Asheville school mushroom program
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  • Penicillin, edible, medicinal, dyes, immunomodulation…. Saprophytic Fungi use enzymes to decompose biologic material Parasitic Fungi are able to destroy bacteria and other pathogens Mycorrhizal Fungi remove substances from the biosphere Pic above is from the SF Bay oil spill
  • Important ID characteristic
  • Leave 6 hours to overnight
  • WHITE! Rusty Brown!
  • looks like an egg.
  • Find in mulch
  • L volemus, corrugis, idigo, hygrophous
  • The brilliantly colored chicken-ofthe- woods (Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.:Fr.) Murr., Polyporaceae syn. Polyporus sulphureus Bull.:Fr.) produces antibiotics strongly antagonistic to S. aureus18 and has been noted to consume E. coli upon contact.
  • The first record of its use comes from Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Shen Nong's Scripture of Herbal Medicine [cited in Mizuno and Zhuang 1995]), which was compiled between 200 BC and 200 AD. This scripture states that Keisho (one type of medicine made with Grifola frondosa) "has been used frequently for improving spleen and stomach ailments, calming nerves and mind, and treating hemorrhoids" (Mizuno and Zhuang 1995). There are a variety of other Chinese medicines containing Grifola frondosa, ranging from cancer treatment to remedies for palsy, nerve pain, and arthritis. Other described uses of this mushroom include general treatments for immune stimulation and regulation of homeostasis. e include immunomodulating properties, mostly through the action of inducing and attenuating cytokine production (including tumor necrosis factors) by macrophages (Suzuki et al. 1988, Adachi et al. 1994, Ohno 1995, Okazaki et al. 1995). This immunomodulation is likely due to interaction of the polysaccharides from Grifola with receptors on the cell surface of macrophages. Grifola has also been shown to have antihypertension and cholesterol-lowering effects (Kabir et al. 1987, Kabir and Kimura 1989, Adachi et al. 1988). Other studies have shown that extracts of Grifola can reduce the conversion of cultured cells to adipocytes (fat cells), which can result in reduction of weight gain in experimental animals (Nakai et al. 1999). Along these lines, various antidiabetic effects, such as reduction of blood glucose and modulation of insulin and triglyceride levels, have been demonstrated using extracts of Grifola (Kubo et al. 1994).
  • Recent research indicates that the hot water/alcohol extract of Lion's Mane stimulates the synthesis of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and promotes the process of myelination.* Increased production of NGF may enhance cognitive functions* and help to slow the onset of dementia associated with various neurological conditions traditionally in China and Japan for hundreds of years, and also known as bear's head or monkey's head. Commonly prescribed for stomach ailments and for cancer prevention, this mushroom was once reserved only for the palates of the royal families. Recently a group of Japanese researchers have patented an extraction process which isolates a NGSF (Nerve Growth Stimulant Factor). They found a compound in Hericium erinaceus which causes brain neurons to regrow, a feat of great significance in potentially helping senility, repairing neurological degradation, increasing intelligence and improving reflexes. Studies also confirm many of its traditional uses, supporting the digestive system, and acting as a tonic for the nervous system.
  • A natural source of the anti-cancer agent PSK.
  • protoplasmic poisons (poisons that result in generalized destruction of cells, followed by organ failure); neurotoxins (compounds that cause neurological symptoms such as profuse sweating, coma, convulsions, hallucinations, excitement, depression, spastic colon); gastrointestinal irritants (compounds that produce rapid, transient nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea); and disulfiram-like toxins. Mushrooms in this last category are generally nontoxic and produce no symptoms unless alcohol is consumed within 72 hours after eating them, in which case a short-lived acute toxic syndrome is produced.


  • 1. Finding and Identifying Mushrooms Sheila Dunn Asheville Mushroom Club
  • 2. Why Study Mycology?• Define mycoremediation and give a few examples of how fungi can save the world
  • 3. What is a Mushroom?• Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of certain fungi -the apple, not the tree.• Classified in the Fungi Kingdom
  • 4. How Mushrooms are Categorized• Most mushrooms are Basidiomycetes. Specialized cells called basidia produce spores (basidiospores)• Some mushrooms (e.g., morels and cup fungi) are Ascomycetes; they produce spores differently, within tube-like cells called asci
  • 5. How Spores Are Released•How are they spread?
  • 6. Mycelium• Spores form hyphae, which in turn form long chains called “mycelium”• When conditions are "just so"- mycelium generate new hyphae which, within several weeks, will develop into a mushroom• What are these conditions?
  • 7.
  • 8. What We’ll Do Today• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
  • 9. Where to Get Mushrooms• Grow them (inoculate logs or other substrates)• Go on a foray
  • 10. Where and When to Look• Don’t’ foray along busy roadsides or in polluted areas (for edible mushrooms)• Watch out: national forests might prohibit• In WNC, March through November• 1-3 days after rain
  • 11. Foraying• Basket and knife• Waxed paper bags or little paper bags. Why not plastic?• Collect the entire mushroom, including any underground parts
  • 12. What We’ll Do• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
  • 13. Edible Wild Mushrooms • Over 10,000 mushroom species in the US • About 250 are edible • Some mushrooms are difficult to identify correctly, requiring years of experience,Some mushroomshavent even been many reference books named yet! and sometimes microscopic analysis
  • 14. Where to Begin???
