Organizational Behavior - Session 6

28,558 views
28,325 views

Published on

Organizational Behavior

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
18 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
28,558
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
93
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,717
Comments
0
Likes
18
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Organizational Behavior - Session 6

  1. 1. Power, Politics Conflict & Negotiation Lecturer: Do Tien Long 09 04 51 54 46 dotienlong_mc@yahoo.com.vn Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  2. 2. A Definition of Power A Definition of Power Power A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. Dependency B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  3. 3. Contrasting Leadership and Power Contrasting Leadership and Power Leadership Power – Focuses on goal – Used as a means for achievement. achieving goals. – Requires goal – Requires follower compatibility with dependency. followers. – Used to gain lateral – Focuses influence and upward influence. downward. Research Focus Research Focus – Power tactics for – Leadership styles and gaining compliance. relationships with followers. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  4. 4. Bases of Power: Formal Power Bases of Power: Formal Power Formal Power Is established by an individual’s position in an organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information. Coercive Power A power base dependent on fear. Reward Power Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  5. 5. Bases of Power: Formal Power (cont’d) Bases of Power: Formal Power (cont’d) Legitimate Power The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  6. 6. Bases of Power: Personal Power Bases of Power: Personal Power Expert Power Influence based on special skills or knowledge. Referent Power Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  7. 7. Dependency: The Key To Power Dependency: The Key To Power The General Dependency Postulate – The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B. – Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful. – Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power. What Creates Dependency – Importance of the resource to the organization – Scarcity of the resource – Nonsubstitutability of the resource Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  8. 8. Power Tactics Power Tactics Power Tactics Influence Tactics: : Influence Tactics Ways in which individuals • • Legitimacy translate power bases into Legitimacy specific actions. • • Rational persuasion Rational persuasion • • Inspirational appeals Inspirational appeals • • Consultation Consultation • • Exchange Exchange • • Personal appeals Personal appeals • • Ingratiation Ingratiation • • Pressure Pressure • • Coalitions Coalitions Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  9. 9. Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction Direction Upward Influence Downward Influence Lateral Influence Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Pressure Ingratiation Consultation Exchange Ingratiation Legitimacy Exchange Personal appeals Legitimacy Coalitions E X H I B I T 14–2 E X H I B I T 14–2 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  10. 10. Factors Influencing the Choice and Factors Influencing the Choice and Effectiveness of Power Tactics Effectiveness of Power Tactics Sequencing of tactics How the request is perceived – Softer to harder tactics – Is the request consistent work best. with the target’s values? Skillful use of a tactic The culture of the Relative power of the tactic organization user – Culture affects user’s choice – Some tactics work better of tactic. when applied downward or Country-specific cultural upward. factors The type of request attaching – Local values favor certain to the tactic tactics over others. – Is the request legitimate? Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  11. 11. Power in Groups: Coalitions Power in Groups: Coalitions Coalitions • • Seek to maximize their size Seek to maximize their size Clusters of individuals who to attain influence. to attain influence. temporarily come together • • Seek aabroad and diverse Seek broad and diverse to achieve a specific constituency for support of constituency for support of purpose. their objectives. their objectives. • • Occur more frequently in Occur more frequently in organizations with high task organizations with high task and resource and resource interdependencies. interdependencies. • • Occur more frequently if Occur more frequently if tasks are standardized and tasks are standardized and routine. routine. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  12. 12. Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace in the Workplace Sexual Harassment – Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. The U.S. Supreme Court test for determining if sexual harassment has occurred: – Whether comments or behavior in a work environment “would reasonably be perceived, and is perceived, as hostile or abusive.” Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  13. 13. Steps for Managers to Take to Prevent Steps for Managers to Take to Prevent Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment Make sure a policy against it is in place. Ensure that employees will not encounter retaliation if they file a complaint. Investigate every complaint and include the human resource and legal departments. Make sure offenders are disciplined or terminated. Set up in-house seminars and training. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  14. 14. Politics: Power in Action Politics: Power in Action Political Behavior Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization. Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday politics. Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  15. 15. Politics Is in the Eye of the Beholder Politics Is in the Eye of the Beholder “Political” Label “Effective Management” Label 1. Blaming others vs. Fixing responsibility 2. “Kissing up” vs. Developing working relationships 3. Apple polishing vs. Demonstrating loyalty 4. Passing the buck vs. Delegating authority 5. Covering your rear vs. Documenting decisions 6. Creating conflict vs. Encouraging change and innovation 7. Forming coalitions vs. Facilitating teamwork 8. Whistle blowing vs. Improving efficiency 9. Scheming vs. Planning ahead 10. Overachieving vs. Competent and capable 11. Ambitious vs. Career-minded Source: Based on T. C. Krell, M. E. Mendenhall, and J. Sendry, “Doing 12. Opportunistic vs. Astute Research in the Conceptual Morass of Organizational Politics,” paper presented at 13. Cunning vs. Practical-minded the Western Academy of Management Conference, Hollywood, CA, April 1987. 14. Arrogant vs. Confident 15. Perfectionist vs. Attentive to detail E X H I B I T 13–3 E X H I B I T 13–3 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  16. 16. Factors That Factors That Influence Political Influence Political Behaviors Behaviors E X H I B I T 14-4 E X H I B I T 14-4 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  17. 17. Employee Employee Responses to Responses to Organizational Organizational Politics Politics E X H I B I T 14-5 E X H I B I T 14-5 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  18. 