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We define what it means for a function to have a maximum or minimum value, and explain the Extreme Value Theorem, which indicates these maxima and minima must be there under certain conditions.
Fermat's Theorem says that at differentiable extreme points, the derivative should be zero, and thus we arrive at a technique for finding extrema: look among the endpoints of the domain of definition and the critical points of the function.
There's also a little digression on Fermat's Last theorem, which is not related to calculus but is a big deal in recent mathematical history.
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