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Washington day one

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  • 1. WARM UP Read, analyze chart and answer the question City 1790 1800 1810 Boston New York Philadelphia Baltimore Charleston 18,038 33,131 45,529 13,503 16,359 24,937 60,489 69,403 26,114 20,473 33,250 96,373 91,874 35,583 24,711 1. What conclusions about trends in America can you make from this chart? (Geography, impact of slavery, importance of trade, etc) 2. Why did we have a Census?
  • 2. 1. Washington’s Presidency  Served 2 terms---1789 to 1797  VP: John Adams 2. US Problems = Solutions  Government on paper but not in practice  Precedents  Develops first  Cabinet----Hamilton vs Jefferson  Supreme Court  Debt Farmers refuse to  Excise taxes and tariffs pay Whiskey tax  Bank of United States (BUS) in 1792 to US Govt. “Mobocracy”  Confidence in new Constitution  Whiskey Rebellion  Successfully put down by Washington, 1794 notes1
  • 3. The Possibility of War notes2 Jay’s Treaty—1793---Great Britain Forts for debts Picnkney’s Treaty—1795---Spain Open up the Mississippi River French Revolution---1789 to 1800---US US asked to help France in war with England Neutrality Act---Washington warns US to stay neutral and not side with the French. 4. Washington’s Farewell Speech: 1796 Two ways the US can stay unified Avoid political parties Military alliances with Europe Neutrality----Isolation Achievements: •Sound economic foundation •westward expansion •Kept us out of war
  • 4. Forming a Government “We are in a wilderness without a footstep to guide us” ~ James Madison
  • 5. Washington: The Obvious Choice • Acc. To Constitution, president was to be chosen by “electors” named by state legislatures • Each elector had two ballots • Washington was unanimous 1st choice (69 electoral votes) • Under this system, the winner was president & person with secondgreatest number of votes became VP (it was Adams with 34 electoral votes) Washington takes the Oath of Office
  • 6. Wash inaugural •New Constitution and Government take effect on April 30, 1789. •Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia. •Capital city at this time wasNew York City. US army < 700 officers and soldiers; no navy
  • 7. Precedents are models, examples or influences other Presidents would follow What to call the President? Mr. President President sets their own personal style Cabinet appointed by President and advises him VP has no official duties President acts independent from Congress Congress relies on the advice of the President Served 2 terms and stepped aside for someone else prec edents
  • 8. The First “Cabinet” • • • • Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War: Henry Knox Attorney General: Edmund Randolph
  • 9. Domestic Policies
  • 10. •President Washington appoints 6 justices to the Supreme Court •3 from North and 3 from South •Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress created lower courts to assist the Supreme Court. John Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
  • 11. Judiciary Act of 1789 • Provided more details about Judicial Branch • 6 Supreme Court justices (John Jay is first Chief Justice) (#s went up over time) • Other lower federal courts • Affirmed “supremacy clause” of Constitution (Article 6, Section 2): states could appeal to a federal court if constitutional issues were raised (e.g./ election results in Florida in 2000)
  • 12. Foreign Debt $11,710,000 Federal Domestic Debt $42,414,000 State Debt $21,500,000 Congress & Sec. of Treasury Alexander Hamilton solve debt problems: •Pay off $80 million debt •Excise tax: Taxes placed on manufactured products •Tariff: a tax on imports •Establish good credit with foreign nations Misc. Revenue Excise Tax on Whiskey Custom Duties (Tariffs) Compromise with Thomas Jefferson called the Assumption Act led to the creation of Washington, D.C. debt •Create a national bank with a national currency •Raise money for govt backed by gold silver
  • 13. BUS HAMILTON JEFFERSON •Safe place to deposit and transfer money •Against the Constitution •Provide loans to government and state banks •A national currency---$$$$$ •An investment by people to buy stock into US bank •State banks would collapse •Only wealthy could invest in bank and would control bank than control the government •Hurt the common man •Constitution did not forbid a national bank….Loose construction of Constitution •Strict construction…If it is not mentioned in the Constitution than there can’t be a national bank. •National debt good for country •Against a national debt
  • 14. Our Nation’s Capital • • • • • • • Had been Philadelphia In 1789, it’s New York City (then back to Philly) Plans are made to create a new city centrally located to appeal to Northerners and Southerners: the District of Columbia Built on a swamp along Potomac River between Maryland and Virginia Pierre L’Enfant and Benjamin Banneker (African American) are among the engineers whose grand vision is realized Becomes nation’s capital in 1800 (Adams the first president to live in White House – the “President’s House”) To this day, unique relationship to US; not a state
  • 15. Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebels refused to pay the excise tax that was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Washington….Believed this tax was unfair because it was taxing their income…… whiskeymap
  • 16. •Farmer’s revolt in western Pennsylvania. •Refused to pay Hamilton’ s excise tax •Believed it was an unfair tax. •Were called the “Whiskey Rebels”
  • 17. Whiskey •Issue at hand was testing the power of the new Constitution Outcome: •Demonstrated to the people that this new constitution was powerful enough to put down domestic rebellions, “mobocracy” •Showed the power of President Washington reviews 13,000 troops of the the national Western Army assembled at Fort Cumberland, government Maryland, to crush the Whiskey Rebellion.