Communication &
   Leadership
  Lecturer: Do Tien Long
  09 04 51 54 46
  dotienlong_mc@yahoo.com.vn


      Organisationa...
Functions of Communication
Functions of Communication
Communication
The transference and the understanding of meaning.



...
The Communication Process
    The Communication Process
Channel
– The medium selected by the sender through which the
  me...
Elements of the Communication Process
Elements of the Communication Process
 The sender
 Encoding
 The message
 The channe...
The Communication Process Model
The Communication Process Model




Communication Process
The steps between a source and a...
Direction of
  Communication


Upward    Downward                               Lateral



         Organisational Behavio...
Interpersonal Communication
 Interpersonal Communication
 Oral Communication
 – Advantages: Speed and feedback.
 – Disadva...
Nonverbal Communication


         Body Movement                                                           Intonations



...
Intonations: It’s the Way You Say It!
  Intonations: It’s the Way You Say It!
Change your tone and you change your meaning...
Three Common Formal Small-Group
Three Common Formal Small-Group
Networks
Networks




                                    ...
Small-Group Networks and
Small-Group Networks and
Effectiveness Criteria
Effectiveness Criteria
                          ...
Grapevine
Grapevine
Grapevine Characteristics
 – Informal, not controlled by management.
 – Perceived by most employees as...
The Grapevine

 Control                      Reliability


           Self-
            Self-
         Interests


    Org...
Suggestions for Reducing the Negative
 Suggestions for Reducing the Negative
 Consequences of Rumors
 Consequences of Rumo...
Computer-Aided Communication
Computer-Aided Communication
E-mail
 – Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cos...
Knowledge Management (KM)
Knowledge Management (KM)

Knowledge Management
A process of organizing and distributing an orga...
Choice of Communication Channel
Choice of Communication Channel
Channel Richness
The amount of information that can be tra...
Information Richness of
  Information Richness of
 Communication Channels
  Communication Channels



      Low channel ri...
Barriers to Effective Communication
Barriers to Effective Communication
Filtering
A sender’s manipulation of information s...
Barriers to Effective Communication
 Barriers to Effective Communication
(cont’d)
 (cont’d)
Emotions
How a receiver feels ...
Communication Barriers Between
Communication Barriers Between
Men and Women
Men and Women
Men talk to:                    ...
Silence as Communication
      Silence as Communication
Absence of speech or noise
– Powerful form of communication
– Can ...
Word
             Semantics
                                                                                  Connotations...
Hand Gestures Mean Different
Hand Gestures Mean Different
Things in Different Countries
Things in Different Countries




...
Hand Gestures Mean Different
Hand Gestures Mean Different
Things in Different Countries (cont’d)
Things in Different Count...
Communication Barriers and Cultural
Communication Barriers and Cultural
Context
Context
        High-Context Cultures
    ...
High-
 High-
  vs.
   vs.
 Low-
  Low-
Context
Context
Cultures
Cultures




                                             ...
A Cultural Guide

 Assume                                               Emphasize
Differences                             ...
Chapter Check-Up: Communication



Consider the way in which this man is
communicating? What channel is he
using? How rich...
What Is Leadership?
What Is Leadership?
Leadership
The ability to influence a
group toward the
achievement of goals.

Mana...
Trait Theories
Trait Theories
Traits Theories of
Leadership
Theories that consider
personality, social, physical,         ...
Trait Theories
            Trait Theories