  • 15. Types of Mushrooms: Not Just Cap and Stalk• What does a typical mushroom look like?• Some mushrooms look like balls; marine coral; cups or saucers; shelf-like growths on trees, logs or stumps; sponges; bushes; or even cauliflower.
  • 16. Shapes
  • 17. Other Shapes: Puffballs
  • 18. Other Shapes: Shelf Fungi
  • 19. Other Mushroom Shapes
  • 20. Preliminary Mushroom ID• Where found (ground, tree)• Season found• Shape• If cap and stem: – Gills, pores, teeth – Stem• Spore print…color
  • 21. Beginners ID• Note the season• Note where the mushroom was growing: on a tree? on moss? in leaf litter?• Note the size, color• Look under the cap for gills, pores, teeth
  • 22. Identification Keys and Books • http://www.rogersmushro • www.ashevillemushroom • ID Books – Bill Roody – David Aurora
  • 23. Identification Keys• Most start with shape – Cap and stem• Today, we’ll focus on preliminary identification of mushrooms with caps and stems
  • 24. Cap and Stem Mushrooms • Note young and mature forms • Note veil
  • 25. Step 1. Look Under The Cap• Gills- Agaricales, such as Amanita• Pores – Boletales, such as Boletes, Suillis, etc.• Crevices - Chanterelles• Teeth - Hydnum• These all distribute spores for reproduction
  • 26. Types of Gills Widely Spaced Giving off milky liquid Closely Spaced Crowded
  • 27. How Gills are Attached to the Stem
  • 28. Gilled Mushroom Example: Russula• Stems breaks like chalk• Turtles and squirrels love ‘em!
  • 29. Look Under the Cap: Pores
  • 30. Mushrooms with Pores: Boletes
  • 31. Some Boletes Stain When Touched
  • 32. Identifying Boletes• Pore color• Bluing when bruised• Stem – Reticulated – Dotted
  • 33. Look Under the Cap: Crevices,Not Gills, Not Pores, Not Teeth Chanterelle Lobster Mushroom
  • 34. Look Under the Cap: TeethExample: Hydnum
  • 35. Getting a Spore Print
  • 36. Spore Prints: Color Helps Identify
  • 37. Spore Print Color? Guess……
  • 38. Look at the Stalk for Veils• Look for a ring of tissue (technically called an annulus) on the upper stalk.• Is there a cup-like sac (a volva) around the very base of the stalk? – Feature of the Death Cap (Amanita phalloides) and Destroying Angel (Amanita virosa) mushrooms.)
  • 39. Rings on Stem Annulus: Evidence of a partial veil
  • 40. Patches or Warts on Cap • Check for a universal veil: Shreds, patches or warty material on the stalk, cap, or hanging from the cap margin.
  • 41. More Evidence of a Veil: Volva• Tissue around entire button• Ruptured by the growing mushroom• May leave warts/patches on cap• E.g., amanita
  • 42. What We’ll Do• How to find mushrooms• Mushroom identification• Mushrooms to find in WNC – Spring – Summer – Fall – Winter
  • 43. Morels: Early Spring Spring edible
  • 44. Stropharia rugoso-annulata Wine capSpring, Summer Edible
  • 45. Best Edibles: Summer • Chanterelles • Lactarius • Boletes • Lobster (late) • Sulfur Shelf (late) Chicken of theChanterelle Woods
  • 46. Chanterelles Often confused with Jack O’ LanternSummer Fall edible
  • 47. Beware of Jack O’ Lantern! Chanterelle- no true gillsJack O’ Lantern- true gillsGlows in the darkGrows in clusters on tree base
  • 48. Lactarius volemus corrugis indigo hygrophoroidesSummer edible
  • 49. Beware: Non-Edible Lactarius!• Lactarius piperatus• Lactarius deliciosus• Both are peppery hot• What do all lactarius have in common?
  • 50. Lobster Hypomyces lactifluorum MushroomSummer Fall edible
  • 51. Chicken of Woods Laetiporus sulphureusSummer Fall edible
  • 52. Best Fall Mushrooms• Hen of the woods• Oyster mushrooms• Puffballs• Common grocery store mushroom• Hydnum• Herecium
  • 53. Grifola frondosa / maitake Hen of the Woods; Great EdibleFall Edible Medicinal
  • 54. Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatusSummer Fall Winter edible
  • 55. Puffballs Calvatia gigantea Lycoperdon perlatumSummer Fall edible
  • 56. Agaricus campestris: Grocery Store Mushroom Meadow mushroomFall Edible
  • 57. Hydnum umbilicatum Hedgehog mushroomSummer Fall Edible
  • 58. HericiumErinaceus / lions mane coralloidesSummer Fall edible Medicinal
  • 59. Time Permitting• Other cool shelf mushrooms in WNC• Mushroom poisoning
  • 60. Trametes versicolor (Turkey tail)Year round Medicinal
  • 61. Fistulina hepatica / beefsteak polyporeSummer Fall Edible
  • 62. Mushroom Poisoning• 2% of all mushrooms• Most not fatal• 4 types of toxins:1. Protoplasmic (Amatoxins)– cell destruction followed Amanita virosa by organ failure2. Neurotoxins Destroying Angel (Psilocybin)– sweating, coma, convulsions, hallucination Psilocybe
  • 63. Poisonous Mushrooms: Amanita Amanita virosa:Amanita phalloides Destroying Angel
  • 64. Amanitas: Do Not Eat!!
  • 65. Questions?Thank You!