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Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes
 

Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes

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2009 Faculty Summer Project Presentation

2009 Faculty Summer Project Presentation

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    Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes Presentation Transcript

    • Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in the College Writing Classroom Leila Palis English/ESL Faculty Paradise Valley Community College Phoenix, Az
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Defining “Generation 1.5”
      • Generation 1.5 students are students who immigrate to the United States, usually in junior high school or high school, and are educated in the U.S. public school system.
      • Generation1.5 students are unique in that they are neither first generation immigrants (those who grow up in linguistic and cultural contexts outside of the U.S.) nor second generation immigrants (U.S.-born children of immigrants).
      • Generation 1.5 students are not traditional “ESL” students because they have been educated in the U.S. public school system and identify with American culture.
      • Generation 1.5 students are not traditional “mainstream” students because they are still in the process of learning English when they enter college.
        • Generation 1.5 students “often have limited proficiency in their first language and at the same time have not acquired the academic English necessary for the cognitive and linguistic demands of discipline-specific academic classes in English language institutions of higher learning.” *
      • *Signal, Meena. “Academic Writing and Generation 1.5.” The Reading Matrix , Nov. 2004. N.P. Web. 25 June 2009.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Looking at Numbers
      • We are currently facing the biggest inflow of immigrant children in American history. Approximately one-third of the one million immigrants arriving in the U.S. each year are under the age of 18.*
      • According to the Migration Policy Institute, the number of English Language Learners in the K-12 U.S. educational system increased by 84% between 1993 and 2003 while the general population grew by only 12%.
      • Because colleges are not required to keep track of students’ native languages, it is not clear how many of these children are entering U.S. colleges and universities. However,
        • “ This group has been identified by the National Academic Advising Association’s ESL/International Student Commission as a group that is rapidly growing and in need of special advising consideration.”**
        • “ Generation 1.5 immigrant students make up a group in which the current trend is toward higher prevalence in community colleges.”**
        • More material is now being published about generation 1.5 college students in response to increasing numbers of these students in colleges and universities across the country.
      • *Roberge, Mark. “A Teacher’s Perspective on Generation 1.5.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 3-24. Print.
      • **Masterson, Laura C. “Generation 1.5 Students.” The Mentor . Penn State. 28 Feb. 2007. Web. 15 June 2009.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Challenges Facing Immigrant Youth
      • Struggles with individual identity
        • While some immigrant children have few memories of their homeland if they come to the U.S. at an early age, others struggle with the disparity between their homeland identity and their U.S. identity. If a successful balance is reached, they can become strong bicultural individuals. If not, they can feel alienated from both cultures.*
      • Intergenerational values conflicts
        • Although it may be difficult, immigrant children tend to adjust to U.S. culture more quickly than their parents. Disagreements related to education, gender roles, and familial relationships are common in immigrant households.*
      • Responsibilities
        • Many immigrant youth work two jobs to help support their families and work as translators for their parents, taking away from valuable study time.*
      • Mental Effects
        • Due to the numerous challenges of immigrating to a new country, many immigrant youth suffer from anxiety and depression.*
      • * Roberge, Mark. “A Teacher’s Perspective on Generation 1.5.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 3-24. Print.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Challenges Facing Immigrant Youth
      • Poverty
        • “ Immigrant children are twice as likely to be poor as native- born children.”*
        • “ Among children whose parents work full time, immigrant children are at greater risk of living in poverty than native-born children.”*
        • “ Among children whose parents have more than a high school education, immigrant children are twice as likely to be poor as native-born children.”*
        • “ Among children living in two-parent families, immigrant children are almost four times as likely to be poor as native-born children.”*
      • *“Immigrant Children in the United States.” NCCP . NCCP. 2009. Web. 15 June 2009.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Experiences in the K-12 Public School System
      • Assessment
        • Assessment tools are inadequate and unreliable.*
        • Some students are mainstreamed too quickly; other students remain in ESL courses too long, cut off from native speakers.*
      • Discrimination
        • U.S.-born white classmates may see them as “foreigners” while U.S.-born same-ethnicity classmates can see them as “backwards.”*
        • School teachers may have conscious or unconscious stereotypes of immigrant children and either underestimate them or place unrealistic expectations on them.*
