Term coined by WILLIAM HORNADY (1913) Book named “OUR VANISHING WILD LIFE”
DEFENITIONS Websters dictionary -”as living things that are neither human nor domesticated specially mammals, birds and fishes hunted by man.” IBWL(1970) -”as the entire native uncultivated flora and fauna of the country” Wild life protection act(1972) -”any animal – bees, butterflies, crustacean, fishes and moth- and aquatic and land vegetation which form a part of any habitat.”
INDIA Home of - 7.6% of mammals - 12.6% of birds - 6.2% of reptiles - 6% of flowering plants --- 172% of IUCN recommended threatened species are seen in INDIA
IMPORTANCE OF WILD LIFE-maintenance of biodiversity-good source of income as tourism, wildlife products-good genetic resource-genetic, species and ecosystem level biodiversity of organisms-ample materials for scientific studies and researches-aesthetic and recreational value
MAJOR REASONS FOR WILD LIFE DESTRUCTION Holocene mass destruction HABITAT OVERKILL DESTRUCTIONINTRODUCTION CHAINS OF OF NEW DESTRUCTION SPECIES
DEFENITIONS The journal of wildlife management(1957) - it is a part of the greater movement for conservation of our entire native flora and fauna Aldo Leopold(1933) in his book “Game management” - “ …the art of making land produce sustained annual crops to wild games for recreational use”
PRINCIPLES OF WILD LIFE MANAGEMENT• area Maintenance of Managing desirable &• No. of organisms succession stages • Prevention of undesirable species hunting • Preservation of • Reforestation • reintroduction of each community • Control of diseases endemic species ( from pioneer to • Managing exotic climax Control & species Carrying capacity community) preservation of habitat
Aims of wildlife Protection of natural habitats through management controlled, limited exploitation of species Maintenance of the viable number of species in the protected areas Establishment of biosphere reserves for plants and animals Protection through legislation
Bombay Natural HistorySociety(BNHS)• Founded in 1883• Collection of specimens of flora and fauna of India, Burma and SreelankaWildlife Preservation Societyof India• Founded in 1958• Protection of habitats of rare and endangered species
World Wildlife Fund- Nature India(WWF)• World level 1961(Glands, Switzerland)• Recommended by IUCN• In India 1969 (Bombay)• In Kerala 1986
WORKS OF NGOS Pilighit, Uttarpradesh 30 tigers, 127 animals, 556 bird species, and 2100 flowering plants 6 million people depend on this forest for their livelihood The area is of high conservation value NGOs organized PSS [Paryavaran Sudhar Santhan] Aims -protection of wildlife, endangered sp. And habitat -surveying, implementing and monitoring conservation programs Supported by -WWF-tiger emergency fund -UP Forest Department
Central Board for Wildlife(CBWL) in 1952 Redesignated as Indian Board for Wildlife(IBWL) - advisory committee to govt. in the subject of wildlife Legislation in 1972 Wildlife (protection) act - endemic and endangered fauna - setting up NPs and WLSs - State wildlife advisory board - trade of wild animals and their products - regulation of hunting
Amendment of 1991 included flora under the act Later in 1993 and 2002 Creation of 2 types of reserves 1. community reserves 2. conservation reserves 42nd amendment of Constitution in 1976 brought wildlife and forest under concurrent list India become a party in CITES in 1976 Control in the trade of endangered species Conservation of threatened species Project tiger(1973) Project elephant(1992) Project crocodile Rehabilitation of Rhinos
Amendment of Wildlife (protection) act 2002 State government can declare conservation reserves Under IBWL, each state has a State Board for Wild Life it can advise the state government In selection and management of protected areas In the formation of policies for protection In harmonizing the measures of protection with the needs of local people Any matter connected with wildlife
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