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  1. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my profound gratitude to our Beloved Principal Prof. V. Prithviraj forextending his support in all my endeavors. I would like to thank Dr. N. SREENATH, Head of the Department of Computer Science &Engineering for his guidance and encouragement throughout my academic career. I am highly obliged to thank all the staff of the Department of Computer Science andEngineering for their continuous assistance in my endeavors. Above all I thank my friends and family members for their constant source of inspiration whichhave made these Industrial Visits of mine a great success.
  2. 2. INDEXSL.No. Title Page No. 1 Introduction 2 Industrial Visit – I FLEX, kancheepuram 3 Industrial Visit – II HCL, Puducherry 4 Industrial Visit –III Azimuth, Puducherry 5 Industrial Visit – IV Integra, Puducherry 6 Industrial Visit – V Lenovo, Puducherry 7 Industrial Visit – VI Majestic,Coimbatore 8 Conclusion CHAPTER 1
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONORGANISATION FOR REPORT The industries require students who are talented in all respects. In the present curriculum ofEngineering Education is a gap existing between the students and the industries. In order to bridge thegap , industrial visits are incorporated to the curriculum. Industrial visits are very important for every student as it provides a clear picture of the presentscenario and guide them in marking a bright future. The visits educate the students on acclimatizingthemselves to various working environments. Industrial visits/implant training in the curriculumfacilitate the students to be expose to the industrial ethics. They learn about the work culture andprinciples which help in transforming themselves into better professionals. Industrial visits provide vital information. It also enables to understand the internal workingenvironment. These visit not only give exposure in academic point of view, but also enables to interactwith industrial people directly. Through these visits the students become abreast with the emerging trends in technology andget trained to complement their skills in future. The lack of this may deny the students an idea about thecorporate world. Hence the curriculum lays emphasis on undergoing industrial visits/implant training. It is anticipated that the industrial visits will have a number of advantages for both the studentsand the companies involved. Third year students will have the chance to visit a company they might be considering for theirwork experience ahead of the final year of their course. This makes them more aware of the operationsof the company.
  4. 4. Students are expected to understand to undertake a minimum of 5 industrial visits (prominenthardware/software development concerns) or a minimum of eight weeks/60 days of industrial trainingin their course of study during the 5th and 6th semesters. The students have to submit a report at the endof the 6th semester projecting the exposure he/she gained during their respective visits/training. Thecurriculum also enforces the perusal of the report to be done by a panel of the staff members for 50marks. The proofs for having undergone visits/training are to be closed along with the reports asenclosures. Industries are chosen for industrial visits/training in the field of Information Technology and itsrelated areas so that student gain knowledge and understand the needs of technology that is vulnerableto changes. As a result the students equip themselves to meet these requirements. The industries areselected taking into account the reputation and quality management of the company.The following are the companies visited:  FLEXTRONICS TECHNOLOGY Pvt.Ltd  HCL INFOSYSTEMS LTD  INTEGRA SOFTWARE SERVICES Pvt.Ltd.  AZIMUTH SOFTWARE INDIA Pvt.Ltd  LENOVA (INDIA) Pvt.Ltd  MAJESTIC PEOPLE INFOTECH Pvt. Ltd CHAPTER 2
  5. 5. INDUSTRIAL VISIT - I 1.1 VISIT DETAILS: Company Name : FLEXTRONICS TECHNOLOGY (!) PVT. LTD. Address : plot 3,phase II SIPCOT Industrial park Sundavellur C village Sriperabudur Taluk Kancheepuram dist Tamilnadu-602106. Date of Visit : 17-12-2008 to 25-12-2008 Time of Visit : 10 AM – 5 PM1.2 COMPANY PROFILE:
  6. 6. This ISO 9002 certified company is a leading manufacturer of computer peripheral devices,namely, the Public Call Office Monitor (PCOM) and Fixed Cellular Terminals (FCT).1.2.1 Product: The PCOM and FCT are used for billing purposes in various public call booths and othercentres. The major components include 8085, Microprocessor or 8031/8032 Microcontroller,keypad, LED/LCD display, Memory devices (RAM and EPROM/EEPROM), power supply (5V,12V, 17V) according to the printers used.1.2.2 Departments:Administration: Administration department takes care of purchases, finance, marketing and billingsections. On placing orders the required raw materials are stored by the storage departmentbefore being issued for quality check.Goods inspection: After the reception of Goods Received Notes (GRN) containing details of item andquantity received, from the storage department, the inspection department checks the quality ofgoods according to the ISO standards. The inspected raw materials, if satisfactory, are sent forprocessing after allotting batch members for tractability of items during problems in production.Forming: The materials are collected as batches as per the model of the board. The basic elementslike resistors, IC’s, capacitors etc. are formed to suit the purpose. • Leads are cut and bear. • IC pins are straightened.After the formation the components are stored back.Assembling: The assembling section is divided into four sub-departments. They are
  7. 7. • Layout formation • Component mounting • Wave soldering • ReworkingLayout formation: The PC board is bought and cut for suitable size. The impression of the circuit layout isdone by a circuit maker. A paste is applied over the impression and is printed over the PC board.Component mounting: The formed components are mounted according to the component layout, displayed infront of every assembly operator. The mounted boards are then sent to the wave solderingsection.Wave soldering: The mounting boards are arranged on a conveyor belt and are soldered using a wavesoldering machine by setting appropriate temperature and other parameters required as per themodel of the boards. Sufficient quantity of lead and flux are fed into the machine.Reworking: Reworking involves • Removing the lead shots. • Cutting off the extra leads. • Soldering the wire connectors. All the IC’s are mounted on the corresponding bases after cleaning the boards using thinner.1.2.3 Testing: The boards are validated and checked according to the parameters of the telephone linecondition. The clock pulses are then set manually and tested. On any problem, the quality controldepartment is reported for rectification.
  8. 8. 1.2.4 Quality controls: The manufactured boards are verified for correct placement, value, pin bending and forany short circuitry. In case of any problem the corresponding sections are informed forrectification. If the board is perfect,”OK TESTED” sticker is stuck and sent to the testing section.1.2.5 Mounting: The tested boards are mounted with power supplies, printers, keypads, displays andnamed stickers for identifications.1.2.6 Functional Testing: The assembled machine is tested for all its functions thoroughly and is sent to thepackaging section. • Pulse code. • Service code. • Beep sound. • Protect password. • Printer options. • Signal reversal. • Paper speed. • Real time clock. • Blocking STD, ISD and PCO calls. • PCO user number storage, etc.1.2.7 Heating:
  9. 9. The tested machines are put into a heater for 6 to 8 hours to determine their withstandingcapacity. During this process, some of the IC’s may get burnt. So the machines are againfunctionally tested before being sent to the packaging section.1.2.8 Packaging: The tested machines are then packed and are given a unique machine number before thefinal dispatch.1.3 PCOM: PCOM plays an important role in public call booths. The department of thetelecommunications allots the telephone numbers and the booth numbers. The DOT also allotsthe pulse rates and codes according to the distance from the telephone exchange. The telephone line works on 50V DC power supply signal, which is received from thetelephone exchange. There are 2 signals REVERSAL and 6 KHz. The reversal signal sensesautomatically after the called person reverses lifts the handset whereas the 16 KHz signal sensesautomatically from the exchange according to pulses of the called distances. Band width rangesfrom 15.5 KHz to 16.5 KHz. Total amount = no. of units * (unit rate + tax – 10.2%) + service exchange No. of units = duration of the call/pulse rate of the called area1.3.1 Parts of a PCOMPower supply: There are 2 types of Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) and linear Mode Power supply(LMPS).