      • *Roberge, Mark. “A Teacher’s Perspective on Generation 1.5.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 3-24. Print.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Experiences in the K-12 Public School System
      • Language Learning
        • Most junior high schools and high schools are not prepared to meet the needs of the large percentage of nonnative speakers entering their schools each year.
          • “ Compared to lower grades, relatively few resources for English-language acquisition flow to secondary schools given the share of foreign born and recently arrived students who are enrolled. Further, secondary schools tend to be less well equipped to provide both the language and literacy instruction that many late entering secondary school students need.”*
        • Students are often taught by teachers not trained in teaching English to immigrants.
      • Fix, Michael, and Randy Capps. “Immigrant Children, Urban Schools, and the No Child Left Behind Act.” MPI . MPI. Nov. 2005. Web. 28 May 2009.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Challenges Facing Generation 1.5 College Writing Students
      • Course Placement
        • Accurate course placement is the biggest challenge facing generation 1.5 college writing students.
        • They are not prepared for mainstream basic writing and composition courses.
        • They are not “traditional” ESL students, so placement in ESL-designated writing courses is also problematic.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Challenges Facing Generation 1.5 College Writing Students
      • Placement of generation 1.5 students in mainstream basic writing and college composition courses is problematic.
        • Students do not possess the same vocabulary as their native-born peers.
          • “ While English-first students usually enter college with vocabularies of 10,000 to 100,000 words, ELs’ [English language learners] beginning academic work tends to have access to 2,000 to 7,000 words.”*
        • Generation 1.5 students learn much of their language orally/aurally through friends, co-workers, and the media.
          • Key features of English, those not usually present in spoken English, are never learned. Thus, while generation 1.5 students may have excellent speaking skills and often times no noticeable accent, they struggle greatly when faced with writing assignments that require attention to formal elements of the language. In fact, they often lack key terminology to even understand the explanation of these features.**
        • Generation 1.5 students are still building their academic lexicons.
          • They do not have the same developed sense of English syntax and morphology as native speakers.*
        • Instructors typically have no formal training in teaching English as a second language.
      • *Allison, Harriett. “High School Academic Literacy Instruction and Transition to College Writing.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 75-90. Print.
      • **Roberge, Mark. “A Teacher’s Perspective on Generation 1.5.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 3-24. Print.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Challenges Facing Generation 1.5 College Writing Students
      • Placement of generation 1.5 students in traditional ESL writing courses is problematic.
        • Many “worked” their way out of ESL classes in high school and see placement in ESL classes as a step backward.
        • Most ESL courses are designed for foreign visa students (exchange students) and recently arrived immigrants.*
          • Foreign visa students often have a more developed sense of English morphology and syntax.
          • Foreign visa students and recent immigrants still struggle with every day vocabulary, slang, idioms, and American cultural references whereas generation 1.5 students do not.
        • Generation 1.5 students may resent being placed in ESL-designated courses and/or feel bored in them.
          • They may not put forth the effort needed to succeed in these classes.
      • **Roberge, Mark. “A Teacher’s Perspective on Generation 1.5.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 3-24. Print.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Challenges Facing Generation 1.5 College Writing Students
      • Other challenges
        • Lack of support services
          • No support services are designed specifically for generation 1.5 students.
          • Advising is often inadequate.
            • Students are often left to choose classes on their own.
            • Students are not aware of the challenges they may face in mainstream writing courses.
        • Socioeconomic factors
          • Many are from low-income households.*
          • Many must work full-time while attending school.*
          • Most are first-generation college students and may lack support at home.*
      • *Roberge, Mark. “A Teacher’s Perspective on Generation 1.5.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 3-24. Print.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes
      • At the college level…
        • “ To gain the attention needed to change the services provides, top-level administrators must take notice of this growing population and prioritize the development and implementation of programs to assist generation 1.5 students.”*
        • Create on-campus support services designed specifically for generation 1.5 students.
        • Specific and accurate advising must be offered for generation 1.5 students.
          • Multicultural competency must be part of advisors’ professional training and should be required and ongoing to reflect changes in student population.*