Limitations::
Limitations
•• No universal traits found that predict
    No univ...
Trait Approach
Traits (examples)
– Extraversion
– Conscientiousness
– Openness
Assumption: Leaders are born
Goal: Select l...
Behavioral Theories
         Behavioral Theories
Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behavi...
Behavioral Approach
Ohio State Studies/U. of Michigan
– Initiating Structure/Production Orientation
– Consideration/Employ...
Ohio State Studies
Ohio State Studies
Initiating Structure
The extent to which a leader is likely
to define and structure ...
University of Michigan Studies
University of Michigan Studies
Employee-Oriented Leader
Emphasizing interpersonal relations...
The
                                           The
                                        Managerial
                    ...
CONTINGENCY THEORIES
       CONTINGENCY THEORIES
All Consider the Situation
–   Fiedler’s Contingency Model
–   Cognitive ...
Fiedler’s Model: The Leader
Fiedler’s Model: The Leader
Assumption: Leader’s Style is Fixed & Can be
Measured by the Least...
Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation
Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation
Leader-Member Relations
The degree of conf...
Findings of the Fiedler Model
        Good
                                                                               ...
Cognitive Resource Theory
        Cognitive Resource Theory
Cognitive Resource Theory
 A theory of leadership that states ...
Contingency Approach: Hersey & Blanchard
            Situational Model
 Considers Leader Behaviors (Task & Relationship)
 ...
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational
        Leadership Theory
        Leadership Theory
...
Leadership Styles and Follower
Leadership Styles and Follower
Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard)
Readiness (Hersey and Blanc...
Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
•Leaders select certain fo...
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Leader-Member Exchange Theory




                                                  E X H I ...
Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory
Premise
• Leader must help followers attaining
goals and reduce roadblocks to
success
•L...
The Path-Goal Theory
The Path-Goal Theory




                                                   E X H I B I T 12–4
      ...
Leader-Participation Model
Leader-Participation Model
Premise:
•Rule based decision tree to guide leaders about
when and w...
Contingency Variables in the Revised
Contingency Variables in the Revised
Leader-Participation Model
Leader-Participation ...
Chapter Check-Up: Leadership
      Which leadership theory (ies) say(s) that
      a leader cannot be trained?
           ...
Framing: Using Words to Shape
Framing: Using Words to Shape
Meaning and Inspire Others
Meaning and Inspire Others
Framing
...
Inspirational Approaches to Leadership
 Inspirational Approaches to Leadership
Charismatic Leadership Theory
Followers mak...
Key Characteristics of Charismatic
 Key Characteristics of Charismatic
 Leaders
 Leaders
    1. Vision and articulation. H...
Beyond Charismatic Leadership
Beyond Charismatic Leadership
 Level 5 Leaders
 – Possess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical bl...
Transactional and Transformational
    Transactional and Transformational
    Leadership
    Leadership
 Transactional Lea...
Characteristics of Transactional Leaders
 Characteristics of Transactional Leaders
    Contingent Reward: Contracts exchan...
Full Range of Leadership Model
Full Range of Leadership Model




         Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Characteristics of Transformational
Characteristics of Transformational
Leaders
Leaders
Idealized Influence: Provides visi...
Authentic Leaders and Ethical
   Authentic Leaders and Ethical
             Behavior
              Behavior
Authentic Lead...
Ethical Leadership
            Ethical Leadership

Actions::
Actions
•• Work to positively change the
    Work to positive...
Trust: The Foundation of Leadership
Trust: The Foundation of Leadership
Trust
A positive expectation that
another will not...
Dimensions of Trust
Dimensions of Trust
 Integrity                                          Loyalty
  – honesty and truthf...
Three Types of Trust
Three Types of Trust
Deterrence-based Trust
Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated....
Basic Principles of Trust
Basic Principles of Trust
 Mistrust drives out trust.
 Trust begets trust.
 Growth often masks m...
Employees’ Trust in Their CEOs
  Employees’ Trust in Their CEOs
        Employees who believe in senior management:




  ...
Contemporary Leadership Roles:
Contemporary Leadership Roles:
Providing Team Leadership
Providing Team Leadership
Team Lea...
Contemporary Leadership Roles:
Contemporary Leadership Roles:
Mentoring
Mentoring
Mentor
                                 ...
Contemporary Leadership Roles:
Contemporary Leadership Roles:
Self-Leadership
Self-Leadership
Self-Leadership
            ...
Online Leadership
Online Leadership
 Leadership at a Distance: Building Trust
 – The lack of face-to-face contact in elect...
Challenges to the Leadership Construct
Challenges to the Leadership Construct
Attribution Theory of Leadership
The idea th...
Substitutes and Neutralizers for
 Substitutes and Neutralizers for
 Leadership
 Leadership
                               ...
Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
 Selection
 – Review specific requirements f...
Chapter Check-Up: Contemporary Issues
            in Leadership
     Julie spends time with each subordinate
     and know...
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Organizational Behavior - Session 5

