Lesson Objective:
to understand the 3 approaches
to postmodernism
• to understand the difference
between modernism and
po...
What is postmodernism?
 You have 10 minutes to research the term
postmodernism.

 Make a note of all definitions you fin...
Postmodernism is a notoriously
difficult concept to define.
There are 3 approaches:
 Historical
 Stylistic
 Theoretical
Historical
Postmodernism is a reaction to modernism.
Therefore to understand postmodernism from a
historical point of view...
What is modernism?
 Experimenting with representations of reality
 Early part of the 20th century
 Value judgments (e.g...
Think…architecture
The
simplification
of form and
the elimination
of
ornament/decorativ
e
TV
Our 'window on
the world'
representation
of people, places,
events
Nuclear family
So is that’s modernism, what is
postmodernism?
Think…
architecture…
playing with
the idea of
conventions of
buildings –
making us
think about
how it is
constructed
TV
Reality & Media
representations have
merged, become
confused – are these
'Real' people or
actors?
Alternative models in society
e.g. family
So how can we define
postmodernism?
Subject of postmodern media texts:
 Postmodern texts embody scepticism towards the
id...
Where did it develop?
Modernism believed that the lives of people would
improve thanks to science and a world based
on log...
The turning point…
The terrible carnage of the First World War sowed
seeds of doubt as to whether the world was
becoming a...
The birth of post-modernism
This idea of a loss in the goodness
of people and a suspicion of
science and a world of logic ...
The Holocaust

The dropping of Atomic bombs on Japanese cities.
The birth of post-modernism
These events brought about the movement and
theories which are loosely titled post-modernism
a...
Some distinctions…


Modernists believe that people were capable of original
thought.



Post-modernists that the majori...
Theoretical Approach
Main theorists:
 Lyotard
 Baudrillard
 Jameson
These 3 theorists offer interpretations of
postmode...
10 mins to research theorists
 Find

out what postmodern
theories these theorists came
up with.
Jean-François Lyotard
(1924-1998)

 Rejection of ‘grand or meta-narratives’
 These are large-scale theories and philosop...
Jean Baudrillard
(1929-2007)

 There is no longer a distinction between reality
and its representing image, or simulacrum...
Frederic Jameson (b. 1934)
 Historical viewpoint – postmodernism is a development
of modernism.

 Postmodernist works ar...
Stylistic Approach
 Postmodernism comprises of a set

of core ideas and key concepts
that work collaboratively to shape
i...
Key concepts
 generic blurring

 eclecticism

 intertextuality and

 death of representation

bricolage

 playfulness...
Some definitions.


Hyperreality - a hypothetical inability of
consciousness to distinguish reality from fantasy,
especia...
So why is post-modern useful in
analysis?
A s part of your film and TV analysis a consideration of
whether a text is post-...
From what you have learnt today,
which texts do you think could be
described as ‘postmodern’?
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Introduction to 3 types of pomo

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  • At end of slide, feedback – this will probably be very confused – that is as expected.
  • Students research a theorist and their theories of postmodernism individually and report back to class
  • Explain terms – help on glossary sheet
  • Introduction to 3 types of pomo

    1. 1. Lesson Objective: to understand the 3 approaches to postmodernism • to understand the difference between modernism and postmodernism • to know the basic theories of the postmodern •
    2. 2. What is postmodernism?  You have 10 minutes to research the term postmodernism.  Make a note of all definitions you find, ready to feedback to the class.
    3. 3. Postmodernism is a notoriously difficult concept to define. There are 3 approaches:  Historical  Stylistic  Theoretical
    4. 4. Historical Postmodernism is a reaction to modernism. Therefore to understand postmodernism from a historical point of view, we need to first understand modernism. So …
    5. 5. What is modernism?  Experimenting with representations of reality  Early part of the 20th century  Value judgments (e.g. High culture= good, low culture = bad)  A lot of what is generally accepted as ‘the norm’
    6. 6. Think…architecture The simplification of form and the elimination of ornament/decorativ e
    7. 7. TV Our 'window on the world' representation of people, places, events
    8. 8. Nuclear family
    9. 9. So is that’s modernism, what is postmodernism? Think…
    10. 10. architecture… playing with the idea of conventions of buildings – making us think about how it is constructed
    11. 11. TV Reality & Media representations have merged, become confused – are these 'Real' people or actors?
    12. 12. Alternative models in society e.g. family
    13. 13. So how can we define postmodernism? Subject of postmodern media texts:  Postmodern texts embody scepticism towards the ideas and ideals of the modern era, especially the ideas of progress, objectivity, reason certainty, personal identity and grand narratives (more on this later) Style of postmodern media texts:  Postmodernism takes pleasure in playing with convention, pointing out nature of how everything is a construction.
    14. 14. Where did it develop? Modernism believed that the lives of people would improve thanks to science and a world based on logic. It was a time of optimism and carried over from Victorian Era, through the Edwardian and right up to 1914…
    15. 15. The turning point… The terrible carnage of the First World War sowed seeds of doubt as to whether the world was becoming a better place. The fact that science was turned to creating weapons of mass destruction and killing on an industrial scale as a trademark of the war, a wave of pessimism swept across Europe.
    16. 16. The birth of post-modernism This idea of a loss in the goodness of people and a suspicion of science and a world of logic and order was compounded by two main events of the Second World War…
    17. 17. The Holocaust The dropping of Atomic bombs on Japanese cities.
    18. 18. The birth of post-modernism These events brought about the movement and theories which are loosely titled post-modernism and post-modernist. By 1968 these ideas reached fruition.
    19. 19. Some distinctions…  Modernists believe that people were capable of original thought.  Post-modernists that the majority of the world basis its views on what is presented to them through the media – this is called “hyper-reality” – a reality mediated through media.  Modernists believed that culture bears a universal truth or meaning.  Post=modernists believe that cultures are open to many different interpretations.
    20. 20. Theoretical Approach Main theorists:  Lyotard  Baudrillard  Jameson These 3 theorists offer interpretations of postmodernism which will help us in considering postmodern media.
    21. 21. 10 mins to research theorists  Find out what postmodern theories these theorists came up with.
    22. 22. Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998)  Rejection of ‘grand or meta-narratives’  These are large-scale theories and philosophies of the world, such as the progress of history, the knowability of everything by science, and the possibility of absolute freedom.  Therefore, all ‘grand narratives’ should be viewed with suspicion.  The truth therefore needs to be ‘deconstructed’ so that we can challenge dominant ideas that people claim as truth.
    23. 23. Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)  There is no longer a distinction between reality and its representing image, or simulacrum.  Hyperreality – there is only surface meaning; there is no longer any original thing for the sign to represent; the sign is the meaning.
    24. 24. Frederic Jameson (b. 1934)  Historical viewpoint – postmodernism is a development of modernism.  Postmodernist works are often characterized by lack of depth, which has been replaced by a surfeit of surface.  Jameson catalogs key features of postmodern culture, as self-referentiality, irony, pastiche, and parody.  Jameson refers to this cultural recycling as historicism— the random cannibalization of various past styles – erasing historical depth.
    25. 25. Stylistic Approach  Postmodernism comprises of a set of core ideas and key concepts that work collaboratively to shape it.  The more of these ideas and key concepts it embellishes, the more of a post-modern text it becomes; these are largely derived from the above theorists.
    26. 26. Key concepts  generic blurring  eclecticism  intertextuality and  death of representation bricolage  playfulness e.g. parody and pastiche  hyperreality  hyperconciousness  uncertainty and the loss of context
    27. 27. Some definitions.  Hyperreality - a hypothetical inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from fantasy, especially in technologically advanced postmodern cultures.  A parody; also called send-up , spoof or lampoon), in contemporary usage, is a work created to mock, comment on, or make fun at an original work.  A pastiche is a literary or other artistic genre that is a "hodge-podge" or an imitation.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HyfcOriVKBM
    28. 28. So why is post-modern useful in analysis? A s part of your film and TV analysis a consideration of whether a text is post-modern and in what sense is fundamental and will gain marks. To consider whether a text is ‘postmodern’ or not we will largely rely on a stylistic approach, which themselves are a product of historical and theoretical approaches. We will also keep the other approaches in mind and look at how a postmodern viewpoint, from either a historical or theoretical point of view affects the way in which the audience and the industry produce and consume the media.
    29. 29. From what you have learnt today, which texts do you think could be described as ‘postmodern’?
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