          • It is imperative that advisors understand the backgrounds of generation 1.5 students, their unique needs as learners, and additional obstacles to college success that many face at home.
          • Advisors must take into account the individual needs and academic development of each student.
            • This is not an easy task and can only be achieved through personal conversations with students.
          • The decision of whether to enroll in mainstream or ESL-designated courses should always be left to the student.
      • *Masterson, Laura C. “Generation 1.5 Students.” The Mentor . Penn State. 28 Feb. 2007. Web. 15 June 2009.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes
      • At the departmental level…
        • The notion that there are only two distinctions between writing students, mainstream and ESL, can no longer exist.
        • Better course placement tests are needed.
          • According to Valdes, more finely-tuned placement tests are needed- ones with criteria to differentiate between students who need further instruction in the English language and those who need further instruction in academic English but do not require ESL classes.*
          • Simple writing samples or prolonged detailed conversations often reveal signs that a student may still be struggling with academic English.**
        • Rename courses to eliminate ESL-designation.
          • University of California offers “Freshman Composition 2.”
          • “ Composition for Multilingual Students”
        • Create writing courses that are available only to generation 1.5 students.
      • *Harklau, Linda. “Generation 1.5 Students in College Writing.” CAL . CAL. Oct. 2003. Web. 15 May 2009.
      • **Masterson, Laura C. “Generation 1.5 Students.” The Mentor . Penn State. 28 Feb. 2007. Web. 15 June 2009.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes
      • At the departmental level…
        • Offer more professional development opportunities for teachers who teach classes that tend to have high numbers of generation 1.5 students in them.*
        • Link academic skills courses (i.e.. basic writing and reading) in learning communities.
        • Offer editing and revising workshops designed specifically for generation 1.5 students to help them in their composition classes.*
          • These classes can be attached to the composition class or offered separately.
        • Develop credit-bearing courses rather than non-credit developmental courses.*
        • Departments must work to educate advisors about the differences between English and ESL-designated courses at their specific college so the information can be passed on to students.
      • *Roberge, Mark. “A Teacher’s Perspective on Generation 1.5.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 3-24. Print.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes
      • In the classroom…
        • Teachers must become educated about the unique needs of this growing population of college students.
        • “ Educators must keep in mind that they may have generation 1.5 learners in their courses and critically examine their pedagogy to see that it is as inclusive as possible.*
          • This applies to ESL, basic writing, and English composition instructors.
        • Only students who show a lack of English (not academic English) proficiency should be advised to switch to an ESL-designated course.
        • Academic literacy must be a major component of writing courses that tend to have a high number of generation 1.5 students in them.*
          • Incorporate readings into classes.
          • Make grammar accessible with little “jargon.”
          • Teach students strategies to develop support.
      • *Crosby, Cathryn. “Academic Reading and Writing Difficulties and Strategic Knowledge of Generation 1.5 Students.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 105-119. Print.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Increasing the Success of Generation 1.5 Students in College Composition Classes
      • In the classroom…
        • Make sure students have the opportunity to write about topics that they care about to foster critical thinking.*
        • Reading, writing, listening, and speaking should be emphasized in all college writing classes.**
          • Mini grammar lessons
          • Readings that include academic vocabulary
          • Peer editing
          • Small group discussions
          • Introduction to the writing process
      • *Murie, Robin, and Renata Fitzpatrick. “Situating Generation 1.5 in the Academy.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 153-169. Print.
      • **Signal, Meena. “Academic Writing and Generation 1.5.” The Reading Matrix , Nov. 2004. N.P. Web. 25 June 2009.
    • Understanding Generation 1.5 College Writing Students Importance of Recognizing the Need for Change
      • Unfortunately, this already large and growing group of students is underserved at most colleges and universities in the country.
      • Student success should be the number one goal of all colleges and universities, and this can only happen through continued educational change.
      • The biggest obstacle to creating successful programs for generation 1.5 students is the long-established and faulty division of college writing courses into only mainstream or ESL.
      • We must “broaden our pedagogical repertoires in all college classroom contexts, and begin to break down the traditional institutional boundaries of College ESL, Basic Writing, and ‘mainstream’ College Composition Categories that do little to mirror the realities of many of our Generation 1.5 students.”*
      • *Roberge, Mark. “A Teacher’s Perspective on Generation 1.5.” Generation 1.5 in College Composition . Mark Roberge, Meryl Siegal, and Linda Harklau. New York: Routledge, 2009. 3-24. Print.