Finding and Identifying     Mushrooms         Sheila Dunn   Asheville Mushroom Club
Why Study Mycology?• Define mycoremediation and  give a few examples of how  fungi can save the world
What is a Mushroom?• Mushrooms are  the fruiting  bodies of  certain fungi  -the apple, not  the tree.• Classified in the ...
How Mushrooms are          Categorized• Most mushrooms are  Basidiomycetes. Specialized cells  called basidia produce spor...
How Spores Are Released•How are they spread?
Mycelium• Spores form hyphae, which in  turn form long chains called  “mycelium”• When conditions are "just so"-  mycelium...
http://www.alanmuskat.com/MUSHROOM%20CHA
What We’ll Do Today• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC  –   Spring  –   Summer  –  ...
Where to Get Mushrooms• Grow them (inoculate logs or other  substrates)• Go on a foray
Where and When to Look• Don’t’ foray along busy  roadsides or in polluted  areas (for edible  mushrooms)• Watch out: natio...
Foraying• Basket and knife• Waxed paper  bags or little  paper bags. Why  not plastic?• Collect the entire  mushroom,  inc...
What We’ll Do• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC  –   Spring  –   Summer  –   Fall ...
Edible Wild Mushrooms                    • Over 10,000                      mushroom species in                      the U...
Where to Begin???
Types of Mushrooms: Not Just           Cap and Stalk• What does a typical  mushroom look like?• Some mushrooms look like  ...
Shapes
Other Shapes: Puffballs
Other Shapes: Shelf Fungi
Other Mushroom Shapes
Preliminary Mushroom ID•   Where found (ground, tree)•   Season found•   Shape•   If cap and stem:    – Gills, pores, teet...
Beginners ID• Note the season• Note where the  mushroom was  growing: on a  tree? on moss? in  leaf litter?• Note the size...
Identification Keys and Books               • http://www.rogersmushro                 oms.com/               • www.ashevil...
Identification Keys• Most start with shape  – Cap and stem• Today, we’ll focus on preliminary  identification of mushrooms...
Cap and Stem Mushrooms                   • Note                     young                     and                     matu...
Step 1. Look Under The Cap• Gills- Agaricales, such as Amanita• Pores – Boletales, such as Boletes,  Suillis, etc.• Crevic...
Types of Gills   Widely Spaced   Giving off milky liquid   Closely Spaced   Crowded
How Gills are Attached to the Stem
Gilled Mushroom Example: Russula• Stems breaks like  chalk• Turtles and squirrels  love ‘em!
Look Under the Cap: Pores
Mushrooms with Pores: Boletes
Some Boletes Stain When Touched
Identifying Boletes• Pore color• Bluing when bruised• Stem  – Reticulated  – Dotted
Look Under the Cap: Crevices,Not Gills, Not Pores, Not Teeth  Chanterelle     Lobster Mushroom
Look Under the Cap: TeethExample: Hydnum
Getting a Spore Print
Spore Prints: Color Helps Identify
Spore Print Color? Guess……
Look at the Stalk for Veils• Look for a ring of tissue (technically  called an annulus) on the upper  stalk.• Is there a c...
Rings on Stem      Annulus:      Evidence of      a partial veil
Patches or Warts on Cap       • Check for a         universal veil:         Shreds,         patches or         warty mater...
More Evidence of a Veil: Volva• Tissue around entire button• Ruptured by the growing  mushroom• May leave warts/patches on...
What We’ll Do• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC  –   Spring  –   Summer  –   Fall ...
Morels: Early Spring                Spring edible
Stropharia rugoso-annulata                            Wine capSpring,   Summer   Edible
Best Edibles: Summer              •   Chanterelles              •   Lactarius              •   Boletes              •   Lo...
Chanterelles       Often confused with Jack O’ LanternSummer Fall edible
Beware of Jack O’ Lantern!                      Chanterelle- no true gillsJack O’ Lantern- true gillsGlows in the darkGrow...
Lactarius                volemus                      corrugis                 indigo          hygrophoroidesSummer edible
Beware: Non-Edible Lactarius!• Lactarius piperatus• Lactarius deliciosus• Both are peppery  hot• What do all  lactarius ha...
