Vertebrates
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  • 1. Vertebrates
  • 2. Vertebrates Characteristics: Endoskeleton Segmentation Bilateral symmetry Two pairs of jointed appendages Cephalization Brains and sense organs VERTEBRAE
  • 3. First Vertebrates Fishes that first appeared about 500 million years ago Called Agnathans- had no jaws or paired fins Lead to the development of jawless fishes
  • 4. Characteristics of All Fishes Gills Chambered heart (closed system 3 main chambers) Single loop circulatory system Kidneys Either Male or Female
  • 5. Jawless Fishes Mouth but no jaws Cartilaginous skeletons Eel like Unpaired fins Suction cup like mouth Includes: 1. Lampreys 2.Hagfish
  • 6. Hagfish
  • 7. lamprey
  • 8. Cartilaginous Fishes Have jaws Have teeth (which are modified scales set in rows) Cartilaginous skeleton (light weight but very strong; made of calcium carbonate) Internal fertilization Most give live birth Includes: 1. Sharks 2.Skates 3.Rays
  • 9. Skates
  • 10. Rays
  • 11. Bony Fishes Skeletons are made bone Developed lateral line system: sensory systems that extends along the each side of their bodies; 1. allows them to know where their body is in relation to the water; depth, and place; 2.allows the to sense objects not moving in the water Swim bladder: allows them to move deeper or shallower by adjusting the amount of gas in the bladder Operculum: gill covers
  • 12. Amphibians Characteristics: Legs Lungs Double loop circulation Cutaneous respiration (ability to breathe through the skin) 3 chambered heart (oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mix in the heart, that’s what makes them cold blooded)
  • 13. Includes Frogs Toads Salamanders Caecilians
  • 14. Salamanders
  • 15. Caecilians
  • 16. Reptiles Class Reptilia Includes lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises, crocodiles and alligators Found through out the world except in the coldest regions. Why? Have bone skeleton with the legs more directly under their body. Allows reptiles to move on land easier than amphibians Ectothermic metabolism Dry scaly skin- almost water tight Amniotic eggs
  • 17. Reptiles Lungs Ventricle of heart partly divided by septum. Oxygen poor and oxygen rich blood mix. Crocodiles have a completely separated heart Internal fertilzation Oviparous – young hatch from eggs. Some species are ovoviviparous – female retains eggs inside her body until shortly before hatching. Offspring are more able to fend for themselves and less vulnerable to predators
  • 18. Snakes Reptiles Lizards
  • 19. Turtles Reptiles Tortoises
  • 20. Alligators Reptiles Crocodiles
  • 21. Birds Class Aves Forelimbs modified into wings Body covered in feathers (modified reptilian scales, used for flight and insulation) Lightweight bones (thin and hollow, many are fused to make more rigid) Endothermic metabolism (4 chambered heart) (body temperature range from 40-42 degrees C)
  • 22. Birds Super efficient respiratory system Young are hatched from eggs Internal fertilization Body sizes and shapes are adapted to environment the bird lives in, main source of food, and main means of escaping predators
  • 23. Mammals Class Mammalia Hair Endothermic metabolism (4 chambered heart) Mammary glands (produce milk to nurse young) Live birth Teeth size and shape are determined by food. (herbivore’s teeth are flat for grinding, carnivore’s teeth are sharp for ripping and tearing food)
  • 24. Mammals Very diverse group You have the Monotreme (platypus) Marsupials Placental mammals (young develop within the females uterus where the placenta allows for diffusion of nutrients from the mothers blood to the young)
  • 25. Order Rodentia (mice, rats, beavers)
  • 26. Order Chiroptera (flying mammals, bats)
  • 27. Order Insectivora (insect eaters, shrews)
  • 28. Order Carnivora (cats, canines, bears, raccoons)
  • 29. Order Pinnipedia (marine carnivores, seals, sea lions, walrus)
  • 30. Order Primates
  • 31. Order Artiodactyla (ungulates, mammals with even toed hoofs, pigs, sheep, goats, camels, deer, giraffes)
  • 32. Order Perissodactyla ungulates with odd number toes horses, zebras, rhinoceroses
  • 33. Order Cetacea 2 groups Predatory toothed whales, dolphins, porpoises Filter feed baleen whales
  • 34. Order Cetacea
  • 35. Order Lagomorpha rabbits and hares
  • 36. Order Sirenia dugongs, manatees
  • 37. Order Proboscidea Elephants