  10. 10. • SMPS is a powering unit also known switching regulators consists of external transistor, IC’s and a choke. External transistor is used as a controlling switch. SMPS possesses very high efficiency. There are different types if SMPS used. • STEP DOWN switching regulator, STEP UP switching regulator, INVERTING switching regulator. LMPS consists of 2 Step down transformers. According to the printer used, the power supply varies from 17V.Printer: PCOM is categorized into different types based on the type of printer used. It uses 2types of printers: NUMERIC and ALPHANUMERIC printers • Numeric printer – 17V DC power supply. • Alphanumeric printer – 12V DC power supply • Drum printer – only character • Dot matrix printer – 24 columns of characters and numeralsKeyboard and display (k&d): Keyboard and display is mounted on top of the machine for booths owner’s facility.Either LED or LCD is used for clear display. LED contains 16 numbers of 7 segment display.LED contains 16 numbers of 7 segment display with 8 LED’s also has a buzzer indication LED.Through20 pin connector the signals are sent from the board and decoded by the decoder IC.User display (ud): UD is always kept at some distance from the keyboard by means of a cable. It is placedin a separate room to indicate the status of the machine for the purpose of public.Central processing unit (cpu):
  11. 11. CPU, the heart of the machine uses either 8031/8032 microcontroller or 8085microprocessor. The PCB board has dialing section, time, memory, and display and keyboardunit. It uses 5V DC supply.1.3.2 Sections of a PCOM:Dialing section: It uses a separate board called “interface”. The board converts 50V DC power supply ofthe 5V for CPU’s operation. CPU has trim pack which sets the 16 KHz from the exchange. Ifboth matches an output signal is generated.Printer section: Printer section has amplification IC. The output from the processor is fed to theperipheral IC and the current amplification IC. The 5V signal is amplified to the 17V or 12V DCsupply according to the printer used. When the call is disconnected the peripheral interfaceenables the printer and the printout is obtained.Display section: It has the display interface IC, which receives the output from the processor, andaccordingly the display board indicates the dialed number, name of the city and the amount ofthe call done.Timer section: It has the real time clock IC. The combinational network of crystal, resistor and capacitorgives output, which is fed into RTC IC. The overall timers including the IC can work under OFFcondition with the help of 3-6V battery.Memory section: Random access memory (RAM) is the common memory element. EPROM is used forstoring machine number and programmed software and its contents can be erased only by
  12. 12. exposure towards UV rays. Nowadays, EEPROM is used instead of EPROM, which has theadvantage of electrical erasability.1.4 SURFACE MOUNTING TECHNOLOGY (SMT): It is a method of assembling hybrid circuits and printed wiring boards, where componentparts are soldered onto a variety of interconnected circuit boards rather than into the singlecircuit board(as in pin through-hole soldering).1.1.1 SMT advantages embraced by commercial users: • Reduced human intervention • Reduced labour cost • Reduced production cost and overhead • Enhanced production speed • Reduced material cost • Higher operating speed • Increases circuit density • Increased circuit capability • Adequate performance capability
  13. 13. 1.1.2 SMT PROCESS Apply solder Place Place advanced Reflow Paste component components solder Place advanced Place Apply glue clean assembly Components component (optional) Insert through Flux and wave Off line assembly Clean assembly hole solder and solder (optional) components TEST
  14. 14. 1.1.3 The Impotance of Process Control in SMT: Because of its relatively small mass, a SMD has very small thermal capacity and istherefore, quite susceptible to thermal shock because only a small amount of heat is required toraise its temperature rapidly. The passive devices no longer have the protection of bulkyencapsulation and are much more prone to mechanical damage than their leaded counterparts.Another important factor is that they are much more susceptible to failure caused by ingress ofmoisture-passive devices because of the lacks of encapsulation and active devices, because of thevery small distance between chip itself and the outer edge of its protective package. Processcontrol, therefore, must be considered in somewhat more detail than is generally necessary forconventional components.Electrostatic dangers: In the days of 32/64 red-spot transistors, it was important to hold the soldering iron on thelead for too long or the germanium device could be damaged. With the advent of the morerobust silicon devices the need for careful handling has decreased. Recently, the requirement forcareful handling has once more come to the fore. The development of Field Effect Transistorsdevices and MOS IC’s has created components which can be damaged by quite low voltages.Now that the sizes have decreased further with Surface Mount Device, need for carefulmechanical handling and electrostatic protection have become important. Procedures for controlhandling of components and assemblies are needed and the control must begin right from thesuppliers, since, many stockiest still fail to understand the importance of protecting devicesagainst electrostatic charges and electrostatic fields. Tests in America have shown that thedevices are more susceptible to electrostatic damage when assembled on a board than whenloose. Hence, precautions are necessary at all stages of production.Soldering methods: It is one of the most important processes which are often regarded as a Black Art by themanagement and the subject avoided for experimentation/examination. Often the person in-charge of the machine is given only the manufacturer’s maintenance sheets and is left to get on
  15. 15. with the job in ones own way. The result is usually an initial experimentation to produceacceptable results, followed by extreme reluctance to change anything. This procedure might bea good one, only if it were not for the uncanny ability of the solder machine to go wrong in wayswhich we would never dream of. For example, consider a solder machine in which one of theheating elements fail. The immediate result is that a drop in the temperature, read by a singlesensor device fitted to the machine. The obvious answer is to turn the knob to return the readingto the rightful value. Unfortunately, with one element not working, there results massivetemperature gradient across the solder machine. In extreme cases, the boards may emerge withone half burnt and another half unsoldered! Thus the correct process control in this instancetherefore requires that the temperature readings on the machine gauges are to be used only as aguide and that an independent method must be devised to measure the temperature gradientsthroughout the length and the width of the machine by using a separately calibrated instrument.In addition, as SMD’s have a very small thermal capacity it is necessary to carryoutmeasurements with very small probes connected to the SMD capacitors. For instance, exposureto organic solvents may result in cracks in the SMD’s; ultrasonic cleaning methods, if incorrectlyused, may cause damage in the internal bonding of some IC’s; likewise, water wash can increasethe risk of corrosion unless proper care is taken to remove all traces of water immediately.Test methods: Testing of bandoleer components is made very difficult by is sealed nature of packaging.Though sample inspection is possible, 100% test is impractical. Hence, it must be performed atthe level of placement machine. Such testing is relatively straight forward for passivecomponents with two contacts and for diodes but not possible for semiconductors with more thantwo leads. Hence, sample operational tests are to be done on receipt if possible. This inspectionshould include a solder-ability test as it often poses a problem. As reworks are very difficult onsurface mount assemblies there should be no chance on the quality of the components used.Hence replacements after assembly are reduced to the maximum extent. The result is a cheaperand a more reliable product.Packing: The packaging is another process which must be considered at the design rate. Surfacemount assemblies must be protected from the impact of bowing and twisting forces. It must also
  16. 16. protect electronic assemblies from electrostatic damage. The packaging may contain operatingand installation instructions. The packaging is the first thing that the customer sees and hence itmust be aesthetically pleasing and should contain the essential information relating to the partnumber and warranty.1.5 GSM FCT:Fixed cellular terminals: Also known as fixed wireless terminals, they contain a GSM gateway or a SIM boxwhich may contain one or more subscriber identity modules and are used to deliver calls directlyonto a mobile network. Fixed to mobile calls, the traffic can be routed through FCT and thenonto a mobile network through air interface than a point of interconnection between fixed andthe mobile. This enables a fixed to mobile call to appear to mobile network operator as a mobileto mobile call. Conventional arrangement for handling calls to mobile services is through, AccessService Provider which originates from fixed to mobile purchase and a Terminating AccessService from the mobile network operator will terminate the call. The access service providerrecovers the costs of purchasing the MTAS, together with the costs incurred from the originatingcall, through the retail price it charged its customer for making the call.Service provision model: FCTs offer alternative approach to interconnection. An originating Access ServiceProvider can use an FCT to wireless service to deliver the fixed to mobile call to a mobilenetwork operator than to porch an MTAS and route the call through a POL. The AustralianCompetition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) concluded that the lowest available price inthe market for an MTAS at the time is 21 cents per minute. The retail cost of a mobile to mobilecall on the same mobile network is significantly cheaper. Applying the principle of least cost routing, an FCT can use a SIM associated with thesame mobile network as the called party to enable fixed to mobile calls to be charged at on-netmobile to mobile call rates. At particular times of the day, such calls may be even free of cost.
  17. 17. The difference between the cost of the MTAS and the retail mobile to mobile call charges createsopportunities for the FCT operators to offer discounted call terminate services to consumers. Bydoing so they may be able to earn an arbitrage profit.End user model: An FCT may also be used by individuals that are not carriage service providers as a formof wireless local loop to substitute for fixed line services in situations where there are no fixedlines available. FCT may also be connected o a private branch exchange of a corporate or businesscustomer to enable the employee’s mobile phone to be included within a virtual private network.Calling line identification & fixed cellular terminals: A call that is routed through an FCT will typically have calling line identification of thecalling party replaced by the CLI corresponding to a SIM used by the FCT. The terminatingmobile network operator is thus presented with a CLI that corresponds to an FCT rather than theactual originator of the call. This diminishes the reliability of CLI and CND as indicators of the origin of calls andprevents mobile network operators from identifying the origins of menacing or nuisance callerspursuant to industry code ACIF: C525 handling life threatening and unwelcome calls. It is important that the actual originator of calls is able to be identified. It is recognizedthat the way in which an FCT operates does not necessarily accommodate such a practice andalternatively arrangements may need to apply. One such alternative is for FCT operators to maintain call records that include CLIinformation which could be used by the law enforcement agencies and the FCT operator itself isto identify the origin of a call that has been routed through an FCT. It would seem important formobile network operators to be able to identify those of its services which are used by othercarriage service providers to supply services to the public to avoid misleading presumptionsabout who is actually making or receiving particular calls.
  18. 18. Potential effect of fixed cellular terminals on the integrity of mobilenetworks: As an FCT will typically be based I a fixed location, the traffic from which it originateswill generally be concentrated, with calls to be carried by a few nearby base stations. Dependingupon the volume of traffic being generated, such an arrangement has the potential to monopoliesparticular calls and affect the service experienced by other users of the network in the vicinity ofthe FCT. Under section 447 of the telecommunications act, if a mobile network operatorbelieves that particular customer equipment is threatening the integrity of its network or afacility, the network is permitted to disconnect that particular customer equipment.1.6 Conclusion The above mentioned Industrial Visit that I have undergone provided me greatopportunity to know various aspects of the PCOM.Apart from theoretical knowledge,thisindustrial visit helped me to improve my practical knowledge in industrial backgrounds.
