Instructional management skills can assiststudents in comprehension and improve thequality of learning
Beginning a lesson Giving clear instructions Maintaining attention Pacing Using seatwork effectively Summarizing Providing useful feedback and evaluation Making smooth transitions Planning for early child hood settings Dealing with common classroom disruptions
Develop a room arrangement that allows all students to sit comfortably and clearly see the teacher. Select and teach a cue for getting students’ attention. Do not begin until everyone is paying attention. Begin the lesson by removing distractions. Clearly describe the goals, activities, and evaluation procedures associated with the lesson presented. Stimulate interest by relating the lesson to the students’ lives or a previous lesson. Start with a highly motivating activity in order to make the students’ initial contact with the subject matter as positive as possible. Distribute an outline, definitions, or study guide to help students organize their thoughts and focus their attention. Challenge students to minimize their transition time.
Give precise directions. Describe the desired quality of the work. After giving instructions, have students prarphrase the directions, state any problems that might occur to them, and make a commitment. Positively accept students’ questions about directions. Place directions where they can be seen and referred to by students. Have students write out instructions before beginning an activity. When students seem to be having difficulty following directions, consider breaking tasks down into smaller segments. Give directions immediately prior to the activity they describe. Model the correct behavior. If students have been asked to raise their hands before answering, you can raise you had while asking the question. Hand out worksheets or outlines before taking a field trip. Create a space for placing all assignments so students who are absent or forget to write down an assignment can independently access this information.
Arrange the classroom to facilitate the instructional activity you have selected. Employ a seating arrangement that does not discriminate against some students. Use random selection in calling on students. Ask the question before calling on a student. Wait at least five seconds before answering a question or calling on another student. Ask students to respond to their classmates’ answers. Do not consistently repeat students’ answers. Model listening skills by paying close attention when students speak. Be animated. Reinforce students’ efforts and maintain a high ratio of positive to negative verbal statements. Vary instructional media and methods. Ask questions that relate to students’ own lives. Provide work of appropriate difficulty. Provide variability and interest in seatwork. When presenting difficulty material, clearly acknowledge this fact, set a time limit for the presentation, and describe the type of follow-up activities that will clarify the lesson.
Develop awareness of your teaching tempo. Watch for nonverbal cues indicating that students are becoming confused, bored, or restless. Divide activities into short segments. Provide structured shorts breaks during lesson that last longer than thirty minutes. Vary the styles as well as the content of instruction. Do not bury students in paperwork.
Make seatwork diagnostic and prescriptive. Develop a specific procedure for obtaining assistance. Establish clear procedures about what to do when seatwork is completed. Ass interest to seatwork. Work through the first several seatwork problems with the students. Monitor students seatwork and make needed adjustments. Monitor seatwork by moving around the room systematically. Spend considerable time in presentation and discussion before assigning seatwork. Keep contacts with individual students relatively short. Have students work together during seatwork.
At the end of a lesson or a school day, ask students to state or write in a journal one thing they learned during the day. Have students play the role of a reporter and summarize what has been learned. Ask students to create learning displays. Encourage students to present their learning to others. Display students’ work. Provide frequent review sessions. Use tests as tools for summarizing learning.
Help students view evaluation as part of the learning process. Tell students the criteria by which they will be evaluated. Relate feedback directly to individual or teacher goals. Record data so that students can monitor their progress. Provide immediate an specific feedback. Provide honest feedback. Ask students to list factors that contributed to their successes. Deemphasize comparisons between students and their peers. Deemphasize grades as feedback on students’ work. Provide students with clear information regarding their progress.
Arrange the classroom for efficient movement. Create and post a daily schedule and discuss any changes in schedule each morning prior to beginning the class. Have material ready for the next lesson. Do not relinquish students’ attention until you have given clear instructions for the following activity. Do not do tasks that can be done by students. Move around the room and attend to individual needs. Provide students with simple, step-by-step directions. Remind students of key procedures associated with the upcoming lesson. Use group competition to stimulate more orderly transitions. Develop transition activities. Be sensitive to students’ special needs regarding transitions. Use teacher-directed instruction as a transition at the end of the class session.
Students need to leave the room. Student tardiness. Conflicts involving homework. Excessive student nonacademic questions.
Jones, V. and Jones, L. (2010). Comprehensive Classroom Management (Ninth Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (ISBN:9780205625482).