Organizational Behavior - Session 1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Organizational Behavior - Session 1

on

  • 116,298 views

Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior

Statistics

Views

Total Views
116,298
Views on SlideShare
116,013
Embed Views
285

Actions

Likes
35
Downloads
4,061
Comments
9

6 Embeds 285

http://www.slideshare.net 275
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 3
http://experimentstech.blogspot.com 2
http://chadis.blogspot.com 2
https://www.linkedin.com 2
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Organizational Behavior - Session 1 Organizational Behavior - Session 1 Presentation Transcript

  • What is Organizational Behavior? Lecturer: Do Tien Long 09 04 51 54 46 dotienlong_mc@yahoo.com.vn Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe what managers do. 2. Define organizational behavior (OB). 3. Explain the value of the systematic study LEARNING of OB. 4. Identify the contributions made by major behavioral science disciplines to OB. 5. List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts.Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • What Managers Do What Managers Do Managers (or administrators) Individuals who achieve goals through other people. Managerial Activities Managerial Activities ••Make decisions Make decisions ••Allocate resources Allocate resources ••Direct activities of others Direct activities of others to attain goals to attain goals Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Where Managers Work Where Managers Work Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Management Functions Management Functions Planning Planning Organizing Organizing Management Management Functions Functions Controlling Controlling Leading Leading Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Management Functions (cont’d) Management Functions (cont’d) Planning A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Management Functions (cont’d) Management Functions (cont’d) Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Management Functions (cont’d) Management Functions (cont’d) Leading A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Management Functions (cont’d) Management Functions (cont’d) Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 E X H I B I T 1–1 E X H I B I T 1–1 by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d) by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973 E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d) by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Management Skills Management Skills Technical skills The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Human skills The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. Conceptual Skills The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Skills Needed at Different Levels of Management Top management Human Conceptual Technical Middle Human Conceptual management Technical Human ConCe First-line ptual Technical management Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Effective Versus Successful Managerial Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities (Luthans) Activities (Luthans) 1. Traditional management 1. Traditional management • •Decision making, planning, and controlling Decision making, planning, and controlling 2. Communication 2. Communication • •Exchanging routine information and processing Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork paperwork 3. Human resource management 3. Human resource management • •Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training and training 4. Networking 4. Networking • •Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Allocation of Activities by Time Allocation of Activities by Time Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Willson’s managerial skills on 11 observable categories Skills Exhibited by an Effective Manager 1. Clarifies goals and objectives for everyone involved 2. Encourage participation, upward communication, and suggestion 3. Plans and organizes for an orderly work flow 4. Has technical and administrative expertise to answer organization-related questions 5. Facilitates work though team building, training, coaching, and support 6. Provides feedback honestly and constructively 7. Keeps things moving by relying on schedules, deadlines, and helpful reminders 8. Controls details without being overbearing 9. Applies reasonable pressure for goals accomplishment 10. Empowers and delegates key duties to others while maintaining goal clarity & commitment 11. Recognizes good performance with rewards and positive reinforcement Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Evolution of the 21st Century Manager - Robert Kreitner & Angelo Kinicki Past Managers Future Managers Primary role Order giver, privileged elite, controller Facilitator, team member, teacher, sponsor Learning & Knowledge Periodic learning, narrow specialist Long-life learning, generalist with multiple specialties Compensation criteria Time, effort, rank Skills and results Cultural orientation Monocultural, monolingual Multicultural, multilingual Primary source of influence Formal authority Knowledge (technical and interpersonal View of people Potential problem Primary resource Primary com.cation pattern Vertical Multidirectional Decision-making style Limited input for individual decisions Broad-based input for joint decisions Ethical considerations Afterthought Forethought Nature of interpersonal Competitive (win – lose) Cooperative (win – win) relationships Handling of power and key Hoard and restrict access Share and broaden access information Approach to change Resist Facilitate Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Enter Organizational Behavior Enter Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Complementing Intuition with Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Systematic Study Intuition “Gut” feelings about “why I do what I do” and “what makes others tick”. Systematic study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence. Provides a means to predict behaviors. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Influences on OB. • Individuals • Groups • The organisation itself • The environment Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Individuals • Are a central feature of OB • Are a necessary part of any behavioural set • Bring to the organisation their personality, skills and attributes, values, needs and expectations • Can create conflict if their needs and the demands of the organisation are incompatible Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Management and the individual Management’s task is to integrate the individual & the organisation, providing a working environment that permits the satisfaction of individual needs & attainment of organisation goals Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Groups • Exist in all organisations • Are essential to organisational working and performance • Comprise a range of different individuals • Can develop their own hierarchies and leaders Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Groups • Can have a major influence on behaviour and performance of individual members • Have their own structures and functions, role relationships and influences and pressure An understanding of group structure and behaviour complements a knowledge of individual behaviour Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The organisation • Individuals & groups interact within the structure of the formal organisation • Organisational structure is created by management to: - establish a relationship between individuals & groups - provide order and systems to direct efforts of the organisationOrganisational Behavior, Do Tien Long activities into goal seeking