  19. 19. CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRIAL VISIT – II2.1 VISIT DETAILS: Company Name : HCL INFOSYSTEMS LTD Address : R.S. No 107/5,6 & 7 (unit III ), Sedarapet, Puducherry – 605111. Date of Visit : 25-05-2009 To 03-06-2009 Time of Visit : 10 AM – 5 PM
  20. 20. 2.2 COMPANY PROFILE:2.2.1 HistoryThe history of structured quality implementation in HCL Infosystems began in the late 1980swith the focus on improving quality of its products by using basis QC tools and FailureReporting and Corrective Active Systems (FRACAS). We also employed concurrentengineering practices including design reviews, and rigorous reliability tests to uncover latentdesign defects.In the early 90s, the focus was not merely on the quality of products but also the processquality systems. Our manufacturing unit at NOIDA was certified initially to ISO 9002:1994 byBureau Veritas Certification in 1994 and later on to ISO 9001:1994 in 1997. As of now, all ourmanufacturing units are certified by Bureau Veritas Certification as perISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001: 2004In early 1995, a major quality initiative was launched across the company based on Philip B.Crosbys methodology of QIPM (Quality Improvement Process Management). This model wasselected to because it considered the need and commitment by an organization to improvebut more importantly, the individuals need towards better quality in his personal life.2.2.2 Business Profile HCL Infosystems portfolio of products covers the entire spectrum of the informationtechnology needs of its customers.By virtue of the immense diversity of markets and customers that it addresses, HCL Infosystemsproducts offerings include everything from high end enterprise level servers for mission criticalapplications to multimedia home computers.You may be a large multi-location company exploring solutions to e-enable your organization oryou may be a new born rising star looking for someone for IT Planning or setting up your ITInfrastructure, HCL Infosystems has a solution tailor-made for you.2.2.3 Vision
  21. 21. "We shall deliver defect-free products, services and solutions to meet the requirements of ourexternal and internal customers, the first time, every time."2.2.4 DESCRIPTIONHCL INFOSYSTEMS HCL Infosystems portfolio of products covers the entire spectrum of the information technologyneeds of its customers.By virtue of the immense diversity of markets and customers that it addresses, HCL Infosystems productsofferings include everything from high end enterprise level servers for mission critical applications tomultimedia home computers.You may be a large multi-location company exploring solutions to e-enable your organization or you maybe a new born rising star looking for someone for IT Planning or setting up your IT Infrastructure, HCLInfosystems has a solution tailor-made for you.CUSTOMER SATISFACTIONOne of the cornerstones of our strategy has been a very strong customer focus .Our 27 years ofexperience in servicing a varied range of customer requirements has given us domain knowledge of ourcustomers business . As a result of this we are able to provide exact solution to customers needs.During these years we have been able to cement our relationship with customers and gaining their trustand confidence as well.Today for our desktop PC, we have more than 8 lakh units installed units. We enjoy considerable marketshare in segments like Government, Banking & Finance and Education & research.It is the faith of our customers that has consistently resulted in repeat business for us. We have ratecontracts with -NIC , PNB, DGS & D , NICSI , ONGC , Punjab & Sind Bank.SUPPORT SERVICESHCL Infosystems Service Support infrastructure is one of the widest in the country. No matter where youare, theres an HCL Service Centre near by.Our Products are backed by an extensive direct support infrastructure spread across 170 locationsnationwide which offer 24 x7 support offering for critical sites.Our channel strength is a balanced mix of retail outlets, resellers & distributors. It was our strong focus ondistribution network that led us in devoting few brands exclusively for channel. They are - Beanstalk,BusyBee, Netmanager (servers), and recently launched EzeeBee. Today our distribution network helps us
  22. 22. take a varied product range to customers in every nook & corner of the country .The product rangeincludes DeskTop PCs, Servers, Laptops & Pocket PCs.To exist as a market leader in a globally competitive marketplace, organizations need to adopt andimplement a continuous improvement-based quality policy.QUALITYOne of the key elements to HCLs success is its never-ending pursuit of superior quality in all itsendeavors.HCL INFOSYSTEMS believes in the Total Quality Management philosophy as a means for continuousimprovement, total employee participation in quality improvement and customer satisfaction. Itsconcept of quality addresses people, processes and products.Over the last 30 years, we have adapted to newer and better Quality standards that helped useffectively tie Quality with Business Goals, leading to customer and employee satisfaction.OBSERVATIONSPRODUCTIONProduction is a process by which the job order placed by the customers are materialized.It is theprocess in the manufacturing of systems which encloses all the components of which are memorychips, processors, input output ports,hard disks in a cabinet and gives form to the desired system.The various processes involved in production are as follows• Stores• Kitting• Mounting components• Os loading• Testing• Quality assurance
  23. 23. • Packing• ShipmentSTORESIt is a bulk storage area for all the components purchased by the buyer depending upon the request ofthe purchaser. The products enter the stores only after undergoing all the qualification tests conductedby the Product Engineering Group.KITTINGAll the items in the stores undergo the incoming quality check. The various components of particular joborder are placed in one box attaching log sheet to it and are send to the assembling section for shopfloor activity.MOUNTING COMPONENTSThe various components such as the memory chips, hard disks, processors are mounted on the motherboard and it is mounted on the cabinet. The smps is also mounted and necessary power supplyconnections are given. Various connections between hard disks and ports are established using busesfor data transfer. The cabinet is provided with drives and also has slots for peripherals. Then cabinet issealed with appropriate stickers pasted on for the configuration.OS LOADINGIn this unit the various operating systems are loaded to the hard disks using the local area networkavailable.Then a logo of hcl is also made to flash to mark their brand name.If bulk orders are placedthen disk copy of master hard disk is taken to load operating system to other systems.They providevarious versions of Microsoft and linux operating systems.Microsoft operating systems like XP and Vistaand linux operating systems like Red Hat are also provided.TESTINGVarious test are conducted on the systems to measure their performance .Then the functionality of allthe components are tested. The physical verification tests are also done. The various reliability tests arealso conducted. Then the system is passed to quality assurance. AMIDIAG OS is used in testing. The
  24. 24. performance of each and every software and hardware unit is tested with separate care. If any fault isdiscovered it is send to the repair section for further steps to be taken. Hardware defects andcomponent failure are handled by replacement. But in case of any software problem troubleshooting isdone in all systems from where master copy was taken.QUALITY ASSURANCEIt is this department which takes some percentage of products out of large number and tests its workingto ensure quality of the entire bulk assembled. Then this unit also helps to provide necessary customersupport needed.PACKINGAfter all the above mentioned processes are over then the systems along with the needed peripherals issend to packing. Proper carton boxes and extended poly styrene which replaces extended poly ethylenewhich is non bio-degradable are used to pack the systems. The packing is designed by the various normsof the Production Engineering Group.SHIPMENTThe systems packed along with peripherals are sending to distributors and from there they reachcustomers. Thus the goods are shipped safely to the destination. But bulk orders placed to the companyare directly moved from the factory to the customers.Service men either from the distributors or from the company itself is send to the customers place tomake the process of installation easier.
  25. 25. All the above mentioned processes are undergone by all the products of HCL be it a desktop or a laptopor a server with slight changes. Thus the concern on the whole is its entire process of production andHCL tries to make its product stand for its name.MECHANICALThe work of mechanical section is to take care of components. They check whether all the componentsfunction properly whatever be the environmental conditions. They inspect each and every cabinet forbetter functioning.RELIABILITYEsd Test:In reliability usually three tests will be carried on. They are ESD(Electro Static Discharge) test, Thermaltest and Drop test. The first test is done using a ESD guns.(one gun produces 5kv and other produces10kv ESD). The sharp end of the first gun is kept touching the ends of CPU. Then the second gun is keptat a distance of 3mm from the CPU. During the process the system is tested for display andperformance. If the systems performance remains the same they will proceed to the next step else theywill make necessary modifications.Thermal test:Second test is a thermal test. In this test the system will be kept in a chamber having a temperature of40 degree Celsius. The systems performance will be analyzed. This is to check whether the system canwithstand variations in temperature. Inside the chamber the temperature of every component ismeasured using a scanner. The main aim of this test is to make the system fit to be operated at differenttemperatures.Drop test:The last test is drop test. First the system is packed according to norms designed by PEG .Then thepacked system is dropped down from a height of 5 feet (usually dropped one time by each face facingthe ground). They also roll the packed system to some distance. They then unpack the system and checkfor any damage and again analyze its performance.
