Estonian history Pärnu Koidula Gymnasium History teacher Madis Somelar
The first map where Estonia is located
Was made by an Arabian scientist Al -Idris 1154 AD.
Estonian first settlement
13 000 years ago Estonia was relieved from the inland ice.
First settlers lived in Pulli village, near Pärnu.
Pulli village is 11 000 years old.
These people were living in the Stone Age.
Before ancient crusade 1208 - 1227
Before crusade there was no Estonian country.
People knew about Christianity, but they were not christians.
The oldest book about Estonian history is “Hendriku Liivimaa Chronicle” what was written by a German author Hendrik.
After ancient crusade
Estonia was divided between many different countries such as Germany and Denmark.
Estonians were forced to believe in Christianity.
First Gothic churches were built.
First cities were started.
In the Middle Ages there were 9 cities in Estonia. 4 of them (New – Pärnu, Tallinn, Tartu and Viljandi) belonged to the Hansatic League.
First schools, where they learned in Latin, were started.
The oldest buildings Oleviste church Tallinn Town Hall
Livonian War 1558-1583
The war was started by the Russian king Ivan IV Cruel.
Sweden, Poland and Denmark formed an alliance soon.
After the war Estonia was divided between three kings: Polish king, Swedish king and Danish king.
Livonian War ended the Middle Ages in Estonia.
The Livonian War 1558 – 1583
Gustav Vasa Stefan Batory Ivan IV Cruel Christian IV
Swedish king Polish king Russian king Danish king
It was the Swedish century.
Lutheran church became stronger.
First peasantry schools were started.
1632 the University of Tartu was established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf.
1695 – 1697 was the big famine and every 5th person died.
The Great Northern War 1700-1721
Poland, Denmark and Russia wanted to debilitate Sweden in the Baltic Seas region.
Russia won the Great Northern War and Russian rule was imposed on Estonia until 1918.
The ruler of Russia was Peter I.
Peter I built the Kadrioru castle, which was used as a summer residence.
Nowadays it’s it’s the residence of President of Estonia.
The Bible was translated into Estonian in 1739.
1802 the University of Tartu was reopened.
1816/1819 the serfdom was abolished in Estonia.
In the middle of 19th century Estonian national awakening started.
The University of Tartu
Estonian famous poets in 19th century
Kristjan Jaak Peterson Lydia Koidula
During the I World War ( 1914 – 1918) Estonians gained their independence.
The Republic of Estonia was announced on 24 of February 1918.
28 November 1918 – 3 January 1920 there was the War of Independence between the Republic of Estonia and the Soviet Russia.
The treaty of Tartu 2 February 1920
Estonian delegation´s leader during the negotiations was Jaan Poska (in the picture).
Russian delegation ´s leader was Adolf Joffe.
Soviet Russia was the first country who accepted Estonia´s independence de jure.
The first president – Konstantin Päts (1938 – 1940)
World War II
World War II begun on 1 September 1939 and ended on 2 September 1945.
On 17 June 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Estonia.
On 14 June 1941 people were deported to Siberia by the Soviet troops.
The Singing Revolution
Estonia was occupied 1940 – 1991.
In 1988 the Singing Revolution begun.
On 23 August 1989 the Baltic Way took place, with this Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania showed the world that they were occupied according to the Molotov – Ribbentrop pact, that was signed on 23 August 1939.
The end of the occupation
“ confirmation” of
independence on 20 August 1991.
The new president was elected – Lennart Georg Meri.