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Organizational Behavior - Session 5

  1. 1. Communication & Leadership Lecturer: Do Tien Long 09 04 51 54 46 dotienlong_mc@yahoo.com.vn Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  2. 2. Functions of Communication Functions of Communication Communication The transference and the understanding of meaning. Communication Functions Communication Functions 1. Control member behavior. 1. Control member behavior. 2. 2. Foster motivation for what is to be done. Foster motivation for what is to be done. 3. 3. Provide a release for emotional expression. Provide a release for emotional expression. 4. Provide information needed to make decisions. 4. Provide information needed to make decisions. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  3. 3. The Communication Process The Communication Process Channel – The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver. Types of Channels – Formal Channels • Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members. – Informal Channels • Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  4. 4. Elements of the Communication Process Elements of the Communication Process The sender Encoding The message The channel Decoding The receiver Noise Feedback Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  5. 5. The Communication Process Model The Communication Process Model Communication Process The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning. E X H I B I T 11–1 E X H I B I T 11–1 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  6. 6. Direction of Communication Upward Downward Lateral Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  7. 7. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication Oral Communication – Advantages: Speed and feedback. – Disadvantage: Distortion of the message. Written Communication – Advantages: Tangible and verifiable. – Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback. Nonverbal Communication – Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. – Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  8. 8. Nonverbal Communication Body Movement Intonations Facial Expressions Physical Distance © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long reserved.
  9. 9. Intonations: It’s the Way You Say It! Intonations: It’s the Way You Say It! Change your tone and you change your meaning: Placement of the emphasis What it means Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I was going to take someone else. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of the guy you were going with. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I’m trying to find a reason why I shouldn’t take you. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Do you have a problem with me? Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of going on your own. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of lunch tomorrow. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Not tomorrow night. Source: Based on M. Kiely, “When ‘No’ Means ‘Yes,’ ” Marketing, October 1993, pp. 7–9. Reproduced in A. Huczynski and D. E X H I B I T 11–2 Buchanan, Organizational Behaviour, 4th ed. (Essex, England: Pearson Education, 2001), p. 194. E X H I B I T 11–2 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  10. 10. Three Common Formal Small-Group Three Common Formal Small-Group Networks Networks E X H I B I T 11–3 E X H I B I T 11–3 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  11. 11. Small-Group Networks and Small-Group Networks and Effectiveness Criteria Effectiveness Criteria TYPES OF NETWORKS Criteria Chain Wheel All Channel Speed Moderate Fast Fast Accuracy High High Moderate Emergence of a leader Moderate High None Member satisfaction Moderate Low High E X H I B I T 11–4 E X H I B I T 11–4 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  12. 12. Grapevine Grapevine Grapevine Characteristics – Informal, not controlled by management. – Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. – Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. – Results from: • Desire for information about important situations • Ambiguous conditions • Conditions that cause anxiety Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  13. 13. The Grapevine Control Reliability Self- Self- Interests Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  14. 14. Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Consequences of Rumors Consequences of Rumors 1. Announce timetables for making important decisions. 2. Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear inconsistent or secretive. 3. Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current decisions and future plans. 4. Openly discuss worst-case possibilities—it is almost never as anxiety-provoking as the unspoken fantasy. Source: Adapted from L. Hirschhorn, “Managing Rumors,” in L. Hirschhorn (ed.), Cutting Back E X H I B I T 11–5 E X H I B I T 11–5 (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983), pp. 54–56. With permission. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  15. 15. Computer-Aided Communication Computer-Aided Communication E-mail – Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution. – Disadvantages: information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal. Instant messaging Intranet Extranet Videoconferencing Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  16. 16. Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management A process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. Why KM is important: Why KM is important: Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience goes When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience goes with them. with them. A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the organization more efficient. organization more efficient. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  17. 