  26. 26. Noise test:It is a test carried on the system in its working environment to check whether it produced less amount ofnoise which is compatible to the working conditions.DESKTOPThis team takes care of all the desktop components.LAPTOPSAs it name implies its work is to take care of laptop components and software. This section is also callednotebook. Here compaction matters a lot. The components should be as small as possible and alsoshould be stable. Then they match the different OS with the components and design the optimal system.SERVERAs we know server system is different from ordinary systems. They have 4 to 6 hard disks or even moreaccording to the requirement. Also the motherboard has two processors for fast operation. Theconfiguration of the server system should be such that it should be able to serve all its clients fast. Sothe work of this team is to design a server according to the customer’s requirements.BENCH MARKINGThe role of the bench marking team is to set goals that need to be achieved by the company. Theydesign products such that they compete well with their competitors and in whole raise the market valueof their products.MDP AND IIPThis is Microsoft Development Programme and Intel Inside Programme.The company is provided with various certifications from leading OS development concerns likeMicrosoft and Linux. In order to obtain these certifications and be a concern recognized by the
  27. 27. organizations they need to follow various guidelines drawn out by the company. This part of the PEG iscarried out by the certifications section.PERIPHERALThe engineering of the various components of CPU is taken care by all the other sections .But it is theperipheral section that handles the process of analyzing the various peripherals used in the assemblingof systems. It takes care about the functioning of the keyboards, mouse, monitors, printers etcconnected to the system.CERTIFICATIONSIn this department the various operating systems offered by the concerns like Microsoft and Linux aretested. The various configurations requested by the users are tested whether compatible with theoperating systems offered and their performance is rated . After this process only the products becomecertified and then they are submitted for approval to the OS providers ,their consent puts the producton manufacturing sector.HIGHLIGHTSQUALITY ASSURANCEPhilosophy of Quality"We shall deliver defect-free products, services and solutions to meet the requirements of ourexternal and internal customers, the first time, every time."The Quality Assurance wing, an integral part of the HCL has the following sectors: 1. Incoming Quality Control (IQC) 2. Line Failure Analysis
  28. 28. 3. Systems Department 4. CLA/DMA Process and Auditing 5. Reliability Engineering (a) Pre- release Testing (b) Post- release Testing 6. Customer Satisfaction (CS) Cell (a) Ni cell (b) ComplaintsThe functions of these sectors are briefly given under:Incoming quality control (IQC)This is the first Quality checking sector. It assures quality at the initial stage. Its functions are:Inspection of incoming materialsIn order to capture the material from supplier related problems, these steps are implemented at the IQClevel.MIOSThis MIOS test is similar to the one in the Pre- release Test.
  29. 29. IN PLANT FAILURE ANALYSIS They are listed here. 1. Line Failure Verification—TNRS –Alore-- TNRS 2. Aforeserve Repair Material Verification 3. DFR-- To calculate item-wise failure rate.OTHER QA ACTIVITIES 1. ESD- Monthly statement of Department, Training, Certification and Re- certification. 2. MDA- Monthly status of compliance to MDA requirements. 3. Eg. Agreement with Microsoft(sticker) 4. AFR-Presents Annual Failure Report of Frontline. 5. Repair Analysis of Field Failures: To understand any pre- starts and false up with supplier. 6. Supplier go rate: Consolidated sharing of IQC, line field failures to suppliers. 7. QES: Training to employees 8. WOES- Workmanship Training 9. QAG- Quality At Glance. Here, go rate and Line failures are measured. 10. Channel Meeting 11. BRM 12. MCM Prevention 13. Internal Audits and BVC Audits.2.2.5 Highlights and ObservationHCL Infosystems Service Support infrastructure is one of the widest in the country.Their Products are backed by an extensive direct support infrastructure spread across 170 locationsnationwide which offer 24 x7 support offering for critical sites.Their channel strength is a balanced mix of retail outlets, resellers & distributors. It was Their strongfocus on distribution network that led us in devoting few brands exclusively for channel. They are -Beanstalk, BusyBee, Netmanager (servers), and recently launched EzeeBee. Today Their distributionnetwork helps to take a varied product range to customers in every nook & corner of the country .Theproduct range includes DeskTop PCs, Servers, Laptops & Pocket PCs.
  30. 30. 2.3 CONCLUSION The visit to the HCL Infosystems gave us an insight as to how computer peripherals and serversare assembled on large scale. We were demonstrated the assembling and testing of PCs. One of theengineers walked us to all the sections in the industry. The Thermal testing centre was really a never-heard-centre. They also described us about the various tests that were conducted to assure customersatisfaction and those tests they followed to make sure that bubbles hardly occurred in their pipeline.
  31. 31. CHAPTER 4 INDUSTRIAL VISIT - III4.1 VISIT DETAILS:COMPANY NAME : INTEGRA SOFTWARE SERVICES PVT.LTDADDRESS : 100 Feet Road (ECR) Pakkamudiyanpet, Pondicherry – 08.DATE OF VISIT : 10-06-2009 To 18-06-2009TIME OF TRAINING : 10.00AM – 3.30PM
  32. 32. 4.2 COMPANY PROFILE4.2.1 History Integra is one of the leading pre-publishing services companies, in the world, providing end-to-end content management and content transformation services including high quality Digital Typesetting,e-Publishing (SGML, XML), Data Conversion and related services for Books and Journals, for variousPublishers, Presses and Corporates, around the world. For over a decade, Integra has been offering a fullrange of high-end publishing services for - STM, HSS, professional and educational books/journals;Reference books; Elementary, high school and college textbooks; Custom made course material; Usermanuals and catalogues; Financial and legal publications.4.2.2 Business ProfileINTEGRA’S SERVICES • Total Content Management Solutions - Copyediting, Typesetting, Project Management, Graphics, Indexing, XML, e-Books and related services • Expertise in handling various complexities of STM, Professional and Educational Books / Journals. • Technical and language copyediting for STM Books and Journals • Dedicated full service / Project Management team for Books. • Expertise in multi-language typesetting. Integra Software is one of the largest providers of content transformation and contentmanagement solutions to almost all the leading global publishers and typesetters across North Americaand Europe. Integra delivers efficient end-to-end content management solutions across the globe, toenable the valued customers meet their ever-growing business requirements. With over a decade of experience in this field and redefined the ways of providing total customersatisfaction, Integra has emerged from a team of 5 in 1994 to over 800 professionals today. Integra
  33. 33. specializes in providing full service project management, e-publishing for books and journals, dataconversion services, archival solutions and a host of value added services. Headquartered in Pondicherry, India, Integra has its Global Service Delivery Centers atPondicherry and Chennai, India and services its customers through wholly owned subsidiaries in the UKand USA.  Ability to offer end-to-end Solutions - Copyediting, Typesetting, Project Management, Graphics, Indexing, XML, Data conversion and e-Learning  Wide expertise in handling various complexities of STM, HSS, Professional, Trade and Educational books / journals  Technical as well as language copyediting for STM, HSS, Professional, Trade and Educational Books and Journals  Using the latest technological developments in The company’s desktop publishing process - handling complex coding requirements, DTD development, FrameMaker, Quark Express, Indesign and Tex/Latex. First company in India to handle indexing services  Dedicated full service / Project management team for Books  Journal administration / Issue management / Pre-press management team for Journals  Expertise in multi-lingual typesetting  Customer focused Delivery Units, acting as an extended arm of the client4.2. 3 DESCRIPTION Educational publishing has stringent demands on quality and short turn around projects andIntegra has time and again succeeded in its effort to effect deliveries on time with high quality. Efficientproduction processes, automating workflows and enhancement in systems and processes are constantlylooked into to provide its customers best-in-class services, in a cost effective way. As a full-service house, Integra provides advanced e-publishing services in using the latesttechnologies like SGML / XML and HTML including SGML entry of scientific text comprising of Mathand tables as per the DTD supplied by its client. The company has significant experience in composingpages using XML / SGML.
  34. 34. With rich blend of experience Integra typesets books directly from SGML and to work withcustomer specific DTD or a public DTD (Document Type Definition) in order to address the growingneeds of print and electronic publishers across the globe. Integra offers DTD Development (SGML/XML)services for all types of Books. The company has defined its own workflow and procedures for DTDdevelopment that includes Document analysis, developing SGML Application, Implementation Planningand Information conversion. The company’s typesetting quality has won many appreciations from various clients and ittypesets based on the necessities and requirements and has dedicated teams for Quark Express, FrameMaker, 3B2 and Tex / Latex. The company’s production processes have been designed to provide multiple output forms frominput data through a single workflow, thus maintaining the integrity of customer data.The company’s SGML / XML conversions include:  Encyclopedias, dictionaries  Technical Documents and Manuscript  SGML / XML to pagination & Conversions and vice versa for publishers  Scientific books and journals including tables, equations and graphicsJOURNALS The challenges of handling Journals are clearly understood by Integra and that’s the reason for itssuccesses in providing its services to global publishers for their Journals. The challenges like shortturnaround times, challenging electronic delivery requirements (SGML / XML, Web PDF, etc.) andJournal Administration capabilities are mastered by Integra over a period of time.The company offers Journal Copy editing and Typesetting services to • Science, Technical and Medicine • Humanities and Social Sciences • Professional Journals The company’s domain knowledge and expertise in all aspects of editorial and production workin this field enables us to handle a variety of work smoothly - from design and editing to composition andartwork, to proofreading and indexing, and taking care of the special needs of the different mediaemerging today such as internet, e-books etc. and also to be responsive to each publishers uniquerequirements.