18. Defensive Defensive Avoiding Action: : Avoiding Action Behaviors Behaviors • • Overconforming Overconforming • • Buck passing Buck passing • • Playing dumb Avoiding Blame: : Avoiding Blame Playing dumb • • Stretching • • Buffing Buffing Stretching • • Stalling • • Playing safe Playing safe Stalling • • Justifying Justifying • • Scapegoating Scapegoating Avoiding Change: : Avoiding Change • • Misrepresenting Misrepresenting • • Prevention Prevention • • Self-protection Self-protection E X H I B I T 14–6 E X H I B I T 14–6 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  19. 19. Impression Management (IM) Impression Management (IM) Impression Management The process by which IM Techniques: : IM Techniques individuals attempt to control • • Conformity Conformity the impression others form of • • Excuses Excuses them. • • Apologies Apologies • • Self-Promotion Self-Promotion • • Flattery Flattery • • Favors Favors Source: Based on B. R. Schlenker, Impression Management (Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1980); W. L. Gardner and M. J. Martinko, “Impression Management in • • Association Association Organizations,” Journal of Management, June 1988, p. 332; and R. B. Cialdini, “Indirect Tactics of Image Management Beyond Basking,” in R. A. Giacalone and P. Rosenfeld (eds.), Impression Management in the Organization (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989), pp. 45–71. E X H I B I T 14–7 E X H I B I T 14–7 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  20. 20. Is A Political Action Ethical? Is A Political Action Ethical? 1. What is the utility of engaging in the behavior? 2. Does the utility balance out any harm done by the action? 3. Does the action conform to standards of equity and justice? E X H I B I T 14–8 E X H I B I T 14–8 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  21. 21. Chapter Check-Up: Power & Politics Write down two differences between power and leadership. Discuss with a classmate. Do all leaders have power? Does everyone with power lead others? Discuss. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  22. 22. Chapter Check-Up: Power & Politics When you go to work, what three things can you do to make people in your organization dependent on you? Write down your answers on a sheet of paper. Discuss your answers with your neighbor. Do you think it’s bad to plan how you’ll get power over others? Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  23. 23. Chapter Check-Up: Power & Politics What is the difference between a power tactic and an influence tactic? Discuss with a neighbor. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  24. 24. Conflict Conflict Conflict Defined – A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. • Is that point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict. – Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations • Incompatibility of goals • Differences over interpretations of facts • Disagreements based on behavioral expectations Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  25. 25. Transitions in Conflict Thought Transitions in Conflict Thought Traditional View of Conflict The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Causes: Causes: •• Poor communication Poor communication •• Lack of openness Lack of openness •• Failure to respond to Failure to respond to employee needs employee needs Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  26. 26. Transitions in Conflict Thought (cont’d) Transitions in Conflict Thought (cont’d) Human Relations View of Conflict The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Interactionist View of Conflict The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  27. 27. Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict (Positive) Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group (Negative) performance. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  28. 28. Types of Conflict Types of Conflict Task Conflict Conflicts over content and goals of the work. Relationship Conflict Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Process Conflict Conflict over how work gets done. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  29. 29. The Conflict Process The Conflict Process E X H I B I T 15–1 E X H I B I T 15–1 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  30. 30. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Incompatibility Communication – Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” Structure – Size and specialization of jobs – Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity – Member/goal incompatibility – Leadership styles (close or participative) – Reward systems (win-lose) – Dependence/interdependence of groups Personal Variables – Differing individual value systems – Personality types Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  31. 31. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Perceived Conflict Felt Conflict Awareness by one or more Emotional involvement in a parties of the existence of conflict creating anxiety, conditions that create tenseness, frustration, or opportunities for conflict to hostility. arise. Conflict Definition Conflict Definition Negative Emotions Negative Emotions Positive Feelings Positive Feelings Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  32. 32. Stage III: Intentions Stage III: Intentions Intentions Decisions to act in a given way. Cooperativeness: Cooperativeness: •• Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns. Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns. Assertiveness: Assertiveness: •• Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  33. 33. Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions Intentions Source: K. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed., vol. 3 (Palo Alto, CA: E X H I B I T 15-2 E X H I B I T 15-2 Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p. 668. With permission. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  34. 34. Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict. Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  35. 35. Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Accommodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. Compromising A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  36. 36. Stage IV: Behavior Stage IV: Behavior Conflict Management The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  37. 37. Conflict-Intensity Continuum Conflict-Intensity Continuum Source: Based on S.P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 93–97; and F. Glasi, “The Process of Conflict Escalation and the Roles of Third Parties,” in G.B.J. Bomers and R. Peterson (eds.), Conflict Management and Industrial E X H I B I T 15–3 E X H I B I T 15–3 Relations (Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1982), pp. 119–40. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  38. 38. Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques •• Problem solving Problem solving •• Superordinate goals Superordinate goals •• Expansion of resources Expansion of resources •• Avoidance Avoidance •• Smoothing Smoothing •• Compromise Compromise •• Authoritative command Authoritative command Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, •• Altering the human variable Altering the human variable Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), •• Altering the structural variables Altering the structural variables pp. 59–89 E X H I B I T 15–4 E X H I B I T 15–4 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  39. 39. Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques •• Communication Communication •• Bringing in outsiders Bringing in outsiders •• Restructuring the organization Restructuring the organization •• Appointing a devil’s advocate Appointing a devil’s advocate Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach E X H I B I T 15–4 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 15–4 (cont’d) (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  40. 40. Stage V: Outcomes Stage V: Outcomes Functional Outcomes from Conflict – Increased group performance – Improved quality of decisions – Stimulation of creativity and innovation – Encouragement of interest and curiosity – Provision of a medium for problem-solving – Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change Creating Functional Conflict – Reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  41. 41. Stage V: Outcomes Stage V: Outcomes Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict – Development of discontent – Reduced group effectiveness – Retarded communication – Reduced group cohesiveness – Infighting among group members overcomes group goals Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  42. 42. Negotiation Negotiation Negotiation A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. BATNA The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  43. 43. Bargaining Strategies Bargaining Strategies Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation. Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  44. 44. Distributive Versus Integrative Bargaining Distributive Versus Integrative Bargaining Bargaining Distributive Integrative Characteristic Bargaining Bargaining Goal Get as much of pie Expand the pie as possible Motivation Win-Lose Win-Win Focus Positions Interests Information Low High Sharing Duration of Short term Long term relationships E XHIBIT 15-5 E XHIBIT 15-5 Source: Based on R. J. Lewicki and J. A. Litterer, Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1985), p. 280. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  45. 45. Staking Out the Bargaining Zone Staking Out the Bargaining Zone E X H I B I T 15–6 E X H I B I T 15–6 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  46. 46. The The Negotiatio Negotiatio n Process n Process BATNA The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement. E X H I B I T 15–7 E X H I B I T 15–7 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  47. 47. Issues in Negotiation Issues in Negotiation The Role of Mood & Personality Traits in Negotiation – Positive moods positively affect negotiations – Traits do not appear to have a significantly direct effect on the outcomes of either bargaining or negotiating processes (except extraversion, which is bad for negotiation effectiveness) Gender Differences in Negotiations – Women negotiate no differently from men, although men apparently negotiate slightly better outcomes. – Men and women with similar power bases use the same negotiating styles. – Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and their success as negotiators are less favorable than men’s. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  48. 48. Why American Managers Might Have Why American Managers Might Have Trouble in Cross-Cultural Negotiations Trouble in Cross-Cultural Negotiations Italians, Germans, and French don’t soften up executives with praise before they criticize. Americans do, and to many Europeans this seems manipulative. Israelis, accustomed to fast-paced meetings, have no patience for American small talk. British executives often complain that their U.S. counterparts chatter too much. Indian executives are used to interrupting one another. When Americans listen without asking for clarification or posing questions, Indians can feel the Americans aren’t paying attention. Americans often mix their business and personal lives. They think nothing, for instance, about asking a colleague a question like, “How was your weekend?” In many cultures such a question is seen as intrusive because business and private lives are totally compartmentalized. E X H I B I T 15–8 E X H I B I T 15–8 Source: Adapted from L. Khosla, “You Say Tomato,” Forbes, May 21, 2001, p. 36. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  49. 49. Third-Party Negotiations Third-Party Negotiations Mediator A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives. Arbitrator A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  50. 50. Third-Party Negotiations (cont’d) Third-Party Negotiations (cont’d) Conciliator A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Consultant An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  51. 51. Conflict Conflict and Unit and Unit Performance Performance E X H I B I T 15–9 E X H I B I T 15–9 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  52. 52. USE….Competition USE….Competition When quick, decisive action is vital (in emergencies); on important issues. Where unpopular actions need implementing (in cost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline). On issues vital to the organization’s welfare. When you know you’re right. Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  53. 53. USE …..Collaboration USE …..Collaboration To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised. When your objective is to learn. To merge insights from people with different perspectives. To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus. To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  54. 54. USE….Avoidance USE….Avoidance When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing. When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns. When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution. To let people cool down and regain perspective. When gathering information supersedes immediate decision. When others can resolve the conflict effectively. When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  55. 55. USE….Accommodation USE….Accommodation When you find you’re wrong and to allow a better position to be heard. To learn, and to show your reasonableness. When issues are more important to others than to yourself and to satisfy others and maintain cooperation. To build social credits for later issues. To minimize loss when outmatched and losing. When harmony and stability are especially important. To allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  56. 56. USE…Compromise USE…Compromise When goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches. When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals. To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues. To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure. As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  57. 57. Chapter Check-Up: Negotiation Discuss the concepts of BATNA and resistance point with your neighbor. What similarities are there between the two? Differences? Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long

×