Personal Need TheoriesAbraham MaslowRudolf DreikursWilliam GlasserStanley CoopersmithHuman Development TheoryErik EriksonSocial Factors TheoryDavid ElkindJoan Lipsitz
- In order for students to perform adequately, their basic personal needs must be met
Abraham MaslowMaslow is considered the founder of humanisticpsychology. His position is that people have a needto be both competent and accepted.Hierarchy of Needs• Self-actualization• Self-respect• Belongingness and affection• Safety and security• Physiological needs
Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological Needs: characteristic of the normal human functioning or survival (examples: water, sleep, food, clothing, shelter) • Safety Needs: Injustice and inconsistency are under control and the unfamiliar rare (examples: personal security, financial security, health and well-being, safety against accidents/illness) • Love/Belonging Needs: need for emotionally-based relationships (friendship, intimacy, a supportive family) • Esteem Needs: need for respect, acceptance and value by others • Self-Actualization: need to take risks, learn, and attain one’s fullest potential
Rudolf DreikursDreikurs theorized that the basic need of allhumans is to be socially accepted.“We should realize that a misbehaving childis only a discouraged child trying to find hisplace; he is acting on the faulty logic that hismisbehavior will give him the socialacceptance which he desires.”
Dreikurs described four goals associated withstudents’ disruptive behavior: Attention Getting: A child deprived of the opportunity to gain “status” through personal contributions will seek proof of this status though getting attention Power: If adults did not respond to these attention getting tactics, the student will seek power. Revenge: If an adult counters with “greater” power, the student will seek revenge. Displays of Inadequacy: A child who has sought attention, power and revenge, to no avail, will eventually loose hope and come to expect failure and defeat.
William GlasserGlasser espoused the human need for asense of efficacy (i.e., produce effects) andpower. He identified five basic needs:1. To survive and reproduce2. To belong and love3. To gain power4. To be free5. To have fun
Stanley CoopersmithIndividuals need to experience a sense ofsignificance, competence, and power. • significance – value from a positive two- way relationship • competence – ability to perform a socially valued task • power – ability to understand and control one’s environment
Reactive Bullies ◦ Strong responses to perceived threatening situations ◦ Lack positive relationships with adults ◦ Are remorseful after violent behavior toward others Proactive Bullies ◦ Behavior is calculated and planned ◦ Behavior is a component of their identity ◦ Develop a sense of security and power relating to their behavior ◦ Intentionally choose students who are emotionally and/or physically weaker and easily controlled
- In order for students to perform adequately, they must fully develop at each stage of life
Erik EriksonErikson identified eight stages of humanpsychosocial development:Stage 1: Infancy : Children develop a sense of trustTrust and hope vs. mistrust and despairDoes the child feel that he can rely on caregivers, ifneeded?“Children who have been abused, abandoned, orignored” may be reluctant to rely on others forsupport.
Stage 2: Early Childhood (toddler): Childrendevelop a sense of autonomyautonomy vs. shame and doubtIs the child given an opportunity to “test himself”(i.e., explore the word), with support?Without these opportunities, children may develop asense of shame. Support is key. Parents cannot betoo smothering or too neglectful. Children develop a sense of independence.
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (kindergarten): Childrenbegin to utilize that sense of independenceCan the child plan to do things on him own?The child should not feel guilty about making his orher own choices.
Stage 4: Industry vs. inferiority (age 6 to puberty):Children begin compare their self-worth to that ofothersDoes the child realize that some people are better atsome things than others or does the child focus onhis disparities?The child should not feel inferior.
Stage 5: Identity vs. role confusion (teenager):Children begin to seek identityThey may begin to question themselves:How do I fit in? Where am I going in life?Are children given an opportunity to explore or arethey pushed to conform to adult views?The child will discover his identify, if given theopportunity.
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. isolation (young adult): Thedevelopment of intimate relationships and choices beginsWill I date? Will I get married?Stage 7: Generativity vs. stagnation (mid-life crisis):Adults begin to measure accomplishments/failuresWhat have I accomplished in life? How might I help thenext generation?Stage 8: Ego integrity vs. despair (old age): Satisfaction ordissatisfaction with accomplishments begins* Reflection on the past begins, and the conclusion is eithersatisfaction or despair.
- In order for students to perform adequately,they must have positive interactions with others
David ElkindElkind stated that relationships between children andadults involve ever changing patterns (i.e., implicitcontracts) of dealing with each other.Basic Contracts:1. Responsibility-freedom (adults monitor child’s development to provide freedoms that ultimately lead to responsibility)2. Achievement-support (adults expect children to achieve and consequently lends support for the accomplishment of goals)3. Loyalty-commitment (adults expect children will respond with acceptance since they (i.e., the adults) lend support to the children)
Joan LipsitzLipsitz researched the needs of early adolescence.She emphasized the importance of schools meeting thefollowing young adolescents’ needs:1. Diversity2. Opportunities for self-exploration and self-definition3. Meaningful participation in school and community4. Positive social interaction with peers and adults5. Physical activity6. Competence and achievement7. Structure and clear limits
A student may be at risk because:• His/her personal or developmental needs were not met prior toentering the classroom•There are few educators within the school system from the student’ssocial/cultural group• The school system provides a curriculum that fails to validate thestudent’s cultural background• The teaching strategies are not aligned with the student’s learningstyle• The student has limited English proficiency• The student has a disability (special needs)• The student has limited support for success outside of the schoolsetting• The student has limited time for educational-related tasks outsideof the school setting• The student does not see a positive correlation between school-based learning and his/her future