  • The organisation • The formal structure allows people/groups to carry out organisational activities to achieve aims & objectives • Behaviour is affected by patterns of organisational structure Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Environment The environment affects the organisation through: • technological & scientific development • economic activity • social & cultural influences • government activities Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Environment The effects of the operation of the organisation within its environment are reflected in the: • management of opportunities & risks • successful achievement of organisational aims & objectives Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings. E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Behavioural science – a multidisciplinary approach Personality system Social system (psychology) (Sociology) Cultural system (Anthropology) Political Economics science Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Why Do We Study OB? • To learn about yourself and how to deal with others • You are part of an organization now, and will continue to be a part of various organizations • Organizations are increasingly expecting individuals to be able to work in teams, at least some of the time • Some of you may want to be managers or entrepreneurs Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The importance of the study of organizational behaviour • In its concern for the way people behave in an organizational context, organizational behaviour can be regarded as the key to the whole area of management • The more technical a manager’s training, the more important organisational behaviour becomes Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The organisational iceberg Source: Don Hellriegel, John W. Slocum, Jr and Richard W. Woodman, Organizational Behavior, Eighth edition, South- Western Publishing © (1998), p.6. Reprinted with the permission of South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800 730 2215. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The organisational iceberg Formal (overt) aspects Source: Don Hellriegel, John W. Slocum, Jr and Richard W. Woodman, Organizational Behavior, Eighth edition, South-Western Publishing © (1998), p.6. Reprinted with the permission of South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800 730 2215. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The organisational iceberg Behavioural (covert) aspects Source: Don Hellriegel, John W. Slocum, Jr and Richard W. Woodman, Organizational Behavior, Eighth edition, South-Western Publishing © (1998), p.6. Reprinted with the permission of South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800 730 2215. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The organisational iceberg Formal (overt) aspects • Customers • Technology • Formal goals • Organisational design • Financial resources • Physical facilities • Rules & regulations • Surface competencies & skills Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The organisational iceberg Behavioural (covert) aspects • Attitudes • Communication patterns • Informal team processes • Personality • Conflict • Political behaviour • Underlying competencies & skills Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Morgan’s 8 ways of viewing organizations 1. Machines 5. Political systems 2. Organisms 6. Psychic prisons 3. Brains 7. Flux & transformation 4. Cultures 8. Instruments of domination The metaphors are not fixed categories and are not mutually exclusive Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • 1. Machines • Organizations can be designed as machines with orderly relations between clearly defined parts • This view can provide the basis for efficient operation in a routine, reliable and predictable way – bureacratic structure However it may limit the development of human capacities Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • 2. Organisms • The organization is seen as a living system; in the same way that biological mechanisms adapt to changes in their environment • Organizations operating within a turbulent and dynamic environment require a adaptable type of structure Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • 3. Brains • Involves thinking about the organization as inventive and rational, and in a manner that provides for flexibility and creative action The challenge is to create new forms of organization capable of intelligent change and that can disperse brain like capacities Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • 4. Cultures • Sees organizations as complex system made up of their own characteristic sets of ideology, values, rituals, and systems of belief and practice Attention to specific aspects of social development helps to account for variations among organizations Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • 5. Political systems • Create order and direct people, organizations are intrinsically political • They are about authority, power, superior- subordinate relationships and conflicting of interests This view helps in a understanding of day-to-day organizational life, the wheeling and dealing, and pursuit of special interests Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • 6. Psychic prisons • View organizations as psychic phenomena created and sustained by conscious and unconscious processes • Organizations and their members are constrained by their shadows or “psychic prisons” and become trapped by constructions of reality This view provides an understanding of the reality and illusions of organizational behaviour Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • 7. Flux and transformation • Everything is in a constant state of flux, embodying characteristics of both permanence and change • Organizations