The Psychology of Bullying.  Statistics & Societal Response Ireland
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The Psychology of Bullying

The Psychology of Bullying
Statistics & Societal Response Ireland

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The Psychology of Bullying. Statistics & Societal Response Ireland Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Psychology of Bullying Statistics & Societal Response Ireland
  • 2.    Bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour in which someone intentionally and repeatedly causes another person injury or discomfort. Bullying can take the form of physical contact, words or more subtle actions (APA 2014) . The bullied individual typically has trouble defending him or herself and does nothing to “cause” the bullying. Bullies are made, not born.
  • 3.     What is The Psychology of Bullying? When children turn into bullies, there is almost always a psychological reason why they do so. While the majority of children don’t turn to bullying, the ones that do are usually crying out for help. The circumstances a child has dealt with in their life determine whether or not they will become a bully.
  • 4.    When a child has become a bully, they want to show their dominance over other children and be admired by their schoolmates for it. Children who bully others want to receive affection and since they are not, they turn to picking on other children. Socially awkward children are often the target of a bully because they are less likely than other children to have a peer come to their defence.
  • 5. Many times, children who are bullies have suffered some form of abuse in their life.  As a result, they often have trouble controlling both their actions and their emotions.  They often struggle with psychological problems and drug and alcohol abuse as well as delinquency.  Studies conducted have determined that any child who has been the victim of a bully is more likely to have suicidal thoughts than children who have not.  Other studies show that both gay and lesbian children are bullied as much as three times more than other children are. 
  • 6. Experts related to The Psychology of Bullying have stated that there is not always a clear cut reason why children become bullies.  Some children will bully others simply because they think it is fun.  When parents, teachers and other adults don’t do enough, or even worse, do nothing to stop the bullying the problem only becomes worse.  Without an adult intervening, some children see nothing wrong with bullying others.  There are also many cases where parents set a bad example for their children which leads them to believe it is okay to be a bully. 
  • 7.      Children who participate in cyber bullying do so because they want to humiliate and embarrass other children. They also want to appear intimidating and this is easier to do online than in person. This means that children who don’t have the nerve to bully someone in school may instead choose to bully them via social networks or electronically. Teenagers who are unhappy with their life often turn to cyber bullying to spam another student’s email account or spread a virus to their computer. Anger and pain are two things that motivate some children and teenagers to engage in cyber bullying. Many of them suffer from low self esteem and have little to no confidence in themselves. Studies have determined that almost 80% of teenagers have somehow become involved in cyber bullying.
  • 8.     Children who become bullies may need to be enrolled in an anti-bullying program. When these programs were implemented in Scandinavia in the 70s and 80s, it led to a huge drop in the number of children bullied to the point where it now has one of the lowest averages for bullying anywhere in the world. Bullying can become a huge problem if it is not dealt with quickly and properly. It is up to parents, teachers, students and communities alike to put a stop to bullying
  • 9. 1- Overt types Physical Verbal 2- Covert type
  • 10. Physical bullying makes up 30.5% of school bullying Damaging property Pushing Hitting kicking Pinching
  • 11. Verbal bullying Verbal abuse 47% of bullying in school intimidation Name calling Insults Teasing
  • 12. Covert bullying Carried out behind the bullied person's back. Designed to harm someone's social reputation and/or cause humiliation. Includes: 1. spreading rumor's. 2. negative facial or physical gestures, menacing looks. 3. playing nasty jokes to embarrass and humiliate 4. mimicking unkindly 5. encouraging others to socially exclude someone and /or damaging someone's social reputation or social acceptance.  
  • 13. Cyber-bullying • Overt or covert bullying behaviour using digital technologies. • Include ; - Harassment via a mobile phone or social network - Deliberately excluding someone from social networks
  • 14. Bullies project their inadequacy on to others:  To avoid facing up to and to divert attention away from their own inadequacies.  Avoid responsibility for their behaviour.  Reduce their fear of being seen for what they are, often weak, inadequate and sometimes incompetent individuals.
  • 15.  FACT: Bullies have power over those they bully.    People who bully others usually pick on those who have less social power (peer status), psychological power (know how to harm others), or physical power (size, strength). However, some people who bully also have been bullied by others. People who both bully and are bullied by others are at the highest risk for problems (such as depression and anxiety) and are more likely to become involved in risky or delinquent behaviour.
