of the organisation
    • Structure & methods of operation
    • Nature of staff employed
    • Arrangements for collective bargaining
    • Structure & strength of trade unions
    • Preference of the parties for freedom of action from outside influences
    • The philosophy of top management & their attitudes
  • 53. Employment relations & business performance This material is taken from Employment Relations into the 21st Century: An IPD Position Paper and reproduced with the permission of the publisher, the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, London, SW19 4UX, December 1997, p.5.
  • 54. Effective employment relations
  • 55. International approaches of HRM
    • Ethnocentric approach
    • Polycentric approach
    • Geocentric approach
    • Regiocentric approach
    • Budhwar
  • 56. 10 ways to make HR effective
    • Be the catalyst for making things happen
    • Avoid being the corporate soft touch
    • Understand the whole business
    • Keep people-management systems simple
    • Remember line managers manage people, not HR
  • 57. 10 ways to make HR effective
    • Work with, not above, line managers
    • Be super-efficient in the transactional stuff
    • Be leaders in the transformational stuff
    • Help the business to manage change
    • Accept that good ‘people ideas’ exist outside HR
    • Browning
  • 58. At which stage of the selection process do you think a company’s culture becomes clear to an employee? Discuss with a classmate. Chapter Check-Up: HR Policies