  35. 35. Integra presently handles journals copyediting and typesetting for a number of Publishers in USand Europe and significant thrust and focus has been imparted to grow this business significantly.PROJECT MANAGEMENT In today’s world, publishers are exploring for the right vendors who could take away their pain inmanaging the projects in totality. Integra stood up to the challenge and today Project Management or theso-called Full Service is being offered to most of its clients globally. Being a full-service company, Integra is capable in handling Books as well as Journals ProjectManagement. The company’s Project Managers are focused and thorough professionals who would takeup the ownership in getting their client’s projects executed on-time with high quality.The Project management services include  Managing and coordinating the entire project starting from receipt of handover notes from the Publisher to dispatch of final files  Sharing the planned schedule with the publisher to meet the deadlines as per the needs Liaising with everyone involved in the project including Authors, Editors, Publishers and Production personnel  Quicker resolution of queries of the clients  Resolving any issues if they arise  Keeping track of manuscripts and page proofs through the entire phase of production Following- up and scheduling with Integra’s Global Delivery Unit to meet the Publishers deadline Integra iTracks Integra has developed a planning and tracking control system iTracks, which would help monitorthe progress of each and every job. This system is web-enabled and access is provided to key clients, sothat the same can be tracked close to real-time, on the status of the project / job, be it books or journals.The salient features of iTracks are  Project Planning  Project Tracking and Jobcard Generation Control
  36. 36.  Status Reports  Urgent Proof Reminders (UPR)  Various MIS ReportsDATA CONVERSION Integra specializes in providing Data conversion services to publishers, typesetters and also tomajor corporations worldwide.The company’s dedicated Data conversion division has their core strengthin digitally converting hard copy data to any digital format and also from any given digital format to otherdigital format, for electronic publishing. The company handles project domains in SGML/XML, OEB, HTML and other coding structures.The company’s Technology & Development arm comprising of highly skilled manpower with experienceon advanced technologies have expertise in various conversion programs in Perl and Word Macros. The company’s proven systems and procedures in place ensure high quality of converted data.The company’s services extend across books, journals and periodicals, conference proceedings,newsletters, presentations and others. The company has developed Workflow Management Software (Integra WMS) which had beenutilized for all major projects. The entire file management from receipt to delivery is taken care byIntegras WMS. This also improves the quality of output as the process is controlled by this software andno process could be violated.GRAPHICS SERVICESImage Processing Integra has highly skilled graphic artists and a sophisticated graphics infrastructure. Thecompany handles the graphic requirement of a title that includes scanning, disk processing, line-art
  37. 37. origination and editing. The company’s deft and skilled professional are well versed with the followinggraphic software: Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand, CorelDraw, Autocad,Chem Window and Chem Draw.Scanning High-resolution scanners are used for scanning half-tones, transparencies and slides. Allhalftones are color corrected using calibrated monitors under proper lighting environment (D50Lighting). Integra’s operators have good knowledge in using ICC profiles and have good infrastructure forcolor calibrating the company’s scanners, monitors and proofers.Line art Origination Company employees are experienced in complex line-arts, maps, chemical artworks and capableof delivering the same with utmost precision and of high quality. The company’s skilled resources handlecolor scanning, color correction and color separation.HIGHLIGHTSLITIGATION SUPPORTIntegra has extended its service offerings to Litigation support services to global customers. With a strongexpertise to manage the projects through its various stages during production and providing the best-in-class output we are second to none in quality. Supported by a large technology team, we provide highlevels of accuracy consistently to meet the ever increasing demands of its customers. Be it a few thousanddocuments or millions of documents, we can scale up to meet the customer requirements in a very quicktime.  The company specializes in providing Offline and Online Litigation Support  The company’s services offered in litigation support includeScanning: It is the process of making a digital photocopy from paper-based documents.OCR: The conversion of an image files to a parallel text file for the purpose of editing or searching.
  38. 38. LDD (Logical Document Determination): The segregation of images for the purpose of identification ordefine relationship. i.e. Page range and attachment range.Coding: The process of creating a database by extracting the data from the image filesSubjective: It is the process of manually entering the searchable and sortable information in thedatabase fields by looking at a document. The fields to be coded from either or all the following  Hot Document  Issues  Witnesses  Privilege  RelevanceObjective: Also known as “bibliographic” coding, It is the process of entering the data alike subjectivecoding for future retrieval or editing purposeIn Text: This is the process of line-by-line reviewing of every page in the document for specifickeywords.Issue Coding: The process marking testimony of particular issues, instead of actually summarizing thedeposition transcript to search them during depositions using Live Note software based on the input bythe client.Judgment Coding: It is the process of summarizing the details about the judgments of the trials fromJudgment verdicts.Bates Numbering/Stamping: A unique number is assigned to the scanned documents while scanning toidentify its relationship and access them in future from document management systems. This is termedas Bates Numbering.Bates capture: It is creation of an index by capturing the unique number stamped on the documents.EDD (Electronic Data Discovery): The process of seeking and locating data present in an electronicformat and securing it in a reliable format for using it as evidence in a civil or criminal legal case.Quality: Assuring accuracy level of 99.95%.
  39. 39. Every process is monitored through the company’s online tracking system that enables us totrace the productivity and job status at any point in time. The policy of paperless office helps ensure theconfidentiality of data. Strict process adherence and team performance rewards, facilitates meetingstringent deadlines.  Adobe Acrobat plugins  Adobe Framemaker plugins  3B2 scripts & templates  Adobe Photoshop plugins  Quark extensionsAPPLICATION/SOFTWARE PACKAGES:  Visual Basic, Visual Basic.NET  ASP, ASP.NET, ColdFusion  HTML, JavaScript, VBScript  C, C++  Java  MS SQL Server The company has a separate testing team to test the quality of the company’s inhousedeveloped software. The company develops software for its tracking systems, online booking systems,archival systems, intranet sites etc. 4.2.4Highlights and Observation The above mentioned industrial visit that I have undergone provided me great opportunity toknow about various aspects of the industries. Apart from imparting theoretical knowledge, thisindustrial visit helped me to improve my practical knowledge in industrial background.
  40. 40. After undergoing this industrial visit, I am confident to see myself grow as a human and aprofessional. I am provoked and stimulated by the people serving this industry. By visiting this company,I was able to understand their work culture and the importance of moral principles at the work place.Being inspired by the company atmosphere I have developed greater dedication and commitmenttowards any work given to me now a days. CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRIAL VISIT - IV5.1 VISIT DETAILS:COMPANY NAME : AZIMUTH SOFTWARE INDIA PVT LTD.ADDRESS : AZIMUTH Rediyaar Palayam Puducherry - 605005DATE OF VISIT : 26-11-2009 To 4-12-2009TIME OF TRAINING : 10.00AM – 1.00PM
  41. 41. 5.2.1COMPANY PROFILE5.2.1 History Azimuth started its operations in the year 2000. The company has been working with one of theworlds largest medical transcription service providers in the USA. The company has been generatingmillions of medical reports every year with 99.5% quality within the stipulated turnaround time.5.2.2 Business ProfileAzimuth is equipped with hi-tech infrastructure, broadband internet connectivity, uninterrupted powersupply and higher end workstations and servers.Azimuth uses the latest technology for production and training purposes thereby delivering excellencein all our services.Azimuth provides the following services: • Medical Transcription • Medical Billing • Medical Coding • Medical Call center and Medical Transcription Training5.2.3 DESCRIPTIONOVERVIEW IDEA:Traditional medical transcription is a form of document creation that the medical industryconsiders outdated, but necessary as a means of providing the necessary documentation neededto satisfy regulatory and insurance provider requirements. The practice of modern medicinedictates that the physicians spend more time serving patient needs than creating documents inorder to make financial ends meet. More modern methods of document creation are beingimplemented through the technology of computers and the internet. Voice Recognition (VR) is
  42. 42. one of these new-age technologies. With the power to write up to 200 words per minute with99% accuracy Voice Recognition has freed physicians from the shackles of traditionaltranscription services.Pertinent, up-to-date, confidential patient information is converted to a written text document bya medical transcriptionist. This written text may be printed (and hand placed in the patientsrecord, archived, and/or retained only as an electronic medical record). Medical transcription canbe performed in a hospital, via remote transmission to the hospital, or directly to the actualproviders of service (doctors or their group practices) in off-site locations. Hospital facilitiesoften prefer electronic storage of medical records due to the sheer volume of hospital patientsand the accompanying paperwork. The electronic storage in their database gives immediateaccess to subsequent departments or providers regarding the patients care to date, notation ofprevious or present medications, notification of allergies, and establishes a history on the patientto facilitate healthcare delivery regardless of geographical distance or location.The term transcript or "report" as it is more commonly called, is used as the name of thedocument (electronic or physical hard copy) which results from the medical transcriptionprocess, normally in reference to the healthcare professionals specific encounter with a patienton a specific date of service. This report is referred to by many as a "medical record". Eachspecific transcribed record or report, with its own specific date of service, is then merged andbecomes part of the larger patient record commonly known as the patients medical history.Medical transcription encompasses the MT, performing document typing and formattingfunctions according to an established criteria or format, transcribing the spoken word of thepatients care information into a written, easily readable form. MT requires correct spelling of allterms and words, (occasionally) correcting medical terminology or dictation errors. MTs alsoedit the transcribed documents, print or return the completed documents in a timely fashion. Alltranscription reports must comply with medico-legal concerns, policies and procedures, and lawsunder patient confidentiality.In transcribing directly for a doctor or a group of physicians, there are specific formats and reporttypes used, dependent on that doctors speciality of practice, although history and physical exams
