From Classroom to Lab:


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ICT's teaching literacy, numeracy in an African context

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  • What Was I looking for?Computers placed in marginal or sub-elite schoolsTeachers and learners operating with computersLiteracy Events and Literacy PracticesWhy?I wanted to understand the emergence of literacy practices around pre-installed computer hardware and software as argued in Multiliteracies work and the New Literacy Studies
  • A word wall of my abstract/overview
  • Who is passive here?Who is active here?What is here?
  • I capture video clips of learners sitting in pairs around the computer, in particular two young boys, ‘Leon and David’, one reading the words, the other clicking and scrolling across the pictures. There appears to be no set task or specific outcome for the lesson in terms of follow through from the classroom. Leon sits with his pencil in hand pointing at the screen, telling David the correct answer. They are identifying colours, e.g, red, green, yellow etc. on different types of objects, such as cars, hats and balls. This particular exert on the screen is of the ball.What opportunities for communication exist here?
  • Technological ThrustsNew forms of knowingScreen-based and multimedia textsKnowledge and digitizationSchools provide knowledge for communities
  • Results: Technology is set up in ways which are sometimes constrained/restrictive and thus reinforce skewed authority relations in the discourse of the classroom. Also technology can be set up in productive/creative ways which fosters student-led inquiry and leads towards action on the part of the learner.
  • From Classroom to Lab:

    1. 1. From Classroom to Lab:ICT’s teaching Literacy, Numeracy in an African Context<br />Leighton Forbes<br />University of Cape Town<br />
    2. 2. Basis of the Research Case-Study<br />Western Cape, South Africa<br />Ethnographic study in a primary school in a low-income area in Cape Town<br />
    3. 3. Problems and Purpose<br />Computerized and networked media resources operate in these settings in specific ways that are ignored in discussions of the ‘digital divide’, and the call for the expansion of physical access to computers and the internet. <br /> (Prinsloo and Walton, 2008)<br />
    4. 4. Conceptual Resources/Theoretical Framework<br />Literacy as a Social Practice<br />New Literacy Studies <br />Multimodality/Discourse analysis<br />
    5. 5. Data collection & Analysis<br />Grade 2 and Grade 7 classroom observations<br />Field – notes <br />Transcription of teacher talk in the laboratory and classroom<br />Multimodal discourse analysis <br />Screenshots of computer lab activities<br />Interviews (semi-structured/unstructured)<br />
    6. 6. A new communication order?<br />The challenge for research is to extend and enhance understanding of the ways in which the use of new technologies influences, shapes, even transforms literacy practices. (Snyder, 2001)<br />
    7. 7. Social practices in the school<br />Literacy event<br /><ul><li>the observed event most easily spotted in the classroom</li></ul>Literacy practice<br /><ul><li>The broader social activity associated with observed events</li></li></ul><li>
    8. 8. Timetable<br />
    9. 9. Rules/Authority relationships<br />
    10. 10. Drill and Practice Software<br />Still very popular<br />Comes pre-installed<br />Basically expensive electronic worksheets<br />
    11. 11. Multimodal analysis – computer screens<br />Fill in the missing word activities<br />Sequencing activities<br />
    12. 12. Challenges<br />Shortage of books that accompanied the software<br />
    13. 13. Learners engaging, disengaged?<br />
    14. 14. Pre-installed Reading software<br />
    15. 15. Classroom inquiry<br />
    16. 16. Technological thrusts<br />
    17. 17. New forms of knowing<br />
    18. 18. Screen-based, multimedia texts plus other tactile digital tools<br />
    19. 19. Knowledge and digitization<br />
    20. 20. Schools provide knowledge for communities<br />
    21. 21. Scaffolding knowledge<br />
    22. 22. Grade 7 Class Project -The Tuck-shop<br />
    23. 23. Learner engagement: Questions and Inquiry during Maths<br />Draft work of data gathering<br />Survey of class favourites<br />
    24. 24. Student surveys<br />
    25. 25. Grade 7 work samples – data gathered from interviews in the classroom<br />Line graph of favorite cars<br />Line graph favorite brands<br />
    26. 26. Extending knowledge and leading towards action<br />Gathering data, took surveys, workbook <br />Skills using databases & spreadsheets<br />Applying knowledge to the school community context<br />
    27. 27. Students Taking Action<br />Prepare survey results<br />Recorded findings electronically<br />Analyze needs<br />Report findings to school principal<br />Write recommendations based on findings<br />
    28. 28. Graphing data<br />
    29. 29. Challenges<br />Passivity vs. Taking action<br />Power/Authority relations<br />Teacher reluctance and/or apprehension<br />
    30. 30. Results<br />Technology set up restrictive/constrained<br />Technology set up<br /> productive/ creative <br />
    31. 31. Potential of Technology<br />Use technologies as a mediating tool<br />Infuse ICT integration into the school curriculum<br />
    32. 32. What Impact?<br />Empowering and Equipping Children<br />Customize learning experiences<br />Share responsibilities<br />Training of 21st Century teachers<br />Key Factors for Success:<br />Scaffold student learning activities around new tools<br />Teacher competence with technology integration<br />Develop learning communities around new technologies<br />
    33. 33. Technology Integration Matrix<br />
    34. 34. Moving from entry to transformation<br />The teacher begins to use technology tools to deliver curriculum content to students<br />
    35. 35. Adoption<br />The teacher directs students in the conventional and the procedural use of technology tools e.g. hardware or software<br />
    36. 36. Adaptation<br />The teacher facilitates students in exploring and independently using technology tools<br />
    37. 37. Infusion<br />The teacher provides the learning context and the students choose technology tools to achieve the outcome.<br />
    38. 38. Transformation<br />The teacher encourages the innovative use of technology tools. <br />Technology tools are used to facilitate higher order learning activities that may not have been possible without the technology<br />
    39. 39. Moving from Active to Goal-directed<br />Students are actively engaged in using technology as a tool rather than passively receiving information from the technology <br />
    40. 40. Collaborative<br />Students use technology tools to collaborate with others rather than work individually at all times<br />
    41. 41. Constructive<br />Students use technology tools to connect new information to their prior knowledge rather than to passively receive information<br />
    42. 42. Authentic<br />Students use technology tools to link learning activities to the world beyond the instructional setting rather than working on decontextualized assignments<br />
    43. 43. Goal-directed<br />Students use technology tools to set goals, plan activities, monitor progress, and evaluate results rather than completing assignments without reflection<br />
    44. 44. Conclusion…<br />
    45. 45. Thank You<br /> Leighton Forbes<br />Email:<br />Website:<br />Social Media:<br />