Estonian History


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Estonian History

  1. 1. Estonian history Pärnu Koidula Gymnasium History teacher Madis Somelar
  2. 2. The first map where Estonia is located <ul><li>Was made by an Arabian scientist Al -Idris 1154 AD. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Estonian first settlement <ul><li>13 000 years ago Estonia was relieved from the inland ice. </li></ul><ul><li>First settlers lived in Pulli village, near Pärnu. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulli village is 11 000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>These people were living in the Stone Age. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Before ancient crusade 1208 - 1227 <ul><li>Before crusade there was no Estonian country. </li></ul><ul><li>People knew about Christianity, but they were not christians. </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest book about Estonian history is “Hendriku Liivimaa Chronicle” what was written by a German author Hendrik. </li></ul>
  5. 5. After ancient crusade <ul><li>Estonia was divided between many different countries such as Germany and Denmark. </li></ul><ul><li>Estonians were forced to believe in Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>First Gothic churches were built. </li></ul><ul><li>First cities were started. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Middle Ages there were 9 cities in Estonia. 4 of them (New – Pärnu, Tallinn, Tartu and Viljandi) belonged to the Hansatic League. </li></ul><ul><li>First schools, where they learned in Latin, were started. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The oldest buildings Oleviste church Tallinn Town Hall
  7. 7. Livonian War 1558-1583 <ul><li>The war was started by the Russian king Ivan IV Cruel. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden, Poland and Denmark formed an alliance soon. </li></ul><ul><li>After the war Estonia was divided between three kings: Polish king, Swedish king and Danish king. </li></ul><ul><li>Livonian War ended the Middle Ages in Estonia. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Livonian War 1558 – 1583 <ul><li>Gustav Vasa Stefan Batory Ivan IV Cruel Christian IV </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish king Polish king Russian king Danish king </li></ul>
  9. 9. 17th century <ul><li>It was the Swedish century. </li></ul><ul><li>Lutheran church became stronger. </li></ul><ul><li>First peasantry schools were started. </li></ul><ul><li>1632 the University of Tartu was established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf. </li></ul><ul><li>1695 – 1697 was the big famine and every 5th person died. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Great Northern War 1700-1721 <ul><li>Poland, Denmark and Russia wanted to debilitate Sweden in the Baltic Seas region. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia won the Great Northern War and Russian rule was imposed on Estonia until 1918. </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler of Russia was Peter I. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 18th century <ul><li>Peter I built the Kadrioru castle, which was used as a summer residence. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays it’s it’s the residence of President of Estonia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible was translated into Estonian in 1739. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 19th century <ul><li>1802 the University of Tartu was reopened. </li></ul><ul><li>1816/1819 the serfdom was abolished in Estonia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of 19th century Estonian national awakening started. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The University of Tartu
  14. 14. Estonian famous poets in 19th century <ul><li>Kristjan Jaak Peterson Lydia Koidula </li></ul>
  15. 15. 20th century <ul><li>During the I World War ( 1914 – 1918) Estonians gained their independence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Republic of Estonia was announced on 24 of February 1918. </li></ul><ul><li>28 November 1918 – 3 January 1920 there was the War of Independence between the Republic of Estonia and the Soviet Russia. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The treaty of Tartu 2 February 1920 <ul><li>Estonian delegation´s leader during the negotiations was Jaan Poska (in the picture). </li></ul><ul><li>Russian delegation ´s leader was Adolf Joffe. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Russia was the first country who accepted Estonia´s independence de jure. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The first president – Konstantin Päts (1938 – 1940)
  18. 18. World War II <ul><li>World War II begun on 1 September 1939 and ended on 2 September 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>On 17 June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Estonia. </li></ul><ul><li>On 14 June 1941 people were deported to Siberia by the Soviet troops. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Singing Revolution <ul><li>Estonia was occupied 1940 – 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1988 the Singing Revolution begun. </li></ul><ul><li>On 23 August 1989 the Baltic Way took place, with this Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania showed the world that they were occupied according to the Molotov – Ribbentrop pact, that was signed on 23 August 1939. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The end of the occupation <ul><li>Estonia’s </li></ul><ul><li>“ confirmation” of </li></ul><ul><li>independence on 20 August 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>The new president was elected – Lennart Georg Meri. </li></ul>