  43. 43. or consults are mainly utilized. In most of the off-hospital sites, independent medical practicesperform consultations as a second opinion, pre-surgical exams, and as IMEs (IndependentMedical Examinations) for liability insurance or disability claims. Private practice family doctorsrarely utilize a medical transcriptionist, preferring to keep their patients records in a handwrittenformat.Currently, a growing number of medical providers send their dictation by digital voice files,utilizing a method of transcription called speech or voice recognition. Speech recognition is stilla nascent technology that loses much in translation. For dictators to utilize the software, theymust first train the program to recognize their spoken words. Dictation is read into the databaseand the program continuously "learns" the spoken words and phrases.Poor speech habits complicate the process for both the MT and the recognition software. An MTcan "flag" such a report as unintelligible, but the recognition software will transcribe theunintelligible word(s) from the existing database of "learned" language. The result is often a"word salad" or missing text. Thresholds can be set to reject a bad report and return it forstandard dictation, but these settings are arbitrary. Below a set percentage rate, the word saladpasses for actual dictation. The MT simultaneously listens, reads and "edits" the correct version.Every word must be confirmed in this process. The downside of the technology is when the timespent in this process cancels out the benefits. The quality of recognition can range from excellentto poor, with whole words and sentences missing from the report. Not infrequently, negativecontractions and the word "not" is dropped all together. These flaws trigger concerns that thepresent technology could have adverse effects on patient care. Control over quality can also bereduced when providers choose a server-based program from a vendor Application ServiceProvider (ASP).Downward adjustments in MT pay rates for voice recognition are controversial. Understandably,a client will seek optimum savings to offset any net costs. Yet vendors that overstate the gains inproductivity do harm to MTs paid by the line. Despite the new editing skills required of MTs,significant reductions in compensation for voice recognition have been reported. Reputableindustry sources put the field average for increased productivity in the range of 30%-50%; yet
  44. 44. this is still dependent on several other factors involved in the methodology. Metrics supplied byvendors that can be "used" in compensation decisions should be scientifically supported.Another unresolved issue is high-maintenance headers that replace simple interfaces to becomethe "platform" of choice. Pay rates should reflect this lost-opportunity cost for the MT.Operationally, speech recognition technology (SRT) is an interdependent, collaborative effort. Itis a mistake to treat it as compatible with the same organizational paradigm as standard dictation,a largely "standalone" system. The new software supplants an MTs former ability to realizeimmediate time-savings from programming tools such as macros and other word/formatexpanders. Requests for client/vendor format corrections delay those savings. If remote MTscancel each other out with disparate style choices, they and the recognition engine may betrapped in a seesaw battle over control. Voice recognition managers should take care to ensurethat the impositions on MT autonomy are not so onerous as to outweigh its benefits.MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTION PROCESS:When the patient visits a doctor, the doctor spends time with the patient discussing his medicalproblems, including past history and/or problems. The doctor performs a physical examinationand may request various laboratory or diagnostic studies; will make a diagnosis or differentialdiagnoses, then decides on a plan of treatment for the patient, which is discussed and explainedto the patient, with instructions provided. After the patient leaves the office, the doctor uses avoice-recording device to record the information about the patient encounter. This informationmay be recorded into a hand-held cassette recorder or into a regular telephone, dialed into acentral server located in the hospital or transcription service office, which will hold the reportfor the transcriptionist. This report is then accessed by a medical transcriptionist, received as avoice file or cassette recording, who then listens to the dictation and transcribes it into therequired format for the medical record, and of which this medical record is considered a legaldocument. The next time the patient visits the doctor, the doctor will call for the medical recordor the patients entire chart, which will contain all reports from previous encounters. The doctorcan on occasion refill the patients medications after seeing only the medical record, although
  45. 45. doctors prefer to not refill prescriptions without seeing the patient to establish if anything haschanged.It is very important to have a properly formatted, edited, and reviewed medical transcriptiondocument. If a medical transcriptionist accidentally typed a wrong medication or the wrongdiagnosis, the patient could be at risk if the doctor (or his designee) did not review the documentfor accuracy. Both the Doctor and the medical transcriptionist play an important role to makesure the transcribed dictation is correct and accurate. The Doctor should speak slowly andconcisely, especially when dictating medications or details of diseases and conditions, and themedical transcriptionist must possess hearing acuity, medical knowledge, and good readingcomprehension in addition to checking references when in doubt.However, some doctors do not review their transcribed reports for accuracy, and the computerattaches an electronic signature with the disclaimer that a report is "dictated but not read". Thiselectronic signature is readily acceptable in a legal sense. The Transcriptionist is bound totranscribe verbatim (exactly what is said) and make no changes, but has the option to flag anyreport inconsistencies. On some occasions, the doctors do not speak clearly, or voice files aregarbled. Some doctors are, unfortunately, time-challenged and need to dictate their reportsquickly (as in ER Reports). In addition, there are many regional or national accents and(mis)pronunciations of words the MT must contend with. It is imperative and a large part of thejob of the Transcriptionist to look up the correct spelling of complex medical terms, medications,obvious dosage or dictation errors, and when in doubt should "flag" a report. A "flag" on a reportrequires the dictator (or his designee) to fill in a blank on a finished report, which has beenreturned to him, before it is considered complete. Transcriptionists are never, ever permitted toguess, or just put in anything in a report transcription. Furthermore, medicine is constantlychanging. New equipment, new medical devices, and new medications come on the market on adaily basis, and the Medical Transcriptionist needs to be creative and to tenaciously research(quickly) to find these new words. An MT needs to have access to, or keep on hand, an up-to-date library to quickly facilitate the insertion of a correctly spelled device, procedure, ormedication dictated.
  46. 46. Outsourcing of medical transcriptionDue to the increasing demand to document medical records, other countries started to outsourcethe services of the medical transcriptionist. In the United States, the medical transcriptionbusiness is estimated to be worth US $10 to $25 billion annually and growing 15 percent eachyear. The main reason for outsourcing is stated to be the cost advantage due to cheap labor indeveloping countries, and their currency rates as compared to the U.S. dollar.It is a volatile controversy on whether work should be outsourced, mainly due to three reasons: 1. The greater majority of MTs presently work from home offices rather than actually IN Hospitals, working off-site for "National" Transcription services. It is predominantly those Nationals located in the United States who are striving to outsource work to other-than-US-based transcriptionists. In outsourcing work to sometimes lesser-qualified and lower-paid non-US MTs, the Nationals unfortunately can force US transcriptionists to accept lower rates, at risk of losing business altogether to the cheaper outsourcing providers. In addition to the low line rates forced on US transcriptionists, US MTs are often paid as ICs (Independent Contractors); thus, the Nationals save on employee insurance and benefits offered, etc. Unfortunately for the state of healthcare administrative costs in the United States, in outsourcing, the Nationals still charge the hospitals the same rate as they did in the past for highly qualified US transcriptionists, but subcontract the work to non-US MTs, keeping the difference as profit. 2. There are concerns about patient privacy, with confidential reports going from the country where the patient is located (the US) to a country where the laws about privacy and patient confidentiality may not even exist. Some of the countries that now outsource transcription work are the United States, Britain, and Australia, with work outsourced to Philippines, India, Pakistan, and Canada. 3. The lack of quality in the finished document is concerning. Many outsourced Transcriptionists simply do not have the requisite basic education to do the job with reasonable accuracy, much less additional, occupation-specific training in Medical Transcription. Many foreign MTs who can speak English are unfamiliar with American expressions and/or the slang doctors often use, are apparently unfamiliar with medical reference books, and are unfamiliar with American names and places. An MT Editor, certainly, is then responsible for all work transcribed from these countries and under these conditions. These outsourced transcriptionists often work for a
  47. 47. fraction of what transcriptionists are paid in the United States, even with the US MTs daily accepting lower and lower rates.The Philippines has recently attracted increased amounts of MT outsourcing from the UnitedStates. Due to high literacy in the English language (spoken as a second language and also usedin business, education, and government), the Philippines is trying to position itself to become aworld leader in this field. Historic connections with the US ensure that the average Filipino isperhaps capable of understanding idioms and slang used in Colloquialism, making them one ofthe few peoples outside the US to possibly be able to transcribe accurately. This is veryconcerning to the US MTs. Stricter policies in compliance with [HIPAA] are implemented insuch companies to enable security and confidentiality of work involved in such practices.HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) governs outsourcing of MT work.AHDI (Association for Healthcare Documentation Integrity) is one of the world’s largestassociation for medical transcription. AHDIs mission is to lead the evolution of medicaltranscription, represent and advance the profession and its practitioners. AHDI has a summary ofrules in medical transcription that guide companies in facilitating seamless and workabletranscription processes.Quality ControlQuality is our main goal. Quality and timeliness go hand in hand in the MT Industry. We usemultipoint quality checks to deliver end quality reports in sync with a fast, accurate, and secureway of delivering the reports.Our in-house quality analysts and editors thoroughly check the reports of the MLSs to provideaccurate reports. We are constantly working on new ways of improving the quality by using thetechnological advancements.With our stringent training and production procedure, Azimuth guarantees well above 98%constant quality.
