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  1. 1. Vertebrates
  2. 2. Vertebrates Characteristics: Endoskeleton Segmentation Bilateral symmetry Two pairs of jointed appendages Cephalization Brains and sense organs VERTEBRAE
  3. 3. First Vertebrates Fishes that first appeared about 500 million years ago Called Agnathans- had no jaws or paired fins Lead to the development of jawless fishes
  4. 4. Characteristics of All Fishes Gills Chambered heart (closed system 3 main chambers) Single loop circulatory system Kidneys Either Male or Female
  5. 5. Jawless Fishes Mouth but no jaws Cartilaginous skeletons Eel like Unpaired fins Suction cup like mouth Includes: 1. Lampreys 2.Hagfish
  6. 6. Hagfish
  7. 7. lamprey
  8. 8. Cartilaginous Fishes Have jaws Have teeth (which are modified scales set in rows) Cartilaginous skeleton (light weight but very strong; made of calcium carbonate) Internal fertilization Most give live birth Includes: 1. Sharks 2.Skates 3.Rays
  9. 9. Skates
  10. 10. Rays
  11. 11. Bony Fishes Skeletons are made bone Developed lateral line system: sensory systems that extends along the each side of their bodies; 1. allows them to know where their body is in relation to the water; depth, and place; 2.allows the to sense objects not moving in the water Swim bladder: allows them to move deeper or shallower by adjusting the amount of gas in the bladder Operculum: gill covers
  12. 12. Amphibians Characteristics: Legs Lungs Double loop circulation Cutaneous respiration (ability to breathe through the skin) 3 chambered heart (oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mix in the heart, that’s what makes them cold blooded)
  13. 13. Includes Frogs Toads Salamanders Caecilians
  14. 14. Salamanders
  15. 15. Caecilians
  16. 16. Reptiles Class Reptilia Includes lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises, crocodiles and alligators Found through out the world except in the coldest regions. Why? Have bone skeleton with the legs more directly under their body. Allows reptiles to move on land easier than amphibians Ectothermic metabolism Dry scaly skin- almost water tight Amniotic eggs
  17. 17. Reptiles Lungs Ventricle of heart partly divided by septum. Oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood mix. Crocodiles have a completely separated heart Internal fertilzation Oviparous – young hatch from eggs. Some species are ovoviviparous – female retains eggs inside her body until shortly before hatching. Offspring are more able to fend for themselves and less vulnerable to predators
  18. 18. Snakes Reptiles Lizards
  19. 19. Turtles Reptiles Tortoises
  20. 20. Alligators Reptiles Crocodiles
  21. 21. Birds Class Aves Forelimbs modified into wings Body covered in feathers (modified reptilian scales, used for flight and insulation) Lightweight bones (thin and hollow, many are fused to make more rigid) Endothermic metabolism (4 chambered heart) (body temperature range from 40-42 degrees C)
  22. 22. Birds Super efficient respiratory system Young are hatched from eggs Internal fertilization Body sizes and shapes are adapted to environment the bird lives in, main source of food, and main means of escaping predators
  23. 23. Mammals Class Mammalia Hair Endothermic metabolism (4 chambered heart) Mammary glands (produce milk to nurse young) Live birth Teeth size and shape are determined by food. (herbivore’s teeth are flat for grinding, carnivore’s teeth are sharp for ripping and tearing food)
  24. 24. Mammals Very diverse group You have the Monotreme (platypus) Marsupials Placental mammals (young develop within the females uterus where the placenta allows for diffusion of nutrients from the mothers blood to the young)
  25. 25. Order Rodentia (mice, rats, beavers)
  26. 26. Order Chiroptera (flying mammals, bats)
  27. 27. Order Insectivora (insect eaters, shrews)
  28. 28. Order Carnivora (cats, canines, bears, raccoons)
  29. 29. Order Pinnipedia (marine carnivores, seals, sea lions, walrus)
  30. 30. Order Primates
  31. 31. Order Artiodactyla (ungulates, mammals with even toed hoofs, pigs, sheep, goats, camels, deer, giraffes)
  32. 32. Order Perissodactyla ungulates with odd number toes horses, zebras, rhinoceroses
  33. 33. Order Cetacea 2 groups Predatory toothed whales, dolphins, porpoises Filter feed baleen whales
  34. 34. Order Cetacea
  35. 35. Order Lagomorpha rabbits and hares
  36. 36. Order Sirenia dugongs, manatees
  37. 37. Order Proboscidea Elephants