can be seen as in a state of flux and transformation • To understand the nature and social life of organizations, it is necessary to understand the sources and logic of transformations and change Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • 8. Instruments of domination • Organizations are associated with processes of domination, and individuals and groups impose their will on others • A feature of organizations is a symmetrical power relation that result in the pursuit of the goals of the few through the efforts of the many Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Management as an integrating activity Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The psychological contract • The series of mutual expectations & satisfaction of needs arising from the people / organisational relationship • Process of giving & receiving by the individual & the organisation • Covers a range of expectations of rights and privileges, duties and obligations that do not form part of the formal agreements but still has important influence of people’s behaviour • The significant of the contract depends on the extent it is perceived to be fair Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Group practice • The class is divided into two groups: – Group 1 represents the organization: What do you expect from the employees? – Group 2 represents the employees: What do you expect from the organization? Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Individuals’ expectations Provide safe and hygienic working conditions Make every reasonable effort to provide job security Attempt to provide challenging and satisfying jobs and reduce alienating aspects of work Adopt equitable personnel policies and procedures Allow staff genuine participation in decisions which affect them Implement best practice in equal opportunity policies and procedures Provide reasonable opportunities for personal development and career progression Treat members of staff with respect Demonstrate an understanding and considerate attitude towards personal Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long problems of staff
  • The organization’s expectation • To accept the ideology of the organization • To work diligently in pursuit of organizational objectives • Not to abuse goodwill shown by management • To uphold the image of the organization • To show loyalty • Not to be betray positions of trust • To observe reasonable and acceptable standards of dress and appearance Behavior, Do Tien Long Organisational
  • Process of balancing It is unlikely that all expectations of the individual or of the organisation will be met fully There is a continual process of balancing, and explicit and implicit bargaining Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Formula for balancing unwritten needs of employees with the needs of the organisation • Caring – demonstrating genuine concern for individuals • Communicating – really talking about what the company hopes to achieve • Listening – hearing not only the words but also what lies behind the words • Knowing - those who work for you, their families, personal wishes, desires & ambitions • Rewarding – money is not always necessary Stalker Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • There Are Few Absolutes in OB Contingency variables: quot;It Depends!!!quot; Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Challenges and Opportunities for OB • Responding to Globalization – Increased foreign assignments – Working with people from different cultures – Coping with anti-capitalism backlash – Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low- cost labor – Managing people during the war on terror. • Managing Workforce Diversity – Embracing diversity – Changing U.S. demographics – Implications for managers • Recognizing and responding to differences Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d) • Improving Quality and Productivity – Quality management (QM) – Process reengineering • Responding to the Labor Shortage – Changing work force demographics – Fewer skilled laborers – Early retirements and older workers • Improving Customer Service – Increased expectation of service quality – Customer-responsive cultures Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • What Is Quality Management? 1. Intense focus on the customer. 2. Concern for continuous improvement. 3. Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does. 4. Accurate measurement. 5. Empowerment of employees. E X H I B I T 1–6 E X H I B I T 1–6 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) • Improving People Skills • Empowering People • Stimulating Innovation and Change • Working in Networked Organizations • Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts • Improving Ethical Behavior Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • A Downside to Empowerment? Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Basic OB Model, Stage I Model An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon. E X H I B I T 1-6 E X H I B I T 1-6 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The Dependent Variables Dependent variable A response that is affected by an independent variable (what organizational behavior researchers try to understand). y Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long x
  • The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Productivity A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness Achievement of goals. Efficiency Meeting goals at a low cost. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Absenteeism The failure to report to work. Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Deviant Workplace Behavior Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well-being of the organization and/or any of its members. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The Dependent Variables (cont’d) Job satisfaction A general attitude (not a behavior) toward one’s job; a positive feeling of one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • The Independent Variables Independent variable The presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable; major determinants of a dependent variable. Independent Independent Variables Can Be Variables Can Be Individual-Level Group-Level Organization Organization Individual-Level Group-Level System-Level Variables Variables Variables Variables System-Level Variables Variables Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  • Challenges Facing the Workplace Organizational Level • Productivity • Developing Effective Employees • Global Competition • Managing in the Global Village Group Level • Working With Others • Workforce Diversity Workplace Individual Level • Job Satisfaction • Empowerment • Behaving Ethically Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long