17. Choice of Communication Channel Choice of Communication Channel Channel Richness The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. Characteristics of Rich Channels Characteristics of Rich Channels 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. 2. 2. Facilitate rapid feedback. Facilitate rapid feedback. 3. 3. Are very personal in context. Are very personal in context. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  18. 18. Information Richness of Information Richness of Communication Channels Communication Channels Low channel richness High channel richness Routine Nonroutine Source: Based on R.H. Lengel and D.L. Daft, “The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill,” Academy of Management Executive, August 1988, pp. 225–32; and R.L. Daft and R.H. Lengel, “Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness, and Structural Design,” Managerial Science, May 1996, pp. 554–72. Reproduced from R.L. Daft and R.A. E X H I B I T 11–7 E X H I B I T 11–7 Noe, Organizational Behavior (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt, 2001), p. 311. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  19. 19. Barriers to Effective Communication Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Information Overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  20. 20. Barriers to Effective Communication Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d) (cont’d) Emotions How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Language Words have different meanings to different people. Communication Apprehension Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  21. 21. Communication Barriers Between Communication Barriers Between Men and Women Men and Women Men talk to: Women talk to: – Emphasize status, – Establish connection power, and and intimacy. independence. – Criticize men for not – Complain that women listening. talk on and on. – Speak of problems to – Offer solutions. promote closeness. – To boast about their – Express regret and accomplishments. restore balance to a conversation. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  22. 22. Silence as Communication Silence as Communication Absence of speech or noise – Powerful form of communication – Can indicate • Thinking • Anger • Fear – Watch for gaps, pauses, & hesitations in conversations Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  23. 23. Word Semantics Connotations Barriers to Effective Cross-Cultural Communication Tone Perception Differences Differences 2007 © Prentice Hall Inc. All rights Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long reserved.
  24. 24. Hand Gestures Mean Different Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries Things in Different Countries E X H I B I T 11–9 E X H I B I T 11–9 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  25. 25. Hand Gestures Mean Different Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries (cont’d) Things in Different Countries (cont’d) E X H I B I T 11–9 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 11–9 (cont’d) Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  26. 26. Communication Barriers and Cultural Communication Barriers and Cultural Context Context High-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues to communication. Low-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  27. 27. High- High- vs. vs. Low- Low- Context Context Cultures Cultures E X H I B I T 11–10 E X H I B I T 11–10 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  28. 28. A Cultural Guide Assume Emphasize Differences Description Develop a Cultivate Hypothesis Empathy Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  29. 29. Chapter Check-Up: Communication Consider the way in which this man is communicating? What channel is he using? How rich is it? For what kinds of message would it be appropriate? Not appropriate? Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  30. 30. What Is Leadership? What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  31. 31. Trait Theories Trait Theories Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, Leadership Traits: Leadership Traits: or intellectual traits to •• Extraversion Extraversion differentiate leaders from •• Conscientiousness nonleaders. Conscientiousness •• Openness Openness •• Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence (qualified) (qualified) Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  32. 32. Trait Theories Trait Theories Limitations:: Limitations •• No universal traits found that predict No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. leadership in all situations. •• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. relationship of leadership and traits. •• Better predictor of the appearance of Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders. ineffective leaders. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  33. 33. Trait Approach Traits (examples) – Extraversion – Conscientiousness – Openness Assumption: Leaders are born Goal: Select leaders Problems – Traits do not generalize across situations – Better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  34. 34. Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. •• Behavioral theory: Behavioral theory: Leadership behaviors can be Leadership behaviors can be taught. taught. Vs. Vs. Trait theory: Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Leaders are born, not made. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  35. 35. Behavioral Approach Ohio State Studies/U. of Michigan – Initiating Structure/Production Orientation – Consideration/Employee Orientation Assumption: Leaders can be trained Goal: Develop leaders Problem: Effective behaviors do not generalize across situations Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  36. 36. Ohio State Studies Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  37. 37. University of Michigan Studies University of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  38. 