  • 16.   MYTH: Only boys bully. People think that physical bullying by boys is the most common form of bullying. However, verbal, social, and physical bullying happens among both boys and girls, especially as they grow older.
  • 17. MYTH: All people who bully are insecure and have low self-esteem.  Many people who bully are insecure and have low self-esteem however some are popular and have average or better-than-average self-esteem. They often take pride in their aggressive behaviour and control over the people they bully.  People who bully may be part of a group that thinks bullying is okay.  Some people who bully may also have poor social skills and experience anxiety or depression. For them, bullying can be a way to gain social status.
  • 18.    MYTH: Bullying often resolves itself when you ignore it. Bullying reflects an imbalance of power that happens again and again. Ignoring the bullying teaches students who bully that they can bully others without consequences. Adults and other students need to stand up for children who are bullied, and to ensure they are protected and safe.
  • 19. low self-confidence and low selfesteem, and thus feel insecure. Inadequate to fulfill the duties and obligations of their position fear being revealed. This fear of exposure often borders on paranoia.
  • 20. Bullies often harbour, resentment, bitterness, hatred and anger. Hold prejudices as a means for transferring their anger onto others. Bullies are sometimes driven by jealousy and envy. Rejection is a powerful motivator of bullying.
  • 21. Victims suffer depression, anxiety, social isolation, and low self-esteem. Victims may resort to suicide as a result of extreme mental and social pressures. Individuals who are bullied in childhood: - Emotional wounds into adulthood, - Leading to depression, social isolation. - Inability to react appropriately to situations.
  • 22.         Comes home from School, hungry and /or with damaged or missing clothing or other belongings. Reports losing items books, electronics, clothing. Has unexplained injuries Complains of headaches, stomachaches, or feeling sick Has trouble sleeping or has frequent bad dreams Changes in eating habits Becomes withdrawn Acts differently than usual
  • 23.      Loses interest in visiting or talking with friends Is afraid of going to school or other activities with peers Loses interest in school work or begins to do poorly in school Appears sad, moody, angry, anxious or depressed when they come home. Hurts themselves        Avoids certain places Suddenly has fewer friends Feels helpless Often feels like they are not good enough Blames themselves for their problems Talks about self harm/ suicide Runs away from home
  • 24. Over 75% of students are subjected to harassment by a bully or Cyber-Bully and experience physical, psychological and/or emotional abuse.  Over 20% of Children admit to being a bully or participating in bully-like activities.  Over one half of bullying & Cyber-Bullying events go unreported to authorities or parents.  On a daily average 160,000 children in the US miss school because they fear they will be bullied if they attend classes.  On a monthly average in the US 282,000 students are physically attacked by a bully each month.  Every seven minutes a child is bullied on a school playground with over 85% of those instances occurring without any intervention . 
  • 25.   46% of males and 26% of females admit to having been involved in physical fights as a result of being bullied. A child commits suicide as a direct result of being bullied once every half hour with 19,000 bullied children in the US attempting to commit suicide over the course of one year.
  • 26.        A nationwide survey of bullying in first and second level schools conducted by Trinity College Dublin estimates that some 31% of primary and 16% of secondary students have been bullied at some time. Of the total Irish school-going population, some 23% or 200,000 children are at risk of being victims of bullying. 74% of primary school children reported being bullied in the playground while 31% claimed that it occurred in the classroom. At secondary level, pupils reported 47% of incidents in the classroom, 37% in the corridors, and 27% in the playground. 19% of the former and 8.8% of the latter grouping said they were victimised going to or from school. Other areas of attack included the toilets, changing rooms, locker areas and dormitories in boarding schools. Source: Nationwide Study on Bullying Behaviour in Irish Schools (2010), Anti-Bullying Centre, Trinity College Dublin.
  • 27.           Parents stated that: 40% had one or more children being bullied; 85% did not have a copy of their school policy; 80% had children who told them they were being bullied; 91% had children who were being bullied by a member of the same sex 62% said it was being carried out by more than one person. At 30%, the highest percentage of those being bullied are 12-13 year olds, with 22% of parents reporting that they were first bullied between the ages of 8 and 9. 80% of parents believe the Gardaí should not be involved; 68% feel that schools should take stronger action; 63% stated that victims should be given more advice. Source: Nationwide Study on Bullying Behaviour in Irish Schools (2010), Anti-Bullying Centre, Trinity College Dublin.
