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Estonian History

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created by Madis Somelar

created by Madis Somelar

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  • 1. Estonian history Pärnu Koidula Gymnasium History teacher Madis Somelar
  • 2. The first map where Estonia is located
    • Was made by an Arabian scientist Al -Idris 1154 AD.
  • 3. Estonian first settlement
    • 13 000 years ago Estonia was relieved from the inland ice.
    • First settlers lived in Pulli village, near Pärnu.
    • Pulli village is 11 000 years old.
    • These people were living in the Stone Age.
  • 4. Before ancient crusade 1208 - 1227
    • Before crusade there was no Estonian country.
    • People knew about Christianity, but they were not christians.
    • The oldest book about Estonian history is “Hendriku Liivimaa Chronicle” what was written by a German author Hendrik.
  • 5. After ancient crusade
    • Estonia was divided between many different countries such as Germany and Denmark.
    • Estonians were forced to believe in Christianity.
    • First Gothic churches were built.
    • First cities were started.
    • In the Middle Ages there were 9 cities in Estonia. 4 of them (New – Pärnu, Tallinn, Tartu and Viljandi) belonged to the Hansatic League.
    • First schools, where they learned in Latin, were started.
  • 6. The oldest buildings Oleviste church Tallinn Town Hall
  • 7. Livonian War 1558-1583
    • The war was started by the Russian king Ivan IV Cruel.
    • Sweden, Poland and Denmark formed an alliance soon.
    • After the war Estonia was divided between three kings: Polish king, Swedish king and Danish king.
    • Livonian War ended the Middle Ages in Estonia.
  • 8. The Livonian War 1558 – 1583
    • Gustav Vasa Stefan Batory Ivan IV Cruel Christian IV
    • Swedish king Polish king Russian king Danish king
  • 9. 17th century
    • It was the Swedish century.
    • Lutheran church became stronger.
    • First peasantry schools were started.
    • 1632 the University of Tartu was established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf.
    • 1695 – 1697 was the big famine and every 5th person died.
  • 10. The Great Northern War 1700-1721
    • Poland, Denmark and Russia wanted to debilitate Sweden in the Baltic Seas region.
    • Russia won the Great Northern War and Russian rule was imposed on Estonia until 1918.
    • The ruler of Russia was Peter I.
  • 11. 18th century
    • Peter I built the Kadrioru castle, which was used as a summer residence.
    • Nowadays it’s it’s the residence of President of Estonia.
    • The Bible was translated into Estonian in 1739.
  • 12. 19th century
    • 1802 the University of Tartu was reopened.
    • 1816/1819 the serfdom was abolished in Estonia.
    • In the middle of 19th century Estonian national awakening started.
  • 13. The University of Tartu
  • 14. Estonian famous poets in 19th century
    • Kristjan Jaak Peterson Lydia Koidula
  • 15. 20th century
    • During the I World War ( 1914 – 1918) Estonians gained their independence.
    • The Republic of Estonia was announced on 24 of February 1918.
    • 28 November 1918 – 3 January 1920 there was the War of Independence between the Republic of Estonia and the Soviet Russia.
  • 16. The treaty of Tartu 2 February 1920
    • Estonian delegation´s leader during the negotiations was Jaan Poska (in the picture).
    • Russian delegation ´s leader was Adolf Joffe.
    • Soviet Russia was the first country who accepted Estonia´s independence de jure.
  • 17. The first president – Konstantin Päts (1938 – 1940)
  • 18. World War II
    • World War II begun on 1 September 1939 and ended on 2 September 1945.
    • On 17 June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Estonia.
    • On 14 June 1941 people were deported to Siberia by the Soviet troops.
  • 19. The Singing Revolution
    • Estonia was occupied 1940 – 1991.
    • In 1988 the Singing Revolution begun.
    • On 23 August 1989 the Baltic Way took place, with this Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania showed the world that they were occupied according to the Molotov – Ribbentrop pact, that was signed on 23 August 1939.
  • 20. The end of the occupation
    • Estonia’s
    • “ confirmation” of
    • independence on 20 August 1991.
    • The new president was elected – Lennart Georg Meri.

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