Lobster Hypomyces lactifluorum   MushroomSummer Fall edible
Chicken of Woods              Laetiporus sulphureusSummer Fall edible
Best Fall Mushrooms•   Hen of the woods•   Oyster mushrooms•   Puffballs•   Common grocery store mushroom•   Hydnum•   Her...
Grifola frondosa / maitake         Hen of the Woods; Great EdibleFall Edible Medicinal
Oyster Mushroom                            Pleurotus ostreatusSummer Fall Winter edible
Puffballs   Calvatia gigantea                                   Lycoperdon perlatumSummer Fall edible
Agaricus campestris:          Grocery Store           Mushroom           Meadow mushroomFall   Edible
Hydnum umbilicatum                            Hedgehog mushroomSummer Fall   Edible
HericiumErinaceus / lions mane                                      coralloidesSummer Fall edible Medicinal
Time Permitting• Other cool shelf mushrooms in WNC• Mushroom poisoning
Trametes versicolor                     (Turkey tail)Year round   Medicinal
Fistulina hepatica / beefsteak                polyporeSummer   Fall Edible
Mushroom     Poisoning•  2% of all mushrooms•  Most not fatal•  4 types of toxins:1. Protoplasmic   (Amatoxins)– cell   de...
Poisonous Mushrooms:               Amanita                           Amanita                           virosa:Amanita phal...
Amanitas: Do Not Eat!!
Questions?Thank You!
Asheville school mushroom program
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Asheville school mushroom program

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  • Penicillin, edible, medicinal, dyes, immunomodulation…. Saprophytic Fungi use enzymes to decompose biologic material Parasitic Fungi are able to destroy bacteria and other pathogens Mycorrhizal Fungi remove substances from the biosphere Pic above is from the SF Bay oil spill
  • Important ID characteristic
  • Leave 6 hours to overnight
  • WHITE! Rusty Brown!
  • looks like an egg.
  • Find in mulch
  • L volemus, corrugis, idigo, hygrophous
  • The brilliantly colored chicken-ofthe- woods (Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.:Fr.) Murr., Polyporaceae syn. Polyporus sulphureus Bull.:Fr.) produces antibiotics strongly antagonistic to S. aureus18 and has been noted to consume E. coli upon contact.
  • The first record of its use comes from Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Shen Nong's Scripture of Herbal Medicine [cited in Mizuno and Zhuang 1995]), which was compiled between 200 BC and 200 AD. This scripture states that Keisho (one type of medicine made with Grifola frondosa) "has been used frequently for improving spleen and stomach ailments, calming nerves and mind, and treating hemorrhoids" (Mizuno and Zhuang 1995). There are a variety of other Chinese medicines containing Grifola frondosa, ranging from cancer treatment to remedies for palsy, nerve pain, and arthritis. Other described uses of this mushroom include general treatments for immune stimulation and regulation of homeostasis. e include immunomodulating properties, mostly through the action of inducing and attenuating cytokine production (including tumor necrosis factors) by macrophages (Suzuki et al. 1988, Adachi et al. 1994, Ohno 1995, Okazaki et al. 1995). This immunomodulation is likely due to interaction of the polysaccharides from Grifola with receptors on the cell surface of macrophages. Grifola has also been shown to have antihypertension and cholesterol-lowering effects (Kabir et al. 1987, Kabir and Kimura 1989, Adachi et al. 1988). Other studies have shown that extracts of Grifola can reduce the conversion of cultured cells to adipocytes (fat cells), which can result in reduction of weight gain in experimental animals (Nakai et al. 1999). Along these lines, various antidiabetic effects, such as reduction of blood glucose and modulation of insulin and triglyceride levels, have been demonstrated using extracts of Grifola (Kubo et al. 1994).
  • Recent research indicates that the hot water/alcohol extract of Lion's Mane stimulates the synthesis of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and promotes the process of myelination.* Increased production of NGF may enhance cognitive functions* and help to slow the onset of dementia associated with various neurological conditions traditionally in China and Japan for hundreds of years, and also known as bear's head or monkey's head. Commonly prescribed for stomach ailments and for cancer prevention, this mushroom was once reserved only for the palates of the royal families. Recently a group of Japanese researchers have patented an extraction process which isolates a NGSF (Nerve Growth Stimulant Factor). They found a compound in Hericium erinaceus which causes brain neurons to regrow, a feat of great significance in potentially helping senility, repairing neurological degradation, increasing intelligence and improving reflexes. Studies also confirm many of its traditional uses, supporting the digestive system, and acting as a tonic for the nervous system.