38. The The Managerial Managerial Grid Grid (Blake and (Blake and Mouton) Mouton) E X H I B I T 12–1 E X H I B I T 12–1 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  39. 39. CONTINGENCY THEORIES CONTINGENCY THEORIES All Consider the Situation – Fiedler’s Contingency Model – Cognitive Resource Theory – Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model – Path Goal Theory Assumptions underlying the different models: Fiedler: Leader’s style is fixed Other’s: Leader’s style can and should be changed Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  40. 40. Fiedler’s Model: The Leader Fiedler’s Model: The Leader Assumption: Leader’s Style is Fixed & Can be Measured by the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire The way in which a leader will evaluate a co-worker that is not liked will indicate whether the leader is task- or relationship-oriented. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  41. 41. Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  42. 42. Findings of the Fiedler Model Good Task-Oriented Performance Relationship -Oriented Poor Favorable Moderate Unfavorable • Category I II III IV V VI VII VIII • Leader-Member Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Relations • Task Structure High High Low Low High High Low Low • Position Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  43. 43. Cognitive Resource Theory Cognitive Resource Theory Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that the level of stress in a situation is what impacts whether a leader’s intelligence or experience will be more effective. Research Support: : Research Support • • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. • • Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people. under low stress than do more experienced people. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  44. 44. Contingency Approach: Hersey & Blanchard Situational Model Considers Leader Behaviors (Task & Relationship) – Assumes Leaders CAN change their behaviors Considers Followers as the Situation – Follower Task maturity (ability & experience) – Follower Psychological maturity (willingness to take responsibility) Assumptions –Leaders can and should change their style to fit their followers’ degree of readiness (willingness and ability) –Therefore, it is possible to TRAIN leaders to better fit their style to their followers. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  45. 45. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness; the more “ready” the followers (the more willing and able) the less the need for leader support and supervision. LOW Amount of Follower Readiness HIGH Amount of Leader Support & HIGH Supervision Required LOW Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  46. 46. Leadership Styles and Follower Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Follower Unwilling Willing Readiness Able Supportive Monitoring Participative Leadership Styles High Task Unable Directive and Relationship Orientations Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  47. 47. Leader–Member Exchange Theory Leader–Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory •Leaders select certain followers to be “in” (favorites) Based on competence and/or compatibility & similarity to leader •“Exchanges” with these “In” followers will be higher quality than with those who are “Out” •RESULT: “In” subordinates will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  48. 48. Leader-Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange Theory E X H I B I T 12–3 E X H I B I T 12–3 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  49. 49. Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory Premise • Leader must help followers attaining goals and reduce roadblocks to success •Leaders must change behaviors to fit the situation (environmental contingencies & subordinate contingencies) Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  50. 50. The Path-Goal Theory The Path-Goal Theory E X H I B I T 12–4 E X H I B I T 12–4 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  51. 51. Leader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model Premise: •Rule based decision tree to guide leaders about when and when not to include subordinate participation in decision making •Considers 12 contingency variables to consider whether or not to include subordinates in decision making Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  52. 52. Contingency Variables in the Revised Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model 1. Importance of the decision 2. Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision 3. Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision 4. How well structured the problem is 5. Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment 6. Whether followers “buy into” the organization’s goals 7. Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives 8. Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good decision 9. Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement 10. Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justified 11. Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decision 12. Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills E X H I B I T 12–5 E X H I B I T 12–5 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  53. 53. Chapter Check-Up: Leadership Which leadership theory (ies) say(s) that a leader cannot be trained? Ohio State Model Fiedler’s Contingency Theory U. Of Michigan Studies Path Goal Theory All of the above Fielder’s Contingency Theory is the only one which says a leader’s style is fixed and cannot be trained. But, what do all of the theories above have in common? Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  54. 54. Framing: Using Words to Shape Framing: Using Words to Shape Meaning and Inspire Others Meaning and Inspire Others Framing A way to use language to manage meaning. Leaders use framing Leaders use framing (selectively including or (selectively including or excluding facts) to excluding facts) to influence how others influence how others see and interpret see and interpret reality. reality. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  55. 55. Inspirational Approaches to Leadership Inspirational Approaches to Leadership Charismatic Leadership Theory Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. Charismatic Leaders Charismatic Leaders 1. Have a vision 1. Have a vision 2. Are willing to take personal risks to achieve 2. Are willing to take personal risks to achieve the vision the vision 3. Are sensitive to follower needs 3. Are sensitive to follower needs 4. Exhibit behaviors that are out of the 4. Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary ordinary Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  56. 56. Key Characteristics of Charismatic Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders Leaders 1. Vision and articulation. Has a vision—expressed as an idealized goal—that proposes a future better than the status quo; and is able to clarify the importance of the vision in terms that are understandable to others. 2. Personal risk. Willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve the vision. 3. Environmental sensitivity. Able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change. 4. Sensitivity to follower needs. Perceptive of others’ abilities and responsive to their needs and feelings. 5. Unconventional behavior. Engages in behaviors that are perceived as novel and counter to norms. Source: Based on J. A. Conger and R. N. Kanungo, Charismatic Leadership in E X H I B I T 13–1 E X H I B I T 13–1 Organizations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998), p. 94. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  57. 57. Beyond Charismatic Leadership Beyond Charismatic Leadership Level 5 Leaders – Possess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will—in addition to the four basic leadership qualities of individual capability, team skills, managerial competence, and the ability to stimulate others to high performance. – Channel their ego needs away from themselves and into the goal of building a great company. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  58. 58. Transactional and Transformational Transactional and Transformational Leadership Leadership Transactional Leaders • Contingent Reward Leaders who guide or motivate • Management by Exception their followers in the direction of (active) established goals by clarifying role • Management by Exception and task requirements. (passive) • Laissez-Faire Transformational Leaders • Idealized Influence Leaders who provide the four “I’s” • Inspirational Motivation (individualized consideration, • Intellectual Stimulation inspirational motivation, idealized • Individual Consideration influence, and intellectual stimulation Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  59. 59. Characteristics of Transactional Leaders Characteristics of Transactional Leaders Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments. Management by Exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action. Management by Exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met. Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions. Source: B. M. Bass, “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision,” Organizational Dynamics, Winter 1990, p. 22. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. E X H I B I T 13–2 E X H I B I T 13–2 American Management Association, New York. All rights reserved. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  60. 60. Full Range of Leadership Model Full Range of Leadership Model Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  61. 61. Characteristics of Transformational Characteristics of Transformational Leaders Leaders Idealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways. Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises. E X H I B I T 13–2 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 13–2 (cont’d) Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  62. 62. Authentic Leaders and Ethical Authentic Leaders and Ethical Behavior Behavior Authentic Leaders know who they are, what they believe in and value, and act on those values openly and candidly. – Followers see them as ethical. Ethical leaders use ethical means to get followers to achieve their goals, and the goals themselves are ethical. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  63. 63. Ethical Leadership Ethical Leadership Actions:: Actions •• Work to positively change the Work to positively change the attitudes and behaviors of attitudes and behaviors of employees. employees. •• Engage in socially constructive Engage in socially constructive behaviors. behaviors. •• Do not abuse power or use Do not abuse power or use improper means to attain goals. improper means to attain goals. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  64. 64. Trust: The Foundation of Leadership Trust: The Foundation of Leadership Trust A positive expectation that another will not—through words, actions, or decisions—act opportunistically. Trust is a history-dependent process (familiarity) based on relevant but limited samples of experience (risk). E X H I B I T 13–4 E X H I B I T 13–4 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  65. 65. Dimensions of Trust Dimensions of Trust Integrity Loyalty – honesty and truthfulness. – the willingness to protect and save face for another Competence person. – an individual’s technical and Openness interpersonal knowledge and skills. – reliance on the person to give you the full truth. Consistency – an individual’s reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  66. 66. Three Types of Trust Three Types of Trust Deterrence-based Trust Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated. Knowledge-based Trust Trust based on behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction. Identification-based Trust Trust based on a mutual understanding of each other’s intentions and appreciation of the other’s wants and desires. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  67. 67. Basic Principles of Trust Basic Principles of Trust Mistrust drives out trust. Trust begets trust. Growth often masks mistrust. Decline or downsizing tests the highest levels of trust. Trust increases cohesion. Mistrusting groups self-destruct. Mistrust generally reduces productivity. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  68. 68. Employees’ Trust in Their CEOs Employees’ Trust in Their CEOs Employees who believe in senior management: E X H I B I T 12–2 E X H I B I T 12–2 Source: Gantz Wiley Research. Reproduced in USA Today, February 12, 2003, p. 7B. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  69. 69. Contemporary Leadership Roles: Contemporary Leadership Roles: Providing Team Leadership Providing Team Leadership Team Leadership Roles: : Team Leadership Roles •• Act as liaisons with external constituencies. Act as liaisons with external constituencies. •• Serve as troubleshooters. Serve as troubleshooters. •• Managing conflict. Managing conflict. •• Coaching to improve team member Coaching to improve team member performance performance Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  70. 70. Contemporary Leadership Roles: Contemporary Leadership Roles: Mentoring Mentoring Mentor Mentoring Activities: : A senior employee who Mentoring Activities sponsors and supports a •• Present ideas clearly Present ideas clearly less-experienced employee •• Listen well (a protégé). Listen well •• Empathize Empathize •• Share experiences Share experiences •• Act as role model Act as role model •• Share contacts Share contacts •• Provide political Provide political guidance guidance Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  71. 71. Contemporary Leadership Roles: Contemporary Leadership Roles: Self-Leadership Self-Leadership Self-Leadership Creating self leaders: : Creating self leaders A set of processes • • Model self-leadership. through which Model self-leadership. individuals control their • • Encourage employees to Encourage employees to create self-set goals. create self-set goals. own behavior. • • Encourage the use of self- Encourage the use of self- rewards. rewards. • • Create positive thought Create positive thought patterns. patterns. • • Create aaclimate of self- Create climate of self- leadership. leadership. • • Encourage self-criticism. Encourage self-criticism. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  72. 72. Online Leadership Online Leadership Leadership at a Distance: Building Trust – The lack of face-to-face contact in electronic communications removes the nonverbal cues that support verbal interactions. – There is no supporting context to assist the receiver with interpretation of an electronic communication. – The structure and tone of electronic messages can strongly affect the response of receivers. – An individual’s verbal and written communications may not follow the same style. – Writing skills will likely become an extension of interpersonal skills Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  73. 73. Challenges to the Leadership Construct Challenges to the Leadership Construct Attribution Theory of Leadership The idea that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals. Qualities attributed to leaders: : Qualities attributed to leaders • • Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal skills, Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal skills, are aggressive, understanding, and industrious. are aggressive, understanding, and industrious. • • Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and unwavering in their decisions. unwavering in their decisions. • • Effective leaders project the appearance of being aaleader. Effective leaders project the appearance of being leader. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  74. 74. Substitutes and Neutralizers for Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership Leadership Relationship- Task- Oriented Oriented Defining Characteristics Leadership Leadership Individual Experience/training No effect on Substitutes for Professionalism Substitutes for Substitutes for Indifference to rewards Neutralizes Neutralizes Job Highly structured task No effect on Substitutes for Provides its own feedback No effect on Substitutes for Intrinsically satisfying Substitutes for No effect on Organization Explicit formalized goals No effect on Substitutes for Rigid rules and procedures No effect on Substitutes for Cohesive work groups Substitutes for Substitutes for Source: Based on S. Kerr and J. M. Jermier, “Substitutes for Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement,” E X H I B I T 13–7 E X H I B I T 13–7 Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, December 1978, p. 378. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  75. 75. Finding and Creating Effective Leaders Finding and Creating Effective Leaders Selection – Review specific requirements for the job. – Use tests that identify personal traits associated with leadership, measure self-monitoring, and assess emotional intelligence. – Conduct personal interviews to determine candidate’s fit with the job. Training – Recognize that all people are not equally trainable. – Teach skills that are necessary for employees to become effective leaders. – Provide behavioral training to increase the development potential of nascent charismatic employees. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  76. 76. Chapter Check-Up: Contemporary Issues in Leadership Julie spends time with each subordinate and knows their development plans for the next five years. Julie exhibits ____________ Inspirational Motivation Unconventional Behavior Individualized Consideration Full Range Leadership Charismatic Leadership Julie is showing individualized consideration, part of transformationalDo Tien Long Organisational Behavior, leadership.
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