  48. 48. To improve the quality standards further, we encourage our MLSs on continuous learning ofmedical terminology, American accent and knowledge in US demographics. Our mission is toproduce 100 percent quality work consistently to our valuable clients within the agreed turn-around time.To offer high-quality medical transcription services, Azimuth provides continuous state-of-the-art MTtraining to its associates. The medical transcription industry is growing, as are the requirements forskilled Medical Transcriptionists. In addition to its training on campus at its Pondicherry facility, Azimuthis now offering online and distance training for aspiring Medical Transcriptionists.E-learning and distance learning let you train and take exams from home.E-learning requires you to have access to a computer and to the Internet.To train for your new career, you now have a choice:1. On Campus training at Azimuth in Pondicherry.2. Distance learning from your home.3. Online TrainingDIGITAL TRANSCRIPTION:Many transcription companies are converting over to digital transcription as opposed to using tapes forrecording dictation. Basically, transcription services involve converting spoken words into writtendocuments or text. There are services that will accurately deliver a verbatim record of all that was saidduring a court trial, business meeting, medical conference, and any other such meeting of importance.Digital transcription is simply a better way to get a more accurate recording of what was said duringsuch events as those mentioned above. Recorded tapes can lack clarity, which makes it all the moredifficult during the transcription process. Digital transcription begins with the use of digital voicerecorders, which are often much easier to use as well as much more technologically advanced.Cutting Edge Digital TranscriptionDigital transcription works by dictating into a digital voice recorder, and then uploading the file to your
  49. 49. computer. Once the file has been successfully uploaded to the computer, the client can then send anemail to the transcriptionist using the "attach a file" feature, which will contain the dictated message.The only left to do is wait for your completed document to be sent back to you electronically, or by fax ifyou so choose.5.2.4 Highlights and ObservationIt is a very important concern, especially in the medical field, that all files sent be encrypted so as toprevent hackers from gaining access to confidential information. In order to protect the patient, doctor,and all other involved parties, you must use some sort of program that will secure records being sentelectronically for transcription. Most people in the field of medical transcription are aware of the latestdigital methods of transcription, and find that they are easier to work with and provide more accuratedocumentation as opposed to traditional tapes.
  50. 50. CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRIAL VISIT - V6.1 VISIT DETAILS:COMPANY NAME : LENOVO (INDIA) PRIVATE LIMITEDADDRESS : RS 19/1A 2A edayar palayam village Cuddalore Main Road Puducherry - 605007DATE OF VISIT : 18-12-2009 To 26-12-2009TIME OF TRAINING : 10.00AM – 1.00PM
  51. 51. LENOVO Since its founding in 1976, Lenovo has constantly pursued the goal of breaking the barriersbetween people and technology. Focused on marketing its brand-name in IT products around the globe,Lenovo ranks as the worlds No. 3 vendor for total PCs and No. 2 for notebooks, with the fastest growthamong the top-five players. A profitable and sustainable Channel Business Model is instrumental toLenovo’s continued growth, while a successful merger of Gateway Inc. as a wholly owned subsidiarycompletes the company’s global footprint by strengthening its presence in the U.S. and enhancing itsstrong position in Europe. Lenovo Inc. employs 5,300 people worldwide. Estimated revenue for 2007 isUS$14.06 billion. See www.lenovo.com for more information.COMPANY PROFILE Few IT companies offer the breadth and depth of products that Lenovo Group does. Leveragingthe vast collective technological resources available - Lenovo India (Pvt) Ltd., was incorporated as awholly owned subsidiary of Lenovo Computer International Ltd. on 9th September 1999. Lenovosmission in India is to translate the Groups goal of making computer technology easier to use and moreaffordable - to everyone in this country. With a focussed customer-centric approach, Lenovo in India isoffering unmatched uptime for all its systems through a vast network of Service points, innovative anduser friendly functionality while continuously lowering barriers that limit the access to the fruits oftechnology. Desktop PCs from Lenovo are ready to use straight out of the box offering a wide range ofvalue priced configurations for diverse segments. Servers from Lenovo cover the gamut from work-group users to enterprise users, are specifically geared to cope with the rigors of local conditions. TheLenovo Altos range of Servers offers a cost-of-ownership that is unmatched in its class. With its focus onReliability & Manageability it has become a brand of choice on various critical applications. Theinnovative and intelligent power management systems available on Lenovos range of TravelMate &Aspire Notebooks are but one of the unbeatable features that have made these sleek technologicalmasterpieces global bestsellers. The International Travelers Warranty gives all road warriors completepeace of mind, almost anywhere in the world.At Lenovo, we consider much more than the tangible hardware when we create these marvels. A totalproduct perspective, efficient support infrastructure, needlepoint focus on the customers needs andconstant innovation bring to you - Fresh Technology. Its no wonder then that we are among the worldstop 4 PC vendors, and the market leaders in more than 25 countries across the globe !Lenovo India has its headquarters in Bangalore, with branch offices in New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore,Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Nagpur, Cochin, Guwahati & Chandigarh. Our 120-
  52. 52. person strong team in India comes with over 1000 manyears of IT experience, geared to listen andprovide to the IT user in India the very best in Sales & Marketing support, After-Sales support backed upwith infrastructure to bring fresh technologyWithin a short span of operations, Lenovo India has managed several accolades in its endeavors: A stateof the art reconfiguration centre for fast and flexible offerings to different customer needs; LenovoCustomer Service Centers to service notebooks in about 60 cities in the country and a uniqueunmatched guarantee within the warranty period to provide peace of mind to the customer. Anextremely robust service coupled with the ability to make the latest technology affordable makesLenovo India a force that shapes the dreams of millions of people.SPECIAL CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT:The stores will be delivered free at consignee’s end including freight and forwarding. Insurance: As per DGS&D standard transit insurance clause, it will be responsibility of supplier for safe arrival of stores in full and good conditions at user’s point and purchaser will not pay separately for transit insurance clause.Warranty Terms:- Laptop & Tablet PCs:- 36/12 months as mentioned against respective items in Annexure ‘A’. Batteries for Laptops and Tablet PCs:- 12 months. All Add-on items:- 12 months.