  • A natural source of the anti-cancer agent PSK.
  • protoplasmic poisons (poisons that result in generalized destruction of cells, followed by organ failure); neurotoxins (compounds that cause neurological symptoms such as profuse sweating, coma, convulsions, hallucinations, excitement, depression, spastic colon); gastrointestinal irritants (compounds that produce rapid, transient nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea); and disulfiram-like toxins. Mushrooms in this last category are generally nontoxic and produce no symptoms unless alcohol is consumed within 72 hours after eating them, in which case a short-lived acute toxic syndrome is produced.
  • Asheville school mushroom program

    1. 1. Finding and Identifying Mushrooms Sheila Dunn Asheville Mushroom Club
    2. 2. Why Study Mycology?• Define mycoremediation and give a few examples of how fungi can save the world
    3. 3. What is a Mushroom?• Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of certain fungi -the apple, not the tree.• Classified in the Fungi Kingdom
    4. 4. How Mushrooms are Categorized• Most mushrooms are Basidiomycetes. Specialized cells called basidia produce spores (basidiospores)• Some mushrooms (e.g., morels and cup fungi) are Ascomycetes; they produce spores differently, within tube-like cells called asci
    5. 5. How Spores Are Released•How are they spread?
    6. 6. Mycelium• Spores form hyphae, which in turn form long chains called “mycelium”• When conditions are "just so"- mycelium generate new hyphae which, within several weeks, will develop into a mushroom• What are these conditions?
    7. 7. http://www.alanmuskat.com/MUSHROOM%20CHA
    8. 8. What We’ll Do Today• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
    9. 9. Where to Get Mushrooms• Grow them (inoculate logs or other substrates)• Go on a foray
    10. 10. Where and When to Look• Don’t’ foray along busy roadsides or in polluted areas (for edible mushrooms)• Watch out: national forests might prohibit• In WNC, March through November• 1-3 days after rain
    11. 11. Foraying• Basket and knife• Waxed paper bags or little paper bags. Why not plastic?• Collect the entire mushroom, including any underground parts
    12. 12. What We’ll Do• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
    13. 13. Edible Wild Mushrooms • Over 10,000 mushroom species in the US • About 250 are edible • Some mushrooms are difficult to identify correctly, requiring years of experience,Some mushroomshavent even been many reference books named yet! and sometimes microscopic analysis
    14. 14. Where to Begin???
    15. 15. Types of Mushrooms: Not Just Cap and Stalk• What does a typical mushroom look like?• Some mushrooms look like balls; marine coral; cups or saucers; shelf-like growths on trees, logs or stumps; sponges; bushes; or even cauliflower.
    16. 16. Shapes
    17. 17. Other Shapes: Puffballs
    18. 18. Other Shapes: Shelf Fungi
    19. 19. Other Mushroom Shapes
    20. 20. Preliminary Mushroom ID• Where found (ground, tree)• Season found• Shape• If cap and stem: – Gills, pores, teeth – Stem• Spore print…color
    21. 21. Beginners ID• Note the season• Note where the mushroom was growing: on a tree? on moss? in leaf litter?• Note the size, color• Look under the cap for gills, pores, teeth
    22. 22. Identification Keys and Books • http://www.rogersmushro oms.com/ • www.ashevillemushroom club.org • ID Books – Bill Roody – David Aurora
    23. 23. Identification Keys• Most start with shape – Cap and stem• Today, we’ll focus on preliminary identification of mushrooms with caps and stems
    24. 24. Cap and Stem Mushrooms • Note young and mature forms • Note veil
    25. 25. Step 1. Look Under The Cap• Gills- Agaricales, such as Amanita• Pores – Boletales, such as Boletes, Suillis, etc.• Crevices - Chanterelles• Teeth - Hydnum• These all distribute spores for reproduction
    26. 26. Types of Gills Widely Spaced Giving off milky liquid Closely Spaced Crowded
    27. 27. How Gills are Attached to the Stem
    28. 28. Gilled Mushroom Example: Russula• Stems breaks like chalk• Turtles and squirrels love ‘em!
    29. 29. Look Under the Cap: Pores
    30. 30. Mushrooms with Pores: Boletes
    31. 31. Some Boletes Stain When Touched
    32. 32. Identifying Boletes• Pore color• Bluing when bruised• Stem – Reticulated – Dotted
    33. 33. Look Under the Cap: Crevices,Not Gills, Not Pores, Not Teeth Chanterelle Lobster Mushroom
    34. 34. Look Under the Cap: TeethExample: Hydnum
    35. 35. Getting a Spore Print
    36. 36. Spore Prints: Color Helps Identify
    37. 37. Spore Print Color? Guess……
    38. 38. Look at the Stalk for Veils• Look for a ring of tissue (technically called an annulus) on the upper stalk.• Is there a cup-like sac (a volva) around the very base of the stalk? – Feature of the Death Cap (Amanita phalloides) and Destroying Angel (Amanita virosa) mushrooms.)
    39. 39. Rings on Stem Annulus: Evidence of a partial veil
    40. 40. Patches or Warts on Cap • Check for a universal veil: Shreds, patches or warty material on the stalk, cap, or hanging from the cap margin.
    41. 41. More Evidence of a Veil: Volva• Tissue around entire button• Ruptured by the growing mushroom• May leave warts/patches on cap• E.g., amanita
    42. 42. What We’ll Do• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
    43. 43. Morels: Early Spring Spring edible
    44. 44. Stropharia rugoso-annulata Wine capSpring, Summer Edible
    45. 45. Best Edibles: Summer • Chanterelles • Lactarius • Boletes • Lobster (late) • Sulfur Shelf (late) Chicken of theChanterelle Woods
    46. 46. Chanterelles Often confused with Jack O’ LanternSummer Fall edible
    47. 47. Beware of Jack O’ Lantern! Chanterelle- no true gillsJack O’ Lantern- true gillsGlows in the darkGrows in clusters on tree base
    48. 48. Lactarius volemus corrugis indigo hygrophoroidesSummer edible
    49. 49. Beware: Non-Edible Lactarius!• Lactarius piperatus• Lactarius deliciosus• Both are peppery hot• What do all lactarius have in common?
    50. 50. Lobster Hypomyces lactifluorum MushroomSummer Fall edible
    51. 51. Chicken of Woods Laetiporus sulphureusSummer Fall edible
    52. 52. Best Fall Mushrooms• Hen of the woods• Oyster mushrooms• Puffballs• Common grocery store mushroom• Hydnum• Herecium
    53. 53. Grifola frondosa / maitake Hen of the Woods; Great EdibleFall Edible Medicinal
    54. 54. Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatusSummer Fall Winter edible
    55. 55. Puffballs Calvatia gigantea Lycoperdon perlatumSummer Fall edible
    56. 56. Agaricus campestris: Grocery Store Mushroom Meadow mushroomFall Edible
    57. 57. Hydnum umbilicatum Hedgehog mushroomSummer Fall Edible
    58. 58. HericiumErinaceus / lions mane coralloidesSummer Fall edible Medicinal
    59. 59. Time Permitting• Other cool shelf mushrooms in WNC• Mushroom poisoning
    60. 60. Trametes versicolor (Turkey tail)Year round Medicinal
    61. 61. Fistulina hepatica / beefsteak polyporeSummer Fall Edible
    62. 62. Mushroom Poisoning• 2% of all mushrooms• Most not fatal• 4 types of toxins:1. Protoplasmic (Amatoxins)– cell destruction followed Amanita virosa by organ failure2. Neurotoxins Destroying Angel (Psilocybin)– sweating, coma, convulsions, hallucination Psilocybe
    63. 63. Poisonous Mushrooms: Amanita Amanita virosa:Amanita phalloides Destroying Angel
    64. 64. Amanitas: Do Not Eat!!
    65. 65. Questions?Thank You!
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