Nervous System A system that controls all of the activities of the body. The nervous system is made of: The brain The spinal cord The nerves The senses
Environment The environment is everything outside the body. The sense organs gather information from outside the body, then send the messages to the brain.
The nervous system also allows you to react to a stimulus on order to keep the body in homeostasis. Stimulus A stimulus is a change in the environment. Example: A hot stove Or… tripping over a rock
Your reactions are automatic. Automatic Automatic means that you do not have to think about your reactions. Example: If a bug flies by your eye, you will blink.
The Central Nervous System * The Central Nervous System controls all of the body’s activities. * The Central Nervous System is made of two main organs. 1. The brain 2. The spinal cord
Brain Is divided into two hemispheres-the right and left side of the brain The right side controls the left side of the body and left half controls the right side.
The Brain * An organ that controls your emotions, your thoughts, and every movement you make.The brain controls everything in the body. * The brain is made of more than 10 billion nerves! * The brain is divided into three parts and is protected by the skull.
The Three Parts of the Brain * The Brain has three main parts… 1. The Cerebrum 2. The Cerebellum 3. The Brain Stem
The Cerebrum * The Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 1. The cerebrum controls your thinking. 2. The cerebrum controls your memory. 3. The cerebrum controls your speaking. 4. The cerebrum controls your movement and identifies the information gathered by your sense organs. Corpus Collosum connects the two hemispheres
The Cerebellum * The cerebellum is below and to the back of the cerebrum. 1. The cerebellum controls you balance. 2. The cerebellum controls your posture.
The Brain Stem * The Brain Stem connects the brain to the spinal cord. * The nerves in the brain stem control your heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure. Also called the lizard brain Brainstem song
Hippocampus and Hypothalamus Hippocampus converts learning to working memory Hypothalamus-controls hunger, thirst and temperature and emotion
The Spinal Cord * The spinal cord sends messages to the brain.
The spinal cord is the part of the nervous system that connects the brain to the rest of the nervous system.
The spinal cord is protected by a series of bones called the vertebrae.
Review of the brain 1. What is the job of the cerebellum? 2. If you are left handed, then which hemisphere of your brain do you use most? What part of the brain is this? 3. Your heart beat is controlled by which brain part? 4. What is the difference between the hypothalamus and hippocampus?
Nerve Impulse Messages carried throughout the body by nerves.
Reflex * An automatic reaction that happens without thinking about it. * A reflex happens quickly in less than a second.
Outer Nervous System * The outer nervous system carries messages between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. * The Outer Nervous System’s job is to connect the Central Nervous System to the rest of the body.
Automatic Nervous System * The outer nervous system controls the body’s activities that you don’t think about. * The outer nervous system controls activities in your small intestine, your breathing, and your heartbeat. controls
Motor Nerves Motor Nerves Send electrical signals through nerves to contract muscles to create motion
You have a nerve along your whole arm. "Funny Bone" The “funny bone” is the only place on the arm where the nerve is not protected. The “funny bone” is on the elbow.
Sensory Nervous System * The outer nervous system is made of the nerves and the sense organs. Nerves Eye Skin Ear Tongue
Review Nerves Draw a three part Venn Diagram comparing the three nerve types. Sensory Automatic Motor
Vision is your ability to see. Vision Vision involves the eye and the brain.
Parts: Cornea-outside covering of the eye Iris-muscle of the eye that regulates how much light enters the eye (colored part) Lens-part of the eye that focuses light Vitreous humor-liquid in the eye that gives the eye its shape Pupil-hole in the eye that light travels through Sclera-white part of the eye Aqueous humor-liquid sac that gives cornea its shape. Retina-specialized cells in the back of the eye that takes light to a signal Optic nerve-sends signal from the back of the eye to the brain.
Label the eye
Eye cont: Rods-specialized cells that pick up color Cones-specialized cells that pick up color
Why do we see color? http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Color_Vision
How do cones benefit us?
How do rods benefit us?
Ever seen a red eye photo? You are actually taking a picture of the back of someone’s eye
Eye Review How are the cells of the eye specialized so that we are able to see? Explain how the parts function so that we are able to observe the world around us.
When a sound is made, the air around the sound vibrates. Hearing Hearing starts when some of the sound waves go into the ear. How do we hear?
Parts of the Ear There are nine main parts of the ear. 1. Pinna 5. Anvil 2. Ear canal 6. Stirrup 3. Ear drum 7. Cochlea 4. Hammer 8. Eustachian tube 9. Auditory nerve
Parts of the Ear The pinna is the part of the ear that you can see. The ear canal is the tube between the outside of the ear and the ear drum. The ear drum is in the middle ear. It vibrates when sound waves hit it.
Parts of the Ear The three smallest bones in the body, the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup, are in the middle ear. The hammer gets the vibrations from the eardrum, then sends them to the anvil. The anvil passes the vibrations to the stirrup. The stirrup passes the vibrations to the inner ear.
Parts of the Ear The Eustachian tube controls the amount of pressure in the ear. “Ear popping” The inner ear is made of the cochlea and liquid. The cochlea is in the inner ear. The cochlea looks like a shell. Filled with hair cells that move and send an electrical signal. The auditory nerve carries the hearing information to the brain from the cochlea and the brain tells us what we heard.
The Ear and Balance The ear works with the brain to control your balance. All of your movements are controlled by balance and muscles. The liquid in your inner ear is responsible for your balance. The liquid in your ear moves when we move. The liquid movement sends information to the brain to tell it how we are moving.
Ear Review How does our ear allow us to hear? Why do you think that listening to loud noises over a long period is bad for hearing?
The sense of touch is located in the skin. Touch The nerves in the skin allow us to feel texture, pressure, heat, cold, and pain. Texture is how something feels.
Touch review Why is such a sensitive touch so necessary for survival?
The nose controls your sense of smell. Smell The nose is able to smell 80 different kinds of smells.
Your sense of taste comes from the taste buds in the tongue. Taste Taste buds are the parts on the tongue that allow us to taste. The four kinds of taste buds are sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Did you know? Your nose affects your sense of taste. Think about colds