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Standards have been developed for teachers,students, other educators, and programs. Inthis chapter we will focus on student standards.Student standards tell what students will know andbe able to do at the end of a unit or lesson.
Teachers• National Organization Standards•Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium(INTASC)• Louisiana Components of Effective Teaching (LCET)Students• Louisiana Content Standards, Benchmarks and Grade LevelExpectations (including Early Childhood)• Louisiana K-12 Educational Technology StandardsOther• COE Conceptual FrameworkThere are national content standards for each subject area.Most of these were developed by the subject areaorganization.
There are national content standards for each subject area. Most of these weredeveloped by the subject area organization.Area: Early ChildhoodNational Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)Area: Elementary EducationAssociation for Childhood Education International (ACEI)Area: English Language Arts/ReadingNational Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)International Reading Association (IRA)Area: Health EducationAmerican Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)American Association for Health Education (AAHE)Area: Mathematics EducationNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)Area: Music EducationNational Association for Music Education (MENC)Area: Physical EducationAmerican Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)/National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)Area: Science EducationNational Science Teachers Association (NSTA)Area: Social Studies EducationNational Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)Area: Foreign Languages American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
Goals and objectives are derived from standards.Goals specify what must be accomplished and whomust accomplish these tasks in order to meet theidentified standard.Objectives convey to your learners the specificbehaviors to be attained, the conditions underwhich the behavior must be demonstrated, and theproficiency level at which the behaviors are to beperformed.
A behavioral objective requires that the learner’sbehavior is both observable and measurable.There are three steps or three components in everyobjective:1. Observable learning outcome (i.e., behavior to be attained, skill, target performance)2. Conditions3. Criterion level (i.e., performance level, proficiency level)
Learning objectives must be direct, concrete and observable.Wording is important!One suggestion is to choose behavior from a list of actionverbs.Keep in mind that there is a distinction between learningoutcome and learning activities.What do you expect your students to know and be able to doat the end of the lesson?Example:The learner will add two-digit numbers.
Identify the learning conditions under which thelearning will take place.If the learning outcome can be achieved onlythrough particular materials, equipment, tools, orother resources, state these conditions.Are there any conditions under which the learningmust take place?Example:The learner will add two-digit numbers using a calculator.
State the level of performance required to meet the objective. This isthe criterion level.It is the degree of performance desired or the level of proficiency thatwill satisfy you that the objective has been met.Criterion levels are set to establish a benchmark for testing whetheran objective has been met.What is the minimum level of performance to be obtained foracademic success?Example:The learner will add two-digit numbers using a calculator with 70% accuracy. orUsing a calculator, the learner will add two-digit numbers with 70% proficienc
The learner will be able to add two-digit numbers using a calculator with 70%proficiency. Stem Learning Outcome Condition CriterionPerformance objectives tell what the learner will be able to do at theconclusion of the lesson. These objectives include a stem and threeparts: learning outcome (i.e., behavior to be attained, skill, targetperformance) condition and criterion (i.e., proficiency level, performancelevel).
• Cognitive – Intellectual abilities and skills• Affective – attitudes, beliefs and values• Psychomotor – physical movements andperformance
Bloom, Englehart, Hill, Furst and Krathwohl (1984)devised a method for categorizing objectivesaccording to cognition.Higher-level objectives are more authentic thanlower-level objectives. Bloom’s Taxonomy
Krathwohl, Bloom and Affective BehaviorMasia (1999) provides five Levelslevels of affective behavior.This levels range from the • Characterizationlowest being less authentic • Organizationto the highest being most • Valuingauthentic. • Responding • Receiving
Harrow (1972) and moore Psychomotor(1992) delineates five Behavior Levelslevels of psychomotorbehavior. •NaturalizationThis levels range from the •Articulationlowest being less authentic •Precisionto the highest being most •Manipulationauthentic. •Imitation
In addition to your textbook, please visit thesite below for an overview of the cognitive,affective, and psychomotor domains.Cognitive, Affective, and PsychomotorDomainshttp://courses.washington.edu/pharm439/Bloomstax.htm
Borich, G. D. (2007). Effective Teaching Methods.Pearson Education: Upper Saddle River, New JerseyTagient (2011). Bloom’s-Introduction. Retrievedfromhttp://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom%27s+-+Introduction