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Chapter 6
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  • 1. Developing Standards for Student Behavior
  • 2. Instructional management skills can assiststudents in comprehension and improve thequality of learning
  • 3.  Beginning a lesson Giving clear instructions Maintaining attention Pacing Using seatwork effectively Summarizing Providing useful feedback and evaluation Making smooth transitions Planning for early child hood settings Dealing with common classroom disruptions
  • 4.  Develop a room arrangement that allows all students to sit comfortably and clearly see the teacher. Select and teach a cue for getting students’ attention. Do not begin until everyone is paying attention. Begin the lesson by removing distractions. Clearly describe the goals, activities, and evaluation procedures associated with the lesson presented. Stimulate interest by relating the lesson to the students’ lives or a previous lesson. Start with a highly motivating activity in order to make the students’ initial contact with the subject matter as positive as possible. Distribute an outline, definitions, or study guide to help students organize their thoughts and focus their attention. Challenge students to minimize their transition time.
  • 5.  Give precise directions. Describe the desired quality of the work. After giving instructions, have students prarphrase the directions, state any problems that might occur to them, and make a commitment. Positively accept students’ questions about directions. Place directions where they can be seen and referred to by students. Have students write out instructions before beginning an activity. When students seem to be having difficulty following directions, consider breaking tasks down into smaller segments. Give directions immediately prior to the activity they describe. Model the correct behavior. If students have been asked to raise their hands before answering, you can raise you had while asking the question. Hand out worksheets or outlines before taking a field trip. Create a space for placing all assignments so students who are absent or forget to write down an assignment can independently access this information.
  • 6.  Arrange the classroom to facilitate the instructional activity you have selected. Employ a seating arrangement that does not discriminate against some students. Use random selection in calling on students. Ask the question before calling on a student. Wait at least five seconds before answering a question or calling on another student. Ask students to respond to their classmates’ answers. Do not consistently repeat students’ answers. Model listening skills by paying close attention when students speak. Be animated. Reinforce students’ efforts and maintain a high ratio of positive to negative verbal statements. Vary instructional media and methods. Ask questions that relate to students’ own lives. Provide work of appropriate difficulty. Provide variability and interest in seatwork. When presenting difficulty material, clearly acknowledge this fact, set a time limit for the presentation, and describe the type of follow-up activities that will clarify the lesson.
  • 7.  Develop awareness of your teaching tempo. Watch for nonverbal cues indicating that students are becoming confused, bored, or restless. Divide activities into short segments. Provide structured shorts breaks during lesson that last longer than thirty minutes. Vary the styles as well as the content of instruction. Do not bury students in paperwork.
  • 8.  Make seatwork diagnostic and prescriptive. Develop a specific procedure for obtaining assistance. Establish clear procedures about what to do when seatwork is completed. Ass interest to seatwork. Work through the first several seatwork problems with the students. Monitor students seatwork and make needed adjustments. Monitor seatwork by moving around the room systematically. Spend considerable time in presentation and discussion before assigning seatwork. Keep contacts with individual students relatively short. Have students work together during seatwork.
  • 9.  At the end of a lesson or a school day, ask students to state or write in a journal one thing they learned during the day. Have students play the role of a reporter and summarize what has been learned. Ask students to create learning displays. Encourage students to present their learning to others. Display students’ work. Provide frequent review sessions. Use tests as tools for summarizing learning.
  • 10.  Help students view evaluation as part of the learning process. Tell students the criteria by which they will be evaluated. Relate feedback directly to individual or teacher goals. Record data so that students can monitor their progress. Provide immediate an specific feedback. Provide honest feedback. Ask students to list factors that contributed to their successes. Deemphasize comparisons between students and their peers. Deemphasize grades as feedback on students’ work. Provide students with clear information regarding their progress.
  • 11.  Arrange the classroom for efficient movement. Create and post a daily schedule and discuss any changes in schedule each morning prior to beginning the class. Have material ready for the next lesson. Do not relinquish students’ attention until you have given clear instructions for the following activity. Do not do tasks that can be done by students. Move around the room and attend to individual needs. Provide students with simple, step-by-step directions. Remind students of key procedures associated with the upcoming lesson. Use group competition to stimulate more orderly transitions. Develop transition activities. Be sensitive to students’ special needs regarding transitions. Use teacher-directed instruction as a transition at the end of the class session.
  • 12.  Students need to leave the room. Student tardiness. Conflicts involving homework. Excessive student nonacademic questions.
  • 13. Jones, V. and Jones, L. (2010). Comprehensive Classroom Management (Ninth Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. (ISBN:9780205625482).