  • 28.   Talk to your parents or an adult you can trust, such as a teacher, principal or school counsellor. Act confident. Hold your head up, stand up straight, make eye contact, and walk confidently. A bully will be less likely to single you out if your project self-confidence.
  • 29.    An Action Plan on Bullying was launched by the Minister for Education and Skills, Ruairí Quinn T.D. and the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs, Frances Fitzgerald T.D on January 29th 2013. The Plan sets out twelve actions to help prevent and tackle bullying in primary and second level schools. The report makes it clear that preventing and tackling bullying requires support from parents and wider society and is not a problem schools can solve alone.
  • 30.       Support a media campaign focused on cyber bullying specifically targeted at young people as part of Safer Internet Day 2013; Establish a new national anti-bullying website; Begin development immediately of new national anti-bullying procedures for all schools. These will include an anti-bullying policy template and a template for recording incidents of bullying in schools. Devise a co-ordinated plan of training for parents and for school boards of management; Provide Department of Education and Skills support for the Stand Up! Awareness Week Against Homophobic Bullying organised by BeLonG To Youth Services; Review current Teacher Education Support Service provision to identify what training and Continuous Professional Development teachers may need to help them effectively tackle bullying.
  • 31.        The Department of Education & Skills will be supporting a revision of the Stay Safe Programme for primary schools. The Action Plan on Bullying contains a number of other recommendations for further consideration by Ministers, agencies and other bodies. These include: A proposal to establish an Anti-Bullying Implementation Group; The Department of Education and Skills to engage with book publishers who produce materials for schools to address the issue of stereotyping; Development of a new National Framework for Anti-Bullying which would set out the Government’s commitment to preventing and tackling bullying for children and young people from early childhood through to adulthood; Research into how other countries investigate procedures in other jurisdictions to see if these could be used to improve the Irish system; Encourage social media and telecommunications companies and internet service providers to continue to work with State Agencies, NGOs, parents and young people to raise awareness of cyber bullying and how it can be dealt with.
  • 32.  Minister Quinn said, “Bullying can have a devastating effect on our children and young people that can sometimes end in tragedy. That is why this Action Plan is so important. I broadly accept the proposed actions and now want to see implementation begin immediately, alongside other related initiatives, including the new WellBeing in Post-Primary Schools: Guidelines for Mental Health Promotion and Suicide Prevention (2013)”
  • 33.   Minister Fitzgerald said, “This is a significant step in the Government’s absolute commitment to address the serious impact which bullying continues to have on our children. This Action Plan on Bullying is the first of its kind in Ireland and highlights the critical role of schools in dealing with bullying. Bullying is not limited to classrooms, so we must have a broader approach. That means making sure that wherever young people are, they are protected by strong antibullying guidelines and strong practice. “Bullying must be named and it must and will be challenged, and when it expresses itself in newer forms, it must and will be challenged there, too.”
  • 34.   Minister Fitzgerald said, “This is a significant step in the Government’s absolute commitment to address the serious impact which bullying continues to have on our children. This Action Plan on Bullying is the first of its kind in Ireland and highlights the critical role of schools in dealing with bullying. Bullying is not limited to classrooms, so we must have a broader approach. That means making sure that wherever young people are, they are protected by strong antibullying guidelines and strong practice. “Bullying must be named and it must and will be challenged, and when it expresses itself in newer forms, it must and will be challenged there, too.”
  • 35.         APA (2014) American Psychological Association. Anti-bullying. Accessed on line February 20th 2014. Essawy,H, (2014) Psychology of Bullying Power-point, accessed on Slideshare (February 20th 2014) Gulazzi, K, (2011) Bullying Power-point accessed on slideshare (February 20th 2014). Psychology today (2014). Bullying. Accessed on line February 20th 2014 @ Psychologytoday.com http://nobullying.com/the-psychology-of-bullying/the movement against bullying accessed on line February 20th 2014 http://www.education.ie/en/Press-Events/Press-Releases/2013Press-Releases/PR-%202013-01-29. Trinity College, Nationwide Study on Bullying Behaviour in Irish Schools (2010), Anti-Bullying Centre, Trinity College Dublin. www.NABC.ie