  53. 53. For the above purpose the Notebook and other items should be picked up from consignee latest by “Next Working Day” and dropped back to consignee within 7 working days. Any component required to be replaced within the warranty period will be totally new component and not reconditioned or repaired component.Payment terms: 98% payment would be payable against proof of inspection and provisional consignee receipt certificate issued by consignee. The balance 2% after successful demonstration and acceptance of stores by consignee and on submission of Bank Guarantee for balance 2% value of order valid till warranty period indemnifying the purchaser against all losses incurred by the purchase during the guarantee/warranty.Octroi Duty and Local Taxes: Normally materials to be supplied to Govt. Department against Govt. contracts are exempted from levy of town duty, Octroi duty, terminal tax and other levies of local bodies. The local Town/Municipal Body regulations at times, however, provide for such exemption only on production of such exemption certificate from any authorized officer. Contractors should ensure that stores ordered against contracts placed by this office are exempted from levy of town duty/Octroi duty, Terminal tax or other local taxes and duties. Wherever required, they should obtain the exemption certificate from the purchase officer or indentor concerned, to avoid payment of such local taxes or duties. Octroi, entry tax etc. on buyers account in absence of relevant exemption certificate.Supply of Road Permits/ Way bill by the indentor/consignees: (a) The supplier shall request the indentor/consignee for providing Road permit/ Way bill within 10 days of the receipt of the Supply order. The supplier shall furnish all the necessary information and documents in this regard to Indentor/consignee. (b) On receipt of the above request from the supplier, the indentor/consignee concerned shall arrange to provide the Road permit/Way Bill in the prescribed form to the supplier within a maximum period of two weeks so that the same reaches the supplier before the dispatch of
  54. 54. the stores. However, in cases where the Road permit/Way Bill is issued on proof of actual invoice of the material, the consignee shall arrange to provide the Road permit/Way Bill from appropriate authorities within a maximum period of 5 days from the receipt of invoice. (c) The supplier shall not be held responsible for any delay in supply due to non- supply/delayed supply of Road permit/Way bill by the indentor/consignee. (d) All cases of abnormal delay in providing requisite details/ documents by the supplier or issue of Road permit/Way bill by indentor/consignee, the same shall be reported to DGS&D.FUNCTIONALITITES OF THE COMPANY This basic hardware company does its business with the co-ordination of its various sections. Allthese sections are controlled by the Head Office situated in Bangalore. They areOFG TEAM: This team takes care of the overall stock and ensures that enough requirement are held by thecompany to suffice to the orders placed by its customers.SALES MANAGEMENT: This section of the company is situated in puducherry . it deals with the production and dispatchof the factory end products towards customers. It includes the following stages.STAGE 1-STORAGE: This stage is the preliminary stage in the entire manufacturing process. The requiredmaterials are imported from the Head Quarters and are stored in the warehouse situated in theKarasoor as well as in the material storage section. The count of the materials according to the workorder are checked in this section.STAGE 2-STICKER PREPARATION: In this section each product is given unique work code that includes part number, codefor OS, serial number. These details are stored in the Bar Tender Software and Bar code stickers aregenerated. Zebra design software is used to generate configuration labels.STAGE 3-ASSEMBLING: The assembling consists of the following procedure: At first the mother board isfitted into the CPU skeletal frame. Then one by one the SMPS, Processor, Fans, RAM, Hard Disk Drives,Floppy Disk Drive, CD/DVD ROM are fitted and interconnected with the respective cables with themother board.STAGE 4-TESTING: The assembled machine is subjected to BURN-IN test in order to test the withstanding capacityof the machine over the temperature. Memory, Hard disks, CD/DVD ROM, audio and video, etc then are
  55. 55. tested. After this, the USB , Audio ,Video ports are tested by installing a temporary OS. If the machine isperfect then the temporary OS is deleted and then sent to the packaging section. In cases where thecustomer needs the product with a specified OS and accessories installed, the installed OS and softwaresare checked for proper functioning and is then sent to packaging section.STAGE 5-PACKAGING: The error free products are now packed with the necessary precautions. Care must betaken that the packing ensures damage-free conditions so that there occurs no damage during thedispatch and transportation of the product. Also the packing must be in a way that it is pleasing for thecustomer and contains all necessary information such as the part number, warranty, piece count, etc., ofthe product.STAGE 6-DESPATCH: This is the final stage of the manufacture process. Now that the required product ismanufactured and packaged, it must be addressed to the right customer and through the effectivemeans. The dispatch section takes care of this procedures. Loading or dispatch of the correct numberof products to the correct customers are very important. Any errors in this stage may result in a loss tothe company. Thus all the stages of manufacture are done effectively in order to promote the name andmarket of the company.CONCLUSION The plant being the very first that we visited, gave us the knowledge of what exactly happensbehind the scenes of a PC’s production, the process of assembly and testing in large scale. It also taughtus the importance of testing a product after assembly and what amount of effort it takes to ensurecustomer satisfaction. It also gave us first hand practical knowledge of business oriented concepts. CHAPTER 7
  56. 56. INDUSTRIAL VISIT - VI7.1 VISIT DETAILS:COMPANY NAME : MAJESTIC PEOPLE INFOTECH Pvt. LtdADDRESS : 151, N.S.R. Road, Coimbatore.DATE OF VISIT : 22-03-2010TIME OF TRAINING : 10.00AM – 5.00PMCOMPANY PROFILE:
  57. 57. The Majestic people is one of the leading Information Technologyconsulting, services, and business process outsourcing organization thatenvisioned and pioneered the adoption of the flexible global business practicesthat today enable companies to operate more efficiently and produce more value. This was achieved by creating and perfecting the global deployment anddelivery of high quality, high value services and products in IT consulting andbusiness process outsourcing that have helped reshape business and delivercompetitive advantage. With over 100 of the worlds best trained IT consultantslocated in USA, India and Malaysia, the company is uniquely positioned to deliverflexible world class services seamlessly to any location. We are uniquely able to help clients solve these business challenges.Whether its IT services, business solutions, or outsourcing, we can assure a levelof certainty that others cant match. Our Broad Portfolio of Offerings providesclients with the right set of capabilities for the right problems at the right time. We apply deep industry experience to provide a wide range of IT Solutions,Consulting, Business Process Outsourcing, Engineering Services and ITInfrastructure Services.MISSION AND VISION:Our Mission:
  58. 58. We have single mindedly focused in becoming a leading consulting,technology and outsourcing services firm. Our mission is to increase businessefficiency through technology innovations which help global clients plan theirtechnology & marketing investments covering all aspects from Ideas toImplementation.Vision: • To become a CMM Level 5 company and to generate profit for our clients, employees and shareholders. • To be the lowest cost producer of software products.SERVICES:QUALITY ASSURANCE AND TESTING: In developing products and services, quality assurance is anysystematic process of checking to see whether a product or service beingdeveloped is meeting specified requirements. MPI have a separate departmentdevoted to quality assurance. A quality assurance system is said to increasecustomer confidence and a companys credibility, to improve work processes andefficiency, and to enable a company to better compete with others. Todaysquality assurance systems accentuate catching defects before they get into thefinal product.
  59. 59. MPI provides quality assurance solutions for web & desktop applications.The aim is to deliver high-quality services -on time delivery. The team membersare experienced professionals well versed in QA methodologies.MPI Quality Assurance: A dedicated Quality Assurance department is responsible for qualitymonitoring and testing at all stages of website development to ensure highquality of the final product. Quality Assurance includes various aspects of entireproject including GUI testing and HTML standards Compliance, functionality-to-requirements conformity, error-free coding, performance and stability testing. Since MPI establishment, we have been dedicated to quality with oursenior management team personally encouraging quality consciousness at alllevels. Our clients can benefit from effectively compiled service packages or fromour Total Quality Program, which provides comprehensive solution for qualityassurance activities in your project.Our QA Involves:• Deep analysis of your project to understand all crucial points.
  60. 60. • Development of a right QA strategy• Establishment of effective project processes & offshore team compilation• Automation of suitable activities (assessed during project analysis stage)• Performance (scalability, reliability) evaluation• Guaranteed result as output.We make software affordable to all and deliver rich quality assured software toour clients.WEB APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT: Majestic People InfoTech is a well renowned IT outsourcingoffshore development team. Our strength lies in setting up dedicated offshoreworkforce for software and application development, application maintenanceand independent software testing with a well qualified and skilled set of projectmanagement team. We Ensure software quality through Extreme programmingby following agile development methodology we make our software affordable toall. We explore our potential by applying innovative and creative ideas. Weattain success through dedicated team of fundamentally strong professionals;with sound domain knowledge .We also follow proven strategic techniques. MPI renders support and services through which the business objectives ofthe clients are met exceeding their expectations. With complete user satisfaction,we deliver user friendly and quality product there by providing customization anddevelopment of software application for our clients to expand their business area.
  61. 61. Our competent team at MPI possesses expertise in developmenttechnologies over a wide range of custom programming platforms including .NET,SharePoint, XML and all emerging latest technologies. Due consideration isprovided under each phase in all aspects, for all projects. Equal importance isgiven to the presentation and the technology of particular software. The softwareis well protected and highly secured. Quality testing is performed to deliverproducts without flaws or mal-functions. MPI also offers life-long maintenance forthe software developed. With our well-defined methodologies, we strive to provide you reliable,secure, robust, and scalable and user friendly business applications. We insist andconcentrate on our success formula “quality output on-time delivery”. We solveour client’s complex problems through well-defined processes and by applyingstrategic techniques to achieve feasible and optimal solution. Our MPI team possesses vast experience and implements process-orienteddevelopment methods and through this, we have catered toclients globally, upgrading and customizing their present applications with thelatest technologies. With Our Custom Application Development Services, we• Enhance the effectiveness and management of the application for betterproductivity.
  62. 62. • Visualize your requirement in the near future and come up with innovativeideas that best suits the needs of the client.• Make the application user-friendly and fills the gap between the need of theapplication and usage of the same.• Make you realize how to carve a niche against tough competitors.Web Application Development: MPI has been working in the field of custom software development since2004. Our expert team has developed various software application projects. Weare experienced in developing well advanced systems with complex business logicdealing with large volume of data and transactions. We are able to supply youwith an innovative, trustworthy, quality software solution to enhance your mostcomplicated business ideas. MPI Web site application development team focuses on creating innovativesolutions that match - or exceed - our clients objectives. MPIs Custom Websiteapplications feature need-based and significant functionalities. It help’s toimprove the procession by increasing productivity, enhancing information &business process precision and escalates business system efficiency. Our effective project management team highlights the key areas in closelypacked hexagonal structure• Project Management• Project Life Cycle• Configuration Management• Change Control
  63. 63. • Software Engineering• Quality Assurance & TestingKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT:Technical Expertise: MPI experts use brand new technologies and current industry trendsto deliver technically complex and yet comprehensible solutions with the optimalcost/performance ratio.Share Point Solutions: We help organizations to demystify Share Point. As is a saying “knowledgeis power”. We know the necessity of the helping them gain the understandingthat they need to take the first step or next step with SharePoint.MPI Consultingteam has gained significant growth, including early development efforts onreleases that go back as far back as Share Point beta. Our team provides offshoreservices for installing, configuring, developing customized web parts, customizedmigrations, troubleshooting implementation issues & solutions that use WindowsShare Point Technologies. Our team also provides a complete cycle of end-to-endconsulting from planning to implementation of Share Point Solutions.Technologies: A critical issue facing every Share Point implementation is aligning thetechnology to meet business requirements, while at the same time understandingand considering the users, organization and cultural impact issues associated with

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