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Estonian History

Estonian History



created by Madis Somelar

created by Madis Somelar



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    Estonian History Estonian History Presentation Transcript

    • Estonian history Pärnu Koidula Gymnasium History teacher Madis Somelar
    • The first map where Estonia is located
      • Was made by an Arabian scientist Al -Idris 1154 AD.
    • Estonian first settlement
      • 13 000 years ago Estonia was relieved from the inland ice.
      • First settlers lived in Pulli village, near Pärnu.
      • Pulli village is 11 000 years old.
      • These people were living in the Stone Age.
    • Before ancient crusade 1208 - 1227
      • Before crusade there was no Estonian country.
      • People knew about Christianity, but they were not christians.
      • The oldest book about Estonian history is “Hendriku Liivimaa Chronicle” what was written by a German author Hendrik.
    • After ancient crusade
      • Estonia was divided between many different countries such as Germany and Denmark.
      • Estonians were forced to believe in Christianity.
      • First Gothic churches were built.
      • First cities were started.
      • In the Middle Ages there were 9 cities in Estonia. 4 of them (New – Pärnu, Tallinn, Tartu and Viljandi) belonged to the Hansatic League.
      • First schools, where they learned in Latin, were started.
    • The oldest buildings Oleviste church Tallinn Town Hall
    • Livonian War 1558-1583
      • The war was started by the Russian king Ivan IV Cruel.
      • Sweden, Poland and Denmark formed an alliance soon.
      • After the war Estonia was divided between three kings: Polish king, Swedish king and Danish king.
      • Livonian War ended the Middle Ages in Estonia.
    • The Livonian War 1558 – 1583
      • Gustav Vasa Stefan Batory Ivan IV Cruel Christian IV
      • Swedish king Polish king Russian king Danish king
    • 17th century
      • It was the Swedish century.
      • Lutheran church became stronger.
      • First peasantry schools were started.
      • 1632 the University of Tartu was established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf.
      • 1695 – 1697 was the big famine and every 5th person died.
    • The Great Northern War 1700-1721
      • Poland, Denmark and Russia wanted to debilitate Sweden in the Baltic Seas region.
      • Russia won the Great Northern War and Russian rule was imposed on Estonia until 1918.
      • The ruler of Russia was Peter I.
    • 18th century
      • Peter I built the Kadrioru castle, which was used as a summer residence.
      • Nowadays it’s it’s the residence of President of Estonia.
      • The Bible was translated into Estonian in 1739.
    • 19th century
      • 1802 the University of Tartu was reopened.
      • 1816/1819 the serfdom was abolished in Estonia.
      • In the middle of 19th century Estonian national awakening started.
    • The University of Tartu
    • Estonian famous poets in 19th century
      • Kristjan Jaak Peterson Lydia Koidula
    • 20th century
      • During the I World War ( 1914 – 1918) Estonians gained their independence.
      • The Republic of Estonia was announced on 24 of February 1918.
      • 28 November 1918 – 3 January 1920 there was the War of Independence between the Republic of Estonia and the Soviet Russia.
    • The treaty of Tartu 2 February 1920
      • Estonian delegation´s leader during the negotiations was Jaan Poska (in the picture).
      • Russian delegation ´s leader was Adolf Joffe.
      • Soviet Russia was the first country who accepted Estonia´s independence de jure.
    • The first president – Konstantin Päts (1938 – 1940)
    • World War II
      • World War II begun on 1 September 1939 and ended on 2 September 1945.
      • On 17 June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Estonia.
      • On 14 June 1941 people were deported to Siberia by the Soviet troops.
    • The Singing Revolution
      • Estonia was occupied 1940 – 1991.
      • In 1988 the Singing Revolution begun.
      • On 23 August 1989 the Baltic Way took place, with this Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania showed the world that they were occupied according to the Molotov – Ribbentrop pact, that was signed on 23 August 1939.
    • The end of the occupation
      • Estonia’s
      • “ confirmation” of
      • independence on 20 August 1991.
      • The new president was